Maitland, 2003



Citation


Maitland, P.S. (2003) The status of smelt Osmerus eperlanus in England.
Fish conservation centre

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Mating system The spawning is communal Promiscuity
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Usually at night Night
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Normally clean gravel, stones or macrophytes of various kinds Lithophils
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Water has reached at least 5°C [Timing of spawning seems to be dictated by temperatures and tides and may vary from estuary to estuary, especially from North to South] 5.0 °C
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration The annual spawning takes place over just a few days No data
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Spawning takes place in fresh water, usually, but not always, somewhere near the end of tide where there is a significant current Flowing or turbulent water
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Varies from shallow water to deep water No data
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg adhesiveness Highly adhesive Adhesive
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Mature adults congregate in the upper estuary during the winter, preparatory to spawning in the spring ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'February']