Esox lucius

  • Scientific name
  • Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Nothern pike

  • Family
  • Esocidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 98%
Total data448
References75
Image of Esox lucius

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Adheside [Stick to plants] Adhesive Dorier, 1938
4 Egg adhesiveness Sticky Adhesive Frost and Kipling, 1967
4 Egg adhesiveness The egg are adhevise, however after water hardening the eggs lose their adhesiveness Adhesive Farrell, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs are adhesive to aquatic plants (due to adhesive membrane) Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Very adhesive, and remain attached to the vegetation of the spawning area Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs scattered over vegetation stick to the stems of plants Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of the pike were found to cohere to each other very strongly after 5 minutes in water Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Bradbury, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs Adhesive Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive June, 1977
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere to vegetation or debris at spawning site Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness Fertilized eggs swell and adhere to plants, which prevents them from sinking down to the bottom Adhesive Vehniäinen, 2007
5 Incubation time 8-15 11.5 days Hovarth, 1992
5 Incubation time 10-12 11.0 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 15-30 [Depending on the water temperature] 22.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 30.9 [5.8°C], 15.2 [9.0°C], 9.4 [12.0°C], 6.3 [15°C], 4.7 [18°C] 30.9 days Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
5 Incubation time 10-12 [At 11.5°] 11.0 days Dorier, 1938
5 Incubation time 10-11 10.5 days Bryan, 1967
5 Incubation time 23-29 [6°C], 4-5 [18°C] 26.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 12-14 days at prevailing water temperatures, but 4-5 days at 17.8-20°C 13.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 10-14 days 12.0 days Kennedy, 1969
5 Incubation time 14-21 17.5 days Bagenal, 1971
5 Incubation time 12-14 [At 10°C], but 4-5 [17.8-20.0°C] 13.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 13 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 13.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time 11-12 [At 12°C] 11.5 days Wurtz, 1944
5 Incubation time Yolk-sac fry hatched 8-12 days after fertilization at 15°C 10.0 days Giles, 1986
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 1-3-1/2 weeks, usually in 10-18 days at 52-42°F 2.0 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 120-140 130.0 °C * day Hovarth, 1992
7 Degree-days for incubation 115-140 127.5 °C * day Dorier, 1938
7 Degree-days for incubation 110-130 120.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation About 120 [E = 4 + 1.2619-t] 120.0 °C * day Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
7 Degree-days for incubation 120 [10 days at 12°C] 120.0 °C * day Toner and Lawler, 1969
7 Degree-days for incubation 120 [Between 7 and 12°C] 120.0 °C * day Balvay, 1983
7 Degree-days for incubation 120 120.0 °C * day Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 100 100.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 96.2-103.6 99.9 °C * day Bonislawska, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 120-131 125.5 °C * day Wurtz, 1944
7 Degree-days for incubation [Yolk-sac fry hatched 8-12 days after fertilization at 15°C] 10.0 °C * day Giles, 1986
7 Degree-days for incubation 73 [Effective day-degrees] 73.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 120 120.0 °C * day Chimits, 1951
6 Temperature for incubation 4-22 but in natural condition it is normally 4-16°C [5°C has negative effects] 13.0 °C Souchon, 1983
6 Temperature for incubation 7-15 is the optimum 11.0 °C Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
6 Temperature for incubation 6.6-12.5 [Natural conditions] 9.55 °C Frost and Kipling, 1967
6 Temperature for incubation 3 [Lethal temperature] 3.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 10 10.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
6 Temperature for incubation Lethal temperature are 3 and 24°C, optimum hatching are 6.2 to 20.5°C and best results at 9-12°C 10.5 °C Hassler, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal 9, range 4-14 9.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 12.9 12.9 °C Bonislawska, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 12°C 12.0 °C Wurtz, 1944
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 15°C [but the lake water temperature was ca. 12°C] 15.0 °C Giles, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation With lake water to maintain a natural temperature, which was 6-14°C (increasing during the experiment) 10.0 °C Keinänen, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation The fertilized and activated eggs were incubated at 7°C 7.0 °C Winnicki, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation At 10°C 10.0 °C Vehniäinen, 2007
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5-2.9 [20-40% increase after water swelling] 2.7 mm Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5-3.0 2.75 mm Hovarth, 1992
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.8-3.1 [mean=2.96, n=62] 2.95 mm Farrell, 1996
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.6-2.7 [After fertilization] 2.65 mm Toner and Lawler, 1969
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.6-2.9 [Fertilized egg 3 hours after fertilization] 2.75 mm Frost and Kipling, 1967
2 Egg size after water-hardening During water hardening, the volume of egg increases by 25-40% 1.5 mm Balvay, 1983
