Leuciscus cephalus

  • Scientific name
  • Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • European chub

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 88%
Total data271
References40
Image of Leuciscus cephalus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [attached to the bottom of the haching tray during the incubation period] Adhesive Calta, 2000
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, stick to plants and rocks Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, stick to plants and gravels Adhesive Billard, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Stuck to the bottom of the box Adhesive Penaz and Sterba, 1969
4 Egg adhesiveness Fertilised eggs stick to the substrate due to their sticky and thick egg envelopes Adhesive Zelepien, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness The current study demonstrated that eggs of common carp (and of vimba, bleak and chub in unpublished data) became sticky within seconds after mixing with water and already 30 s after water contact was enough to develop the egg stickiness mechanism Adhesive Mansour, 2008
5 Incubation time 4 at 15°C 4.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 3 at 18°C 3.0 days Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
5 Incubation time 4 days at 18°C 4.0 days Harzevili, 2003
5 Incubation time Middle time of incubation was either 170.3 or 74.4, both at 18°C [In other studies described as 97 hours at 18°C] 170.3 days Penaz and Sterba, 1969
5 Incubation time 75.5 hours at 18°C 75.5 days Penaz, 1968
5 Incubation time At 16620°C incubation period ranges from 150 to 75.4 hours 112.7 days Zelepien, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-80 70.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-60 [3 days at 18°C] 55.0 °C * day Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 60 [4 days at 18°C] 60.0 °C * day Harzevili, 2003
7 Degree-days for incubation Middle day degrees of inducation either 80.4 or 56.5, both at 18°C [in other studies described as 80.91 DD at 16.7°C] 80.4 °C * day Penaz and Sterba, 1969
7 Degree-days for incubation 56.6 DD at 18°C 56.6 °C * day Penaz, 1968
6 Temperature for incubation 15 15.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 17 ± 1°C 17.0 °C Calta, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation 18 18.0 °C Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Reared at 18°C 18.0 °C Harzevili, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation The whole process of incubation was effected at the constant temperature of water 18°C 18.0 °C Penaz and Sterba, 1969
6 Temperature for incubation At constant temperature of 18°C 18.0 °C Penaz, 1968
6 Temperature for incubation Viable range 16-30 23.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation The temperature of incubation was 15.8°C 15.8 °C Krejszeff, 2008
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.8 ± 0.2 [Newly fertilized eggs stripped from a female, n=20] 1.8 mm Calta, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.99-2.31 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 2.15 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2 [Drifting eggs] 2.0 mm Copp, 2002b
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.97 [Eggs stripped] 1.97 mm Penaz, 1968
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.0 [Not specified] 2.0 mm Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening After swelling diameter increases by a factor of 1.3-1.6 1.45 mm Zelepien, 1997
3 Egg Buoyancy Dermersal, negatively buoyant Ambiguous Calta, 2000
3 Egg Buoyancy Stuck to the bottom of the box No category Penaz and Sterba, 1969
1 Oocyte diameter 0.62-1.06 [Ovarium diameter] but all studies 0.55-1.50 0.84 mm Kalkan, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2 [Not specified] 1.75 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 0.83-1.5 1.165 mm Unlu and Balci, 1993
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4 [Before water hardening] 1.4 mm Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.00-1.95 in five different populations, up to 3.30 ? [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 1.475 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter The maximum egg diameter in March and April were 1.350 and 1.275 mm, respectively [as oocytes in ovaries], in other studies: 0.78-1.20, 0.55-1.38, 0.96-1.35 0.99 mm Sasi, 2003
1 Oocyte diameter The highest mean egg diameter was found in May (1.04 mm) and the lowest values was found in July (0.46 mm). Eggs diameters were determine din other studies at 0.78-1.20 mm, 0.55-1.38 mm, 1.03 mm, and 0.83-1.50 mm 0.99 mm Ünver, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter Diameter of mature eggs ranges from 1.5-2.0 mm 1.75 mm Zelepien, 1997
1 Oocyte diameter Egg diameter varied from 100 µm and 137 µm with a mean of 119 µm 0.1 mm Erdogan, 2002

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 17 ± 1 17.0 °C Calta, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development 18 18.0 °C Harzevili, 2003
