Aristichthys nobilis

  • Scientific name
  • Aristichthys nobilis (Valenciennes, 1844)

  • Common name
  • Bighead carp

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 84%
Total data171
References26
Image of Aristichthys nobilis

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Slight stickiness, manifested only in the first 2-3 minutes in water Adhesive Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
4 Egg adhesiveness Characterized by slight stickiness (due to acid mucopolysaccharies on the surface of the envelope) observed only in the first 2-3 minutes Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Non-adhesive Non-Adhesive Jennigs, 1988
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs are seperated and nonadhesive Non-Adhesive Naca, 1989
5 Incubation time 1-2 1.5 days Horvath, 1992
5 Incubation time 34-36 hour [23-25°C], 50-70 h [18-20°C] 35.0 days Abdusamadov, 1986
5 Incubation time One day after fertilization, larval carp will hatch No data Schrank, 2001
5 Incubation time Eggs started to hatch after about 18 Hour of incubation at 27-28°C 27.5 days Santiago, 2004
5 Incubation time Hatching occured whitin 48 h after fertilization at 24.5°C 48.0 days Kilambi and Zdinak, 1981
5 Incubation time About 1 days after fertilization at 22-26°C 24.0 days Jennigs, 1988
7 Degree-days for incubation 24-50 37.0 °C * day Horvath, 1992
7 Degree-days for incubation 35-50 42.5 °C * day Abdusamadov, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation 23-25 [But also at lower Temperature: 18-20] 24.0 °C Abdusamadov, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation At 19-23°C, the fertilization capacity of a considerable number of eggs was preserved slightly longer-up to 30 seconds] 21.0 °C Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
6 Temperature for incubation 27-28 27.5 °C Santiago, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation 24.5 [Reared conditions] 24.5 °C Kilambi and Zdinak, 1981
6 Temperature for incubation 22-26 24.0 °C Jennigs, 1988
6 Temperature for incubation The optimum temperature is between 25 and 27°C 25.0 °C Naca, 1989
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.7-6 4.85 mm Horvath, 1992
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.15-5.30 [Egg after swelling, the membrane diameter increases 3-5 times] 4.225 mm Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening 5.0-5.2 [Membrane after swelling] 5.1 mm Makeyeva, 1996
2 Egg size after water-hardening 5.7-6.2, but rarely as small as 3.9 5.95 mm Kolar, 2005
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.41 (2.67-3.93) at 19 May & 3.99 (3.67-4.27) at 20 May BUT hybrid between female grass carp and male bighhead 3.3 mm Kilambi and Zdinak, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening 4.82-5.13 [Swollen egg] 4.975 mm Jennigs, 1988
2 Egg size after water-hardening 5.00 ± 0.08 in 1982 and 4.50 ± 0.15 in 1983 5.0 mm Verigin, 1990
2 Egg size after water-hardening After the eggs have been fertilized and have absorbed water, the egg membrane expands to about 5-6 mm 5.5 mm Naca, 1989
3 Egg Buoyancy Drifting egg [The largest number of eggs are found in the upper water layer in the main river chanel] Pelagic Abdusamadov, 1986
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs developp in pelagic water of the river current [The buoyancy of the egg is achieved by the penetration under the membrane of a considerable amount of water and the creation of