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.5-2.9 [Swollen eggs] 2.7 mm Bonislawska and Winnicki, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.68 ± 0.11, n=212 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 2.68 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.38-2.88 [A female (3.5 years, 1.4 kg) considered to be of medium size, produced the biggest eggs: 2.58-2.88, while eggs of a very small female, probably spawning for the first time (weight 0.3,) and a very big one (4.4 Kg) and the oldest -5 years) were almost the same size (2.38-2.70 mm) 2.63 mm Bonislawska, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean size of 2.48 for 41-cm female and 2.80 for 101-cm female [When the eggs reached the 'eye' stage, a sample of 50 from each pike was taken and the diameters measured using a binocular microscope] 2.48 mm Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Sink after extrusion] Ambiguous Toner and Lawler, 1969
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Sink to the bottom] Ambiguous Dorier, 1938
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [On the bottom] Demersal Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2.0 [Dry egg] 1.75 mm Hovarth, 1992
1 Oocyte diameter 2-2.5 [Not specified] 2.25 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 2-2.5 [Ova or ferlilized egg before swelling] 2.25 mm Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
1 Oocyte diameter 2.3-2.4 2.35 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 2.3-2.4 [Before fertilization] 2.35 mm Toner and Lawler, 1969
1 Oocyte diameter 2.2-2.5 [Unfertilized egg] 2.35 mm Frost and Kipling, 1967
1 Oocyte diameter 2.5-3 2.75 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 2.5-3 2.75 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 2.14-2.48 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 2.31 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 2.5-3.0 [Not specified, but seems unswollen] 2.75 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 2.8-3.0 [Irish pike] 2.9 mm Kennedy, 1969
1 Oocyte diameter 2.8 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 2.8 mm Olden, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter The range in corrected egg diameter would be 2.14-3.13 in March, unfertilized egg 2.635 mm Treasurer, 1990

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 3 [larvae did not survive if left at 3°C], better at 10-20°C 15.0 °C Hassler, 1982
11 Temperature during larval development 12 12.0 °C Balvay, 1983
11 Temperature during larval development 26°C for maximum larval growth 26.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 12.5°C 12.5 °C Wurtz, 1944
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 12°C 12.0 °C Giles, 1986
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 12°C 12.0 °C Engström-Öst, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development During the pike tests (28 May-12 June) the water temperature was 11.2 ± 0.7°C (mean ± SE of daily measurements, range 8.6-13.6°C, increasing during the tests) 11.2 °C Keinänen, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development 12 12.0 °C Engström-öst and Lehtiniemi, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development The water temperature of the lake varied from 14.4 to 17.8°C (15.7°C on average) during the experimental period 14.4 °C Ziliukiene and Ziliukas, 2006
10 Reaction to light No photophobic reaction Photopositive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
10 Reaction to light Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light One-week-old freely swimming larvae are positively phototactic and often swim very near the surface, and they may thus become severely exposed to UV-B radiation Photopositive Vehniäinen, 2007
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism occured at the age of 3 weeks Present Wurtz, 1944
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Within 2 weeks, cannibalism among the young pike became apparent Present Bryan, 1967
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism occured during the third weeks, at a size of 2.5 and below Present Chodorowski, 1975
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalistic [This is the cannibalistic individuals that grow bigger and faster] Present Chodorowska and Chodorowski, 1975
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism is common in pike, may occur as early as 21 mm [Cannibalism intensity is highest where growth is omst heterogeneous] Present Bry and Gillet, 1980
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism At a size of 9 cm, it becomes cannibalistic, but could ocur earlier at 2.3 cm if insect populations are absent Absent Balvay, 1983
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism At 28-35 days cannibalism occured indepedently in all 12 tanks. The mean age at first cannibalism was 32 days (s.d. = 1.5 days) which occured at a mean length of 30.3 mm (s.d. 4.3 mm) Present Giles, 1986
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism "Cannibalism was observed from 21 days after the exogeneous feeding [mean total length 60 mm], most are ""Type II cannibalism"". May start at a total length of 21-23 mm" Present Bry, 1992
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Present Present Hecht and Pienaar, 1993
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism The frequency of all cannibalistic attacks decreased in the order: highest>middle>lowest density Present Kucharczyk, 1997
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism occur when size is about 74 mm Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism was noticed on the 12th day of the experiment when pike larvae reached 16.0-22.3 mm SL (18.7 mm on average) Present Ziliukiene and Ziliukas, 2006
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 160-180 170.0 °C * day Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 300 [End of the fixed period] 300.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 160-180 [i.e. 15 days at 11.2°C] 170.0 °C * day Balvay, 1983
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 130 130.0 °C * day Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption About 9-10 days 9.5 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 8 days at 12.5°C, at a size of ca. 14.5 8.0 °C * day Wurtz, 1944
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Yolk sacs were largely resorbed at 8 days (at 12°C) 8.0 °C * day Giles, 1986
13 Full yolk-sac resorption About 14 days 14.0 °C * day Chimits, 1951