11 Temperature during larval development Temperature was not regulated, range from 15.4-17.8°C 16.6 °C Penaz, 1968
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 19-25 22.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 19-25 22.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
10 Reaction to light Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light Not respondind to light Photopositive Penaz, 1968
13 Full yolk-sac resorption About 130 [8 days at 17 °C] 130.0 °C * day Calta, 2000
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 11 days, consumption of yolk sac finished at temperature between 15.4 and 17.8°C 11.0 °C * day Penaz, 1968
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 130 [8 days at 17 °C] 130.0 °C * day Calta, 2000
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding [5 days after hatching, the larvae were fed ad libitum with the rotifer, for 3 days at 18°C] 5.0 °C * day Harzevili, 2003
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 9 days, oral feeding started at temperature between 15.4 and 17.8°C 9.0 °C * day Penaz, 1968
8 Initial larval size 6.3-6.8 6.55 mm Calta, 2000
8 Initial larval size 5.5-6.5 6.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 8.52 ± 0.28, 8 days after hatching 8.52 mm Harzevili, 2003
8 Initial larval size The size of hatched embryos ranged from a mean of 6.09 for the first experiment and 5.31 mm for the second 6.09 mm Penaz and Sterba, 1969
8 Initial larval size Average standard length: 4.9 mm 4.9 mm Penaz, 1968
8 Initial larval size Newly hatched larvae is 5.3-6.5 mm long 5.9 mm Zelepien, 1997
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larvae stayed mainly motionless at the bottom of the tank, however time to time performed short and sudden jerky anguilliform movements [Schooling behavior for the entire period of larvae and juvenile development] Demersal Calta, 2000
9 Larvae behaviour The embryos are positioned sideways on the bottom of the contained in the immobile condition, and only at times they give violent jerks ahead Demersal Penaz, 1968

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value 13.56 [May] 13.56 percent Kalkan, 2005
24 Maximum GSI value Up to 15-18% [June] 16.5 percent Unlu and Balci, 1993
24 Maximum GSI value 7.37% [In March] 7.37 percent Sasi, 2003
24 Maximum GSI value 9-10% [In Mid-May] 9.5 percent Mann, 1976
24 Maximum GSI value 12, range 11-14 [In June] 12.5 percent Poncin, 1989
24 Maximum GSI value The maximum values for females in May was calculated to be 9.1 9.1 percent Unver, 1998
24 Maximum GSI value Just before spawning ovaries may contribute to 1% body mass. Other authors said that at the brginning of spawning ovarian mass depends on female body size and contributes to 7.3-19.6% 13.45 percent Zelepien, 1997
24 Maximum GSI value Around 10% based on graph in May 10.0 percent Erdogan, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 45 45.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 57 57.0 thousand eggs/kg Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 199.05 [Age II], 160.05 [Age III], 219.78 [Age IV], 211.74 [Age V] 199.05 thousand eggs/kg Sasi, 2003
19 Relative fecundity 69239 [Size 17 cm], 81372 [Size 24.8 cm], 61449 [Size 35]. Maximum values of relative fecundity was observed in females 24-30 cm long 27.0 thousand eggs/kg Zelepien, 1997
19 Relative fecundity Linear increase between fecundity and weight: n=1588.6+120.53 x W 1588.6 thousand eggs/kg Ünver, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 but sometimes 4-7 5.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Unlu and Balci, 1993
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Male] 2.0 years Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 [Male] 4.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male] 3.0 years Kalkan, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity Females and males first attained sexual maturity in their second year No data Sasi, 2003
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Male] 2.5 years Poncin, 1987
27 Age at sexual maturity The majority of males are mature at age V though some are ripe as early as age III No data Mann, 1976
27 Age at sexual maturity Males reached maturity in their second or third year of life No data Unver, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity In Poland, chub usually reach maturity at the age of 3-4 years. Males maturing at the age of 4 years in the river Stobnica. 28% of chub reached maturity at the age 3+, and 60% at the age 4+. In other countries 3-4 year period of maturation was reported. Typically males mature 1-2 years earlier than females. 3.5 years Zelepien, 1997
27 Age at sexual maturity Males matured sexually during their second-fourth year of life. 47.07% of males were mature in their second year, 85.71% in their third year, 96.2% in their fourth year and 100% in their fifth year and after 2.0 years Erdogan, 2002
26 Resting period July, August No data Unlu and Balci, 1993
