Kobayashi et al, 2002


Kobayashi, M. and Sorensen, P.W. and Stacey, N.E. (2002) Hormonal and pheromonal control of spawning behavior in the goldfish. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, pp. 71-84

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Carassius auratus Egg Egg adhesiveness Release eggs adhere to the vegetation Adhesive
Carassius auratus Female Oocyte development Exhibit group synchronous oocyte development No category
Carassius auratus Female Onset of oogenesis Females commence vitellogenesis during winter ['January', 'February', 'March']
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Release eggs adhere to the vegetation Phytophils
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Non-territorial No category
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Ovulation occurs near dawn Dawn
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Mating system Small,desorganized groups of males actively follow females, frequently initiating physical contact (nudging) and inspecting their urogenital and gill regions where pheromones are released. Following behavior typically leads to active chasing, the intensity of which increases until the time of ovulation as males appear to compete to be closest to the female (s), at times pushing each other. Once ovulated, females become sexually receptive and initiate spawning acts by entering aquatic vegetation. typically,one/few male (s) will enter vegetation witha receptive femaleand then swim rapidly with the female through a small arc, at which time the female release (oviposi) eggs and the male (s) will release (ejaculate) sperm to complete a spawning act. Female spanwing behaviour will continue until all ovulated eggs are released, and may involve a hundred or more oviposition acts over several hours with various males Promiscuity
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning release Ovulate oneto several times over a protracted spring-summer spanwing season Multiple
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Parental care Non-parental No care