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Pike larvae with yolk sac, 5 days post-hatch,were obtained from a fish hatchery in SW Finland 5.0 °C * day Engström-Öst, 2005
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 150-160 155.0 °C * day Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 150-160 155.0 °C * day Billard, 1996
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 10 days at 12.5°C 10.0 °C * day Wurtz, 1944
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The fry began to feed at 7 days post-hatching when the yolk sac was almost completely absorbed (at 12°C) 7.0 °C * day Giles, 1986
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Pike larvae die within three days after the resorption of their yolk sac if no food is available to them No data Penaz, 1971
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Food was only detected in the alimentary tract of the larvae with the standard length no less than 12.8 mm 12.8 °C * day Ziliukiene and Ziliukas, 2006
8 Initial larval size 8.5-8.7 8.6 mm Hovarth, 1992
8 Initial larval size 8 8.0 mm Spillmann, 1961
8 Initial larval size 8.5-9 8.75 mm Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
8 Initial larval size 8 8.0 mm Dorier, 1938
8 Initial larval size 6.5-7.5, but also 8.0-9.0 7.0 mm Toner and Lawler, 1969
8 Initial larval size 7.5-8.2 7.85 mm Frost and Kipling, 1967
8 Initial larval size 6.5-10 [Encompassing all variations described] 8.25 mm Balvay, 1983
8 Initial larval size 6-8 7.0 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size 6-8 7.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 7-9.8 8.4 mm Kerr and Grant, 1999
8 Initial larval size 8.0 8.0 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size 5.0 5.0 mm Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
8 Initial larval size Mean about 8, range 7-9 mm 8.0 mm Wurtz, 1944
8 Initial larval size Mean of 7.99 for 41-cm female and 8.09 for 101-cm female 7.99 mm Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
8 Initial larval size The larvae are 8-9 mm long after hatching 8.5 mm Lappalainen, 2008
9 Larvae behaviour Prolarvae remain motionless during all the priod of resorption of yolk Demersal Souchon, 1983
9 Larvae behaviour Remain fixed on aquatic plants until the resorption of the yolk sac Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Remain fixed on aquatic plants during 8-10 days Demersal NO REFERENCE
9 Larvae behaviour Remain fixed for about 10-12 days at 11.5°C Demersal Dorier, 1938
9 Larvae behaviour Many were attached to any available surface, usually vertical for 4-6 days, then are free Demersal Frost and Kipling, 1967
9 Larvae behaviour The fry did not swim about freely, but remained hidden, apparently attached to vegetation for the first week after hatching Demersal Bryan, 1967
9 Larvae behaviour Remain motionless, fixed, during about one week Demersal Balvay, 1983
9 Larvae behaviour Remain fixed by cemant gland Demersal Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Remain fixed vertically for about 130 DD, then swin near the surface Demersal Chauveheid and Billard, 1983
9 Larvae behaviour They remain inactive, often attached to vegetation by means of adhesive glans on the head, for 6-10 days, and feed on the stored yolk Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour Attached to vegetation, the sac fry remain inactive for 6-10 days until the yolk is absorbed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae remain atatched to vegetation for 6 to 10 days Demersal Bradbury, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Just after hatching, the young fry remain on the bottom. Then, about few hours, they stich, using their cemand gland, to various objects in the water: plants, … Remain there, motionless Demersal Wurtz, 1944
9 Larvae behaviour The fry attached to this substrate using the adhesive organ on the head Demersal Giles, 1986
9 Larvae behaviour Pike perch hatched in the middle of May. After using their yolk whille still hanging on plants, pike larvae with some gas in the swim bladder were caught among the vegetation at the same time as the first roach and perch larvae hatched (24 May) Demersal Urho, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour Prolarvae remain in attached to vegetation at spawning site for 5-10 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larvae attached to plants remain nonmotile for the first few days of life Demersal Vehniäinen, 2007
9 Larvae behaviour Remain attached to vegetation during the first 4-6 days. Thereafter, the larvae are 11-12 mm long, almost all of the yolk sac has been used, and they start to seek food Demersal Lappalainen, 2008

Female (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism In the female, there is a protuberance between the urogenital pore and the anus which does not exist in the male Present Billard, 1996
18 Female sexual dimorphism Female pike tend to live longer and attain heavier weights than male fish Absent Kerr and Grant, 1999
24 Maximum GSI value Almost 20% [Prior to spawning] 20.0 percent Billard, 1996
24 Maximum GSI value About 22% 22.0 percent Lenhardt, 1992
24 Maximum GSI value Range between 15 and 25% in February 15.0 percent Goedmakers and Verboom, 1974
24 Maximum GSI value Mean 8.98, range 3.81-11.28 [In L. Kinord], 8.32, range 7.42-8.92 [L. Davan], 4.0-8.7 [L. Skene], 15-20 [Windermere], 17 [Slapton Ley] 7.545 percent Treasurer, 1990
24 Maximum GSI value About 8% [In April] 8.0 percent June, 1977
25 Oogenesis duration 7-8 [From July-August until February-March] 7.5 months Souchon, 1983
25 Oogenesis duration 78 [From JulyAugust until March-April] 78.0 months Billard, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 20-45 32.5 thousand eggs/kg Hovarth, 1992
19 Relative fecundity 30 30.0 thousand eggs/kg Spillmann, 1961
19 Relative fecundity 15-45 30.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 15-45 [18-42] 30.0 thousand eggs/kg Souchon, 1983
19 Relative fecundity 19-33 26.0 thousand eggs/kg Billard, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 15-45 30.0 thousand eggs/kg Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