26 Resting period < 0.5 from July until December 0.5 months Kalkan, 2005
26 Resting period June-September quiescent period, About 1% 1.0 months Mann, 1976
26 Resting period <1% [From May to September] 1.0 months Sasi, 2003
26 Resting period Gonads of chub females and males after spawning remain in a resting state until September. No data Zelepien, 1997
26 Resting period In June, the GSI diminished because of spawning and continued to do so to the end of July No data Erdogan, 2002
22 Onset of oogenesis After August the gonads begin to develop and the values of GSI again start to increase gradually until November ['August', 'November'] Kalkan, 2005
22 Onset of oogenesis The redevelopment of gonads did not begin until September ['September'] Mann, 1976
22 Onset of oogenesis After August, GSI increase up to 3 during the winter than remain constant until March ['February', 'August', 'March', 'January'] Unlu and Balci, 1993
22 Onset of oogenesis Ovary development began in December [Yet on the GSI curve, slight increase of GSI in September-October] ['October', 'December', 'September'] Sasi, 2003
22 Onset of oogenesis November ['November'] Poncin, 1989
22 Onset of oogenesis Weight of gonads increase after September ['September'] Zelepien, 1997
22 Onset of oogenesis After August, the gonads began to develop and the values of GSI again started to increase gradually until November ['August', 'November'] Ünver, 1998
22 Onset of oogenesis In females in both years of this study, gonad development started in December ['December'] Erdogan, 2002
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity April-May [From 0.95 in March to 13.56 in May] ['April', 'March', 'May'] Kalkan, 2005
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity March-April [From 4 to 10%] ['April', 'March'] Unlu and Balci, 1993
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity February-March [From 4 to ca. 7.5] ['February', 'March'] Sasi, 2003
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Increase regularly from September to May, but most between March-April ['April', 'March', 'May', 'September'] Mann, 1976
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity April-May ['April', 'May'] Poncin, 1989
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Particularly intense from April to May ['April', 'May'] Erdogan, 2002
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity During spring (March-May), an obviously rapid growth of gonads occurred until the next spawning. Differences between values according to months, especially Apriln are statistically significant ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Koc, 2007
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous process of oocyte maturation in ovaries was reported. Also observed oocytes of different size and maturity state in pre-spawning chub ovaries. The largest oocytes were released as the first batch of eggs (70-73% of ovary content) Asynchronous Zelepien, 1997
20 Absolute fecundity 20-100 60.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 2.5-20 11.25 thousand eggs Unlu and Balci, 1993
20 Absolute fecundity 40 for a female of 35 cm 40.0 thousand eggs Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 20-64 in six different populations [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 42.0 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 9.142-53.1 in the ages II-VII 31.121 thousand eggs Sasi, 2003
20 Absolute fecundity Lowest fecundity observed at 32155 for a female 41.5 cm long and 1253 g and highest 64658 for a female 46 cm long and 1660 g 32155.0 thousand eggs Mann, 1976
20 Absolute fecundity > 100 00 eggs per reproductive cycle 100.0 thousand eggs Cattanéo, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 6370 [Size 17 cm], 22947 [Size 24.8 cm], 51443 [Size 35] 6370.0 thousand eggs Zelepien, 1997
20 Absolute fecundity The mean fecundity was found to be 1158 in age group II and 28664 in age group VII. In other studies, described as: 1909-15680, 1960, 61808, 13269-59200, 2050-20140 eggs 8794.5 thousand eggs Ünver, 1998
20 Absolute fecundity Fecundity varied from a mean of 5012 eggs per female (III years old) to a mean of 25000 eggs per female (VIII years old) 5012.0 thousand eggs Erdogan, 2002
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.265-0.500 [Female] 0.3825 kg Kalkan, 2005
17 Weight at sexual maturity Minimum weight at sexual maturity is 41.6 41.6 kg Sasi, 2003
17 Weight at sexual maturity Mean weight of 92 g [Age 4] and 174 [Age 5] 92.0 kg Mann, 1976
17 Weight at sexual maturity < 150 g (Sex not specified) 150.0 kg Zelepien, 1997
17 Weight at sexual maturity Means of 11.44 g [Age 2], 47.05 [Age 3], 71.15 [Age 4], 114.60 [Age 5], 159.9 [Age 6], and 240.3 [Age 7] for females 11.44 kg Ünver, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity 14.6 14.6 cm Unlu and Balci, 1993