19 Relative fecundity Estimated as 9/ pound !! 9.0 thousand eggs/kg Scott and Crossman, 1973
19 Relative fecundity 40.4 ± 12.5 40.4 thousand eggs/kg Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 25-39 32.0 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 15-30 22.5 thousand eggs/kg Environment agency, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 30 30.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
19 Relative fecundity The relative fecundity of pike in the Lindford lakes (17 and 19 eggs per g) is low compared with the 27 eggs per g for windermere 17.0 thousand eggs/kg Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
19 Relative fecundity 11-19 [In Lake Kniord], 10-24 [L. Davan], 9-15 [L. Skene], 27.3-39.3 [Windermere] 15.0 thousand eggs/kg Treasurer, 1990
19 Relative fecundity 49 ± 9.96 49.0 thousand eggs/kg Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex specified] 2.5 years Hovarth, 1992
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Male, but sometimes 1] 3.0 years Billard, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 1.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Sex specified, but rarely 1] 2.0 years Frost and Kipling, 1967
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Both sex, but sometimes 1] 2.5 years Souchon, 1983
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [But sometimes 1] 2.0 years Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 in south and 5 in north [Male] 2.5 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Both males and females] 2.5 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 2.0 [Both sex] 2.0 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Male first spawned at 2 years in both lakes [Other studies: mostly 2, once 1 or 3] 2.0 years Treasurer, 1990
26 Resting period 3 Months (June to end of August) 3.0 months Lenhardt, 1992
26 Resting period 3 months [June to end of August] 3.0 months Billard, 1996
26 Resting period February/April (spawning period) until July No data Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
26 Resting period April until August No data Treasurer, 1990
22 Onset of oogenesis July-August ['August', 'July'] Souchon, 1983
22 Onset of oogenesis July-August ['August', 'July'] Billard, 1996
22 Onset of oogenesis August-September ['August', 'September'] Lenhardt, 1992
22 Onset of oogenesis The sudden enlargement of ooctytes begins in August and is particularly intensive during September, October and November ['October', 'August', 'November', 'September'] Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
22 Onset of oogenesis August-September ['August', 'September'] Treasurer, 1990
22 Onset of oogenesis Gonad growth began in August, testicular growth was completed by september ['August'] Diana and Mackay, 1979
22 Onset of oogenesis August-September ['August', 'September'] June, 1977
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Winter [Important in increase in November, and continue to increase until spawning] ['November'] Lenhardt, 1992
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Increase regularly in the winter and then sharp increase in March-April ['February', 'April', 'March', 'January'] Billard, 1996
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Increase regularly during the winter, mainly in January-February ['February', 'March', 'January'] Treasurer, 1990
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity February ['February'] June, 1977
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Lebeau, 1990
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Luksiene, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 17-220 118.5 thousand eggs Hovarth, 1992
20 Absolute fecundity 200 200.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 28-226 127.0 thousand eggs Toner and Lawler, 1969
20 Absolute fecundity 6.0-233 [Full range for all sizes] 119.5 thousand eggs Billard, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 32 is the average number for mature female 32.0 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity 0.524-123.896 62.21 thousand eggs Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 19.290-24.870 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 22.08 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Range between 20 and 60 000 for female 48 and 60 cm long respectively 20.0 thousand eggs Goedmakers and Verboom, 1974
20 Absolute fecundity The lowest calue of absolute fecundity was reported as 2300 eggs from a pike 25 cm in length form Lake disna in the Lithuaniana SSR. In the present study a 37-cm pike from St Peter's Lake was found to have only 44+6 eggs. 2300.0 thousand eggs Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
20 Absolute fecundity 2620-121092 [In Lake Kniord], 2933-104459 [L. Davan], 3877-18501 [L. Skene] 61856.0 thousand eggs Treasurer, 1990
20 Absolute fecundity Mean of 19 465, range 9 068-38 567 19.0 thousand eggs Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
17 Weight at sexual maturity 1-5 3.0 kg Hovarth, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity 41.5 [The samllest maturing female is 25.7 cm] 41.5 cm Toner and Lawler, 1969
16 Length at sexual maturity 30-40 35.0 cm Hovarth, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity 30-65 47.5 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 25.7-50.8 [Entire range] 38.25 cm Billard, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity 31.0-49.8 [Sex specified, rarely 27.0] 40.4 cm Frost and Kipling, 1967
16 Length at sexual maturity 44.0 [Both sex] 44.0 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity The smallest female on first spawning were 28 cm but some females of age 2 < 32 m were observed to be immature. The range in observed length of females at age 3 was 29-36 cm at Kinord and 44-51 cm at Davan [other studie both both sex: range from 30 to 119 cm] 32.5 cm Treasurer, 1990
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 41.22, range 35.2-58.0 for females studied 46.6 cm Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex specified] 3.5 year Hovarth, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sometimes up to 5-6] 2.5 year Billard, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [4 years in more Southern region] 2.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex specified] 2.5 year Toner and Lawler, 1969
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Sex specified, rarely 1] 2.0 year Frost and Kipling, 1967
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Both sex, but sometimes 1] 2.5 year Souchon, 1983
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Female] 3.0 year Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 in the south and 6 in the north [Female] 3.5 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [31-36 months, age at maturation] 3.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Both males and females] 2.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2.0 [Both sex] 2.0 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity In Labrador, pike generally mature at 3-5 years [Sex not specified] 4.0 year Bradbury, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity All females were mature at age 3 and a proportion in both lakes was mature at age 2 [in toher studies, range between from 1/4, 2 and 2/3] 3.0 year Treasurer, 1990

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September to November [High cellular activity, followed by maturation of spermatozoa from December to Mars-April] ['April', 'November', 'December', 'September'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
31 Onset of spermatogenesis August ['August'] Souchon, 1983
31 Onset of spermatogenesis August ['August'] Billard, 1996
31 Onset of spermatogenesis End of August ['August'] Lenhardt, 1992
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Developing stage starts in September ['September'] Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Stage 2, from Septemeber to November ['November'] Hoffmann, 1980
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Late August ['August'] Treasurer, 1990
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Gonad growth began in August, ovarian growth occurred mainly during winter ['February', 'August', 'March', 'January'] Diana and Mackay, 1979
33 Maximum GSI value 2-3 2.5 percent Suquet, 1994
33 Maximum GSI value 2-3 [End of October] 2.5 percent Lenhardt, 1992
33 Maximum GSI value 2.5 [Beginning of September then slighlty decline and remain at about 1.5% until spawning] 2.5 percent Billard, 1996
33 Maximum GSI value 2.04 ± 0.78 [From December to April] 2.04 percent Hoffmann, 1980
33 Maximum GSI value Mean 0.94, range 0.84-1.05 [In L. Kinord], 1.14, range 0.99-1.20 [L. Davan] both in March, 2-4 [Windermere], 2 [Slapton Ley] 0.945 percent Treasurer, 1990
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September-October ['October', 'September'] Lenhardt, 1992
32 Main spermatogenesis activity October-November ['October', 'November'] Souchon, 1983
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September-October [Spermatogenesis occurs under decreasing photoperiod and in a temperature of 10-20°C] ['October', 'September'] Billard, 1996
32 Main spermatogenesis activity October, then the mature phase lasts from December until the spawn ['October', 'December'] Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Stage III, stage of maturity : December to March/April ['April', 'March', 'December'] Hoffmann, 1980
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September October ['October', 'September'] Treasurer, 1990
35 Resting period < 0,1 [June, July, mid-August] 0.0 months Lenhardt, 1992
35 Resting period <0.2 [June-July] 0.2 months Billard, 1996
35 Resting period The resting period last from June until the end of August No data Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
35 Resting period Stage I, rest from June to August, and stage IV, stage of post-spawning March to May No data Hoffmann, 1980
35 Resting period The index declined to 0.04-0.08 after spawning in early April and rose from late August 0.06 months Treasurer, 1990
34 Spermatogenesis duration The entire process of spermatogenesis is short about 2 months, from August to November 2.0 months Billard, 1996
34 Spermatogenesis duration 2-3 [From end of August to November-December] 2.5 months Souchon, 1983
34 Spermatogenesis duration The developing stage and active spermatogenesis last from September until the end of November No data Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
28 Length at sexual maturity 20-30 25.0 cm Hovarth, 1992
28 Length at sexual maturity 26.3-46 [Male] 36.15 cm Billard, 1996
28 Length at sexual maturity 30-45 37.5 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 27.5-48.0 [Sex specified, rarely at 24.7] 37.75 cm Frost and Kipling, 1967
28 Length at sexual maturity 44.0 [Both sex] 44.0 cm Olden, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Length of 27 cm [Other studies both sex range from 30-119 cm] 74.5 cm Treasurer, 1990
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.5-2 1.25 kg Hovarth, 1992

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system By pair, or by small groups of 1 female and 2-3 males Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
47 Mating system 3 to 5 male follow one female Polyandry Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system Several males, usually smaller than the female, follow a female and spawn successively with it without any particular choice No category Souchon, 1983
47 Mating system The sexes pair and a larger female is usually attended by one or two smaller males No category Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system The sexes pair at spawning time and a larger female is usually attended by one or two smaller males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system One or two smaller males pair up with one larger, mature female No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
47 Mating system Group: communal spawning, one to three attendant males per female, male follow female while passing frequently to spawn Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Early in the morning Day Spillmann, 1961
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Intensively during calm and warm afternoons No category Souchon, 1983