16 Length at sexual maturity 20-30 [Female] 25.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 26.1-32.93 [Female] 29.515 cm Kalkan, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity Minimum length at sexual maturity is 14.4 14.4 cm Sasi, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity Size in different regions, for females varie between 19.4-22.2 [Age 4] and 24.1-25.1 [Age 5] and 15.2 and 20.8 for both sex at age 4 20.8 cm Mann, 1976
16 Length at sexual maturity The smallest mature female was 7.4 mm 7.4 cm Unver, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity Length of females was 19.4 cm. Other described fish matured > 20 cm (sex not specified) 19.4 cm Zelepien, 1997
16 Length at sexual maturity Means of 95.6 [Age 2], 153.1 [Age 3], 175.9 [Age 4], 206.0 [Age 5], 226.2 [Age 6], and 258.5 [Age 7] for females 95.6 cm Ünver, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity Between 16 and 19 cm fork length 16.0 cm Erdogan, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-5 [Female] 3.5 year Kalkan, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 but sometimes 5-8 6.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 year Unlu and Balci, 1993
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Female] 3.0 year Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-7 Female] 5.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-7 in six different populations from south to north [24-84 months, 84 in England, age at maturation] 4.5 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity Females and males first attained sexual maturity in their second year No data Sasi, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Female] 4.5 year Poncin, 1987
15 Age at sexual maturity Most females are mature at age VII and some at V or VI No data Mann, 1976
15 Age at sexual maturity Females matured in their third or fourth year of life. Other studies indicated that the sexual maturity age in the chub population of the Black Sea basin is III. The maturity age of chub was found to be III in the females and II in the males, however it was determined to be IV in the females and III in the males No data Unver, 1998
15 Age at sexual maturity In Poland, chub usually reach maturity at the age of 3-4 years. Females maturing at the age of 6 years in the river Stobnica. 28% of chub reached maturity at the age 3+, and 60% at the age 4+. In other countries 3-4 year period of maturation was reported. 3.5 year Zelepien, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity With the exception of a small proportion of females (2.23% which mature in their second year), all females matured sexuallyduring their thrid-fifth year of life. 80.22 in their third year, 90.5% in their fourth year, 96.5% in their fifth year and 100% in their sixth year and after 2.23 year Erdogan, 2002

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bears nuptial tubercles Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bears nuptial tubercles on head and opercules Present Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism Fin rays of some chub individuals are intensively coloured during spawning Absent Zelepien, 1997
31 Onset of spermatogenesis December to February, slight increase in GSI ['February', 'December'] Guerriero, 2005
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Increase in November ['November'] Sasi, 2003
31 Onset of spermatogenesis The redevelopment of gonads did not begin until September ['September'] Mann, 1976
31 Onset of spermatogenesis October-november ['October'] Poncin, 1989
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Weight of gonads increase after September ['September'] Zelepien, 1997
31 Onset of spermatogenesis After August, the gonads began to develop and the values of GSI again started to increase gradually until November ['August', 'November'] Ünver, 1998
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September-October ['October', 'September'] Erdogan, 2002
33 Maximum GSI value 2.77 ± 0.04 % [April] 2.77 percent Guerriero, 2005
33 Maximum GSI value 2.29 [March] 2.29 percent Sasi, 2003
33 Maximum GSI value Most between 2.5-4, some almost 6% [June] 3.25 percent Mann, 1976
33 Maximum GSI value Mean 5, range 4-6 [June] 5.0 percent Poncin, 1989
33 Maximum GSI value The maximum values for males in May was calculated to be 5.2 5.2 percent Unver, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value Up to 6% 6.0 percent Zelepien, 1997
33 Maximum GSI value 8.5% [In May] 8.5 percent Erdogan, 2002
32 Main spermatogenesis activity End of February and March ['February', 'March'] Guerriero, 2005
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Around March ['March'] Sasi, 2003
32 Main spermatogenesis activity March, but increase quite regularly between September to May ['March', 'May', 'September'] Mann, 1976
32 Main spermatogenesis activity March-April ['April', 'March'] Poncin, 1989
32 Main spermatogenesis activity April ['April'] Erdogan, 2002
35 Resting period July to November, only germinal cells were evident No data Guerriero, 2005
35 Resting period April to November <0.5 0.5 months Sasi, 2003