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the hottest hour of the day [mainly witout wind and clouds] Day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning take place on bright days, and cool nights tend to inhibit early morning spawning Ambiguous Franklin and Smith, 1963
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the hours of daylight Day Toner and Lawler, 1969
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Genrally spawning occurs during the day Day Fishbase, 2006
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Generally, spawns during daylight hours Day Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Greatly reduced nighttime activity Night Lucas, 1992
50 Parental care Not any parental care No category Souchon, 1983
50 Parental care Not any parental care No category Toner and Lawler, 1969
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care Provides no parental care for eggs or young No care Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Dense aquatic and terrestrial plants Phytophils Souchon, 1983
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants are necessary = phytophile Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Presence of plants [Usual substrata are old leaves and trees] Phytophils Toner and Lawler, 1969
44 Spawning substrate Submerged aquatic plants Phytophils Frost and Kipling, 1967
44 Spawning substrate Eggs were concentrated in areas of terrestrial vegetation Phytophils Bryan, 1967
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil: plants Phytophils Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
44 Spawning substrate On heavily vegetated floodplains No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Silt, detritus, and vegetation Phytophils Lucas, 1992
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Dense weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Optimal substrate is flooded vegetation, preferably grasses and sedges Phytophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate The preferred spawning substrate is a moderatly dense mat of flooded vegetation in shallow (5-60 cm deep), wind sheltered area. Although grasses, sedges and rushes with fine leaves make the best substrate for egg deposition, the type of vegetation does not appear to be critical providing the vegetative susbtrate is adequate to entrap eggs and suspend them above the susbtrate where anoxic conditions can develop. The type of bottom over which spawning occurs varies widely, but a soft, silt-filled area with decaying vegetation is common . The absence of inundated vegetation can inhibit or delayed spawning. Thus, the following characterisctics constitute suitable spawning sites for pike, presence of live or decaying vegetation, shallowness, no significant weter current and some protection from dominant winds. Phytophils Bradbury, 1999
44 Spawning substrate The optimal spawing substratum for nothern pike is a dense mat of short vegetation. The type of vegetaton does not appear to be critical although grasses and sedges appear to be preferred Phytophils Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
44 Spawning substrate Scattered thair adhesive eggs on vegetation in the littoral zone of tributary embayments Phytophils June, 1977
44 Spawning substrate Eggsare scattered over soft bottom, with abundant emergent and submergent vegetation, may also spawn over gravel and rock Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Plants as the substratum Phytophils Engström-öst and Lehtiniemi, 2004
44 Spawning substrate With vegetation as spawning base Phytophils Vehniäinen, 2007
44 Spawning substrate Grasses and sedges are preferred, but other vegetation may be used. The shelter provided by vegetation is essential for the larvae and young pike […] Pike can spawn over a range of macrophyte species. However, reed belts formed by Phragmites australis are a dominant feature in sheltered shores, bays and estuaries in wide regions of the northern Baltic Sea coast, and this common habitat serves as a major spawning and larval area for pike Phytophils Lappalainen, 2008
45 Spawning site preparation No cleaning of the subrates prior to spawning and no nest Open water/substratum scatter Souchon, 1983
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation No nest is built, the eggs are scattered at radom Open water/substratum scatter Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Deposited eggs Susbtrate chooser Lucas, 1992
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Random spawner No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation The eggs are scattered over flooded terrestrial or aquatic vegetation No category Wynne, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Pike are broadcast spawners Open water/substratum scatter Bradbury, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are scattered No category Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 6-7 [But from 5-13] 6.5 °C Souchon, 1983
41 Spawning temperature 7-10 8.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 5-13 [7-12 peak deposition] 9.0 °C Farrell, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 7-11 9.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 6-12 9.0 °C Hovarth, 1992
41 Spawning temperature 6 and over, between 6-8 7.0 °C Frost and Kipling, 1967
41 Spawning temperature 4.4-11.1 7.75 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 8-10 9.0 °C Lucas, 1992
41 Spawning temperature 5.5-9.8 7.65 °C Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
41 Spawning temperature 6-14 10.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 4-11 7.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Rise in temperature 6-10°C 8.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 4.4-12°C, but generally 9°C [The start of spawning period usually coincides with the period of peak run-off when water temperatures are approximately 4.4°C, the spawning period ends when water temperature reach 13°C) 8.2 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 40 to 52°F 40.0 °C Wynne, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 5 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 5.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 6 to 14°C 6.0 °C Bradbury, 1999