35 Resting period June-September quiescent period, About 1% 1.0 months Mann, 1976
35 Resting period Gonads of females after spawning remain in spawning remain state until September No data Zelepien, 1997
28 Length at sexual maturity 13 13.0 cm Unlu and Balci, 1993
28 Length at sexual maturity 30.7 30.7 cm Kalkan, 2005
28 Length at sexual maturity Minimum length at sexual maturity is 14.5 14.5 cm Sasi, 2003
28 Length at sexual maturity Size in different regions, for males varie between 13.8-20.1 [Age 3] and 19.4-22 [Age 4] and 15.2 and 20.8 for both sex at age 4 16.95 cm Mann, 1976
28 Length at sexual maturity The smallest mature male was 67 mm 67.0 cm Unver, 1998
28 Length at sexual maturity Males maturing were 12.0 cm. 12.0 cm Zelepien, 1997
28 Length at sexual maturity Between 13 and 18 cm fork length 13.0 cm Erdogan, 2002
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.397 0.397 kg Kalkan, 2005
29 Weight at sexual maturity Minimum weight at sexual maturity is 54.5 g 54.5 kg Sasi, 2003
29 Weight at sexual maturity Mean weight of 33 g [Age 3] and 92 g [Age 4] 33.0 kg Mann, 1976
29 Weight at sexual maturity > 150 g (sex not specified) 150.0 kg Zelepien, 1997

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Rheophilous, gravel Lithophils Calta, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophil : plants and gravels Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravel banks BUT one population spawned on allochtonous gravel with a mean diameter of 39± 16 mm Lithophils Arlinghaus and Wolter, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Plants and gravels Ambiguous Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Gravel, weed and stones Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Stones and gravel: >2.5 Lithophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravel, typically 20-40 mm diameter Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Stony bottom Lithophils Fredrich, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous fishes Lithophils Penaz, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Lithophilous fishes Lithophils Penaz, 1968
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Belongs to a reproductive guilds of lithophils. They spawn on stones or gravel Lithophils Zelepien, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
41 Spawning temperature Close to 15°C 15.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Really high temperature from 28-32°C 30.0 °C Guerriero, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 15-23°C 19.0 °C Unlu and Balci, 1993
41 Spawning temperature Above 15°C 15.0 °C Billard, 1997
41 Spawning temperature Above 15°C 15.0 °C Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
41 Spawning temperature > 12 12.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 18-20 19.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Between 13.5-20.6°C 17.05 °C Sasi, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 14-16 15.0 °C Poncin, 1987
41 Spawning temperature In 1995, spawning took place in a rapid increase of water temprature from 13 to 21°C. In 1995, the temperature remained constant at 11-14°c during the first spawning 12.5 °C Fredrich, 2003
41 Spawning temperature >18 18.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Usually > 18°C 18.0 °C Zelepien, 1997
41 Spawning temperature Between 15 and 22°C 15.0 °C Erdogan, 2002
41 Spawning temperature In various areas: 12-28°C (Müceldi Stream), 15-23°C (Savur Stream), 16-23°C (Aras River), 14-19°C (Oltu Stream) and 16-18°C (Ikizcetepeler Dam Lake) 20.0 °C Koc, 2007
40 Spawning period duration 4-8 [1.00-2.00 months, length of breeding season] 6.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 8-9 8.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration At the end of the observation of gonads, it was determined that the fish has laid from May to the end of June. In other studies, described as between April and May, and if the altitude is more than 1000 meters, spawning occurs in June 1000.0 weeks Ünver, 1998
42 Spawning water type Relatively swift-flowing streams Flowing or turbulent water Calta, 2000
42 Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Lotic habitat conditions, moderate to high water flow [0.15-0.75 m/s], BUT one population found spawning without any current Flowing or turbulent water Arlinghaus and Wolter, 2003
42 Spawning water type Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Current velocity: 20-50 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
42 Spawning water type Located near erosion banks or in shallow upstream of a bridge. The current speed near the spawning substratum ranged between 0.15 to 0.35 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Fredrich, 2003
42 Spawning water type Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
42 Spawning water type Fast current speed Flowing or turbulent water Zelepien, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters: 0.1-0.3 m BUT one population spawned at depth up to 1.28 m 0.2 m Arlinghaus and Wolter, 2003
43 Spawning depth The water depth varied between 0.1-10 5.05 m Fredrich, 2003
36 Spawning migration distance Adults ascends the stream to spawn, often having to cross barriers and lead up waterfalls, population of adults can remain in the stream troughout the year No data Calta, 2000
36 Spawning migration distance From the nutrition ground to spawning ground No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance From deeper to shallower waters No data Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Home range 4km, localised spawning 4.0 km Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance The distance of spawning migration varied between c. 100m and 16 km 100.0 km Fredrich, 2003
36 Spawning migration distance Usually it displays no spawning migration No data Zelepien, 1997
37 Spawning migration period Near the onset of reproduction No data Calta, 2000
37 Spawning migration period In both years, most chub started spawning migrations on 21 to 22 May. Chub stayed at or near (distance <50m) the spanwing grounds for 1 to 6 days and returned to their original home sites afterward. In both years, 44 chub strated their second spawning migration on 17 or 18 June mainly to the spawning grounds as in May. By 20 June, all chub were at spoawning grounds. After having spect 1 to 7 days on spawning grounds, chub migrated back to their individual home ranges and stayed there during the postspawning season up to the end of the trackning observations. In 1995, first spawning migration strated after a period of decreased in water tmeperature from 14 to 12°C. In 1996, weter temperature increased from 11 to 14°C beforte the first spawning ['May', 'June'] Fredrich, 2003
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April-July but vary from May-June to May-September ['April', 'May', 'September', 'June', 'July'] Kalkan, 2005
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season April to Mid-June ['April', 'June'] Calta, 2000
39 Spawning season May to late June ['May', 'June'] Unlu and Balci, 1993
39 Spawning season From mid-April to mid-June ['April', 'June'] Changeux and Le Louarn, 2001
39 Spawning season May [Also April and June] ['April', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season Spawninh took place between March and April [Warm climate in southern Turkey] ['April', 'March'] Sasi, 2003
39 Spawning season Spawning occurred from the end of May into June ['May', 'June'] Mann, 1976
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
39 Spawning season Between May and July ['May', 'July'] Unver, 1998
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Cattanéo, 2001
39 Spawning season In European temperate waters chub spawn in spring, usually in May and June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Zelepien, 1997
39 Spawning season In both years of he study, fish began to spawn on May 15 and the spawning continued to the end of July ['May', 'July'] Erdogan, 2002
39 Spawning season Initial hatching took place between mid-June and mid-July, successive cohorts appearing at intervals thereafter ['June', 'July'] Nunn, 2007
39 Spawning season Spawning occurred between April and May […] Other studies : mainly in May and June, but also as late as September (in Kizilirmak River), or as early as April ['April', 'September', 'May', 'June'] Koc, 2007
38 Homing Kind of homing has been suggested Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
38 Homing Tendendy to return to the same spawning ground (reproductive homing) Present Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Unique/multiple Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Fractional spawner Fractional Calta, 2000
48 Spawning release 4 batches per spawning season Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Either single spawning per year or two to four spawnings per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
48 Spawning release Total or multiple spawner ? Ambiguous Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release One batch Mutliple Cattanéo, 2001
48 Spawning release In natural conditions chub females release maximally two batches of eggs. Russian authors suggest that the number of released batches depends on the time of beginning of breeding season. Females spawning in May can repeat spawning in August, while those maturing in June release only one batch of eggs. Mutliple Zelepien, 1997
48 Spawning release Three cohors of L. cephalus hatched between July 3 and 25 No category Rheinberger, 1987
48 Spawning release Adopt multiple spawning strategies, with up to three batches of eggs produced by individual fish Mutliple Nunn, 2007
49 Parity The ages of captured fish ranged from I to VII years No category Sasi, 2004
49 Parity Up to 5 or 6 year classes No category Sasi, 2003
49 Parity Each fish appeared to spawn every year No category Mann, 1976
49 Parity Maximum ages observed were VI in males and VII in females No category Ünver, 1998