41 Spawning temperature Spawning started at 6°C (in 1949) and 6.5°C (1948) and ended when temperature reach 8°C (in 1949) and 9.5°C (1948). Spawning stopped if water decreased below 6°C 6.0 °C Chimits, 1951
41 Spawning temperature In the present study, ripe pike were first caught at temperatures of 6.3°C in 1986 and 6.9°C in 1987 6.3 °C Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
41 Spawning temperature Usually late March-late April at 40-50°F 45.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature Warmed to 8-12°C […] when the water temperature reaches 10°C 10.0 °C Lappalainen, 2008
40 Spawning period duration 1-4 for the spawning period [But from 4-11 for the presence of spawners on spawning grounds] 2.5 weeks Souchon, 1983
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 4.5 weeks Farrell, 1996
40 Spawning period duration 2-4 [Males arrive earlier than females-Male can remain up to 38 days on spawning ground and female 27] 3.0 weeks Frost and Kipling, 1967
40 Spawning period duration 1 1.0 weeks Bryan, 1967
40 Spawning period duration Difficult to assess between few days to one month or more No data Franklin and Smith, 1963
40 Spawning period duration Spawned-out adults may stay on the spawning gorunds for as long as 14 weeks, but most leave within 6 14.0 weeks Fishbase, 2006
40 Spawning period duration 2-4 [0.50-1.00 months, length of breeding season] 3.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 7-8 7.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration Ripe female pike were caught from 1 April until 4 May 1986, a period of 34 days, and from 30 March until 18 April in 1987, a period of 20 days 1.0 weeks Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
40 Spawning period duration Spawning occurred in the first two weeks of April. In any one yeare spawning was usually over 2 weeks maximum 2.0 weeks Treasurer, 1990
40 Spawning period duration A period of 10-24 days 17.0 weeks Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Located in flooding areas and near the shore of lakes and ponds Stagnant water Souchon, 1983
42 Spawning water type Backwater habitats with little current or negligible current Flowing or turbulent water Farrell, 1996
42 Spawning water type Littoral zones of lake and border line of pond Stagnant water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Calm waters near the shoreline Stagnant water Spillmann, 1961
42 Spawning water type May spawn either in marshy areas of lakes or in connected soughs Stagnant water Franklin and Smith, 1963
42 Spawning water type At the lake edge or in flooded river areas Stagnant water Billard, 1996
42 Spawning water type Preferentially on flooding rivers and plants near shore Stagnant water Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
42 Spawning water type Rivers, marshes and bays of larger lakes Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Small tributary streams, marshes to adjacent to lakes or in shallow, weedy days of larger lakes or rivers Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type No significant weter current and some protection from dominant winds. Flowing or turbulent water Bradbury, 1999
42 Spawning water type Shallow lake margins, inflowing streams, ditches and drainage marshes Ambiguous Giles, 1986
42 Spawning water type Shallow wind-sheltered area No category Wright and Shoesmith, 1988
42 Spawning water type Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
42 Spawning water type Areas with sluggish water current, including shore line weeds beds and marshes, sloughs, bays and harbors, river mouths, ditches, feeder streams, and temporarily flooded lowlands Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Shallow (0.2-1 m), that quickly warm 0.6 m Souchon, 1983
43 Spawning depth Areas less than 1 m deep 1.0 m Farrell, 1996
43 Spawning depth 0.10-0.75 0.425 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Prefer to spawn in 50 cm of water or less, and most spawn in 25 cm with a minimum of 5 to 7 cm 50.0 m Toner and Lawler, 1969
43 Spawning depth Near the surface No data Franklin and Smith, 1963
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters, maximum 50 cm 50.0 m Billard, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Billard, 1997
43 Spawning depth 0.3-1 0.65 m Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
43 Spawning depth 0.3-0.8 m 0.55 m Lucas, 1992
43 Spawning depth Are usually no deeper than 178 mm but can be up to 450 mm deep 178.0 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth Generally 5-60 cm [also in Shallow vegetated area <4 m deep] 32.5 m Bradbury, 1999
43 Spawning depth To 24 feet, but usually less than 6 feet and often less than 2 feet 24.0 m Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Shallow water No data Engström-öst and Lehtiniemi, 2004
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters (depth < 1 m) 1.0 m Vehniäinen, 2007
43 Spawning depth These reed belts extend from supra-littoral zone to a depth of usually 1-1.5 m 1.25 m Lappalainen, 2008
36 Spawning migration distance Migrations variables up to 15 to 78 km but rare, usually much shorter 15.0 km Souchon, 1983
36 Spawning migration distance Quite short No data Frost and Kipling, 1967
36 Spawning migration distance Seasonal spawning migrations up to 10 km 10.0 km Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Considered maily a sedentary species No data Bradbury, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Migrations could occur few days before spawning No data Souchon, 1983
37 Spawning migration period Individual spawner may arrive on the breeding ground some considerable time before it actuall spawns ['May'] Frost and Kipling, 1967
37 Spawning migration period Spawners move inshore or upstream to the marsh areas to spawn No data Fishbase, 2006
37 Spawning migration period Spawning run began on April 11 with a single female, rose rapidly to a peak in numbers of fish by April 18, declined rapidly and ended by April 20 [Mean temperature about 9°C] ['April'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
37 Spawning migration period Nothern pike migrate to spawning areas immediatly after the ice melts in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Bradbury, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Sexually mature nother pike, undergo an early spring spawning migration ['April', 'May', 'June'] Giles, 1986
37 Spawning migration period Migrate from deeper water to littoral areas or into tributaries at time of ice breakup, beginning at about 33-40°F, may begin to congregate at river mouths in late February before ice breakup ['February'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season February-April ['February', 'April', 'March'] Hovarth, 1992
39 Spawning season May-June [Nothern latitudes], February-March [Southern latitudes] ['February', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1996
39 Spawning season Begin 25 April, peaked on 13-16 May, until 27 May ['April', 'May'] Farrell, 1996
39 Spawning season February-End April [Nothern Europe] and May-June [Nothern region] ['February', 'April', 'May', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season Mid-February until Mid-April ['February', 'April'] Lenhardt, 1992
39 Spawning season End of February in South, until April in North of France ['February', 'April'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season February-April ['February', 'April', 'March'] Frost and Kipling, 1967
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Bryan, 1967
39 Spawning season February-March but May-June in certain regions ['February', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Souchon, 1983
39 Spawning season February-April ['February', 'April', 'March'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season February-March [South], until April [North and in mountains] ['February', 'April', 'March'] Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
39 Spawning season February until April, up to May ['February', 'April', 'May'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season April-early May, just after ice melts ['April', 'May'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Greatest activity occured in the later half of April ['April'] Lucas, 1992
39 Spawning season First half of March ['March'] Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season March-May ['April', 'March', 'May'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season 14 April -7 May, aproximate peak 21 April ['April', 'May'] Bagenal, 1971
39 Spawning season Spring spawner, spawning commences shortly after ice-out but can sometimes occur before ice melts No data Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season In Labrador, spawning normally takes place from mid-April to mid-May, shortly after ice-out ['April', 'May'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season Started in February and ended in March ['February', 'March'] Chimits, 1951
39 Spawning season Occurred between 17 March when all females examined (N=12) were foudn to be gravid and 16 April when all (N=13) were spent ['April', 'March'] Treasurer, 1990
39 Spawning season Mean peak spawning 25 April [Range: 27 March -3 June] in Lake Oahe, South and North Dakota ['April', 'March', 'June'] June, 1977
39 Spawning season Burbot were caught with nets from Lake Pyhäselkä in eastern Finland before and during the spawning season in January and Fabruary 2001 ['January'] Mustonen, 2002
39 Spawning season Usually late March-late April at 40-50°F ['April', 'March'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season In Fennoscandia, pike spawns in April-May ['April', 'May'] Vehniäinen, 2007
39 Spawning season In the northern areas, pike spawn after ice-break in the spring […] Mostly during May when water temperature reaches 10°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Lappalainen, 2008
38 Homing The fish exibited no homing tendency for particular spawning grounds Present Souchon, 1983
38 Homing "Kind of ""homing"" in a sense of returning repeatedly to spawn in the same place" Present Frost and Kipling, 1967
38 Homing The fish exibited no homing tendency for particular spawning grounds Present Franklin and Smith, 1963
38 Homing The degree of homing instinct to previously used spawning sites is unclear for this species Present Kerr and Grant, 1999
48 Spawning release Single No category Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Single spawner, developping egg in a single clutch annually Total Lebeau, 1990
48 Spawning release Each individual of both sex perfoms the spawning act only once annually Total Toner and Lawler, 1969
48 Spawning release Batch spawner, one clear seasonal peak per year Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Numerous release of small batches of eggs (5 à 60 ovules) within few hours, a great distance could be made between two spawns Mutliple Souchon, 1983
48 Spawning release Frational spawning, over few days. Each spawning contains few dizaines eggs No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Ova are released in small batches of 5-60 many times over some distance, ensuring a wide distribution Mutliple Billard, 1996
48 Spawning release Batches over 2-5 days Mutliple Le Louarn and Feunteun, 2001
48 Spawning release The spawning act is repeated many times during the day for 2-5 days [Usually in numbers of 5-60 at each spawning act] No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release Once a year Total Lenhardt and Cakic, 2002
48 Spawning release Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release A single female may spawn over a period of several days Mutliple Kerr and Grant, 1999
48 Spawning release Eggs are shed in a succession of batches on flooded arable and grassland, or dense mats of aquatic vegetation Mutliple Giles, 1986
48 Spawning release One single spawning Total Luksiene, 2000
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Souchon, 1983
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Billard, 1996
49 Parity Can be long-lived reaching at least 24 or 25 years No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
49 Parity Return to lake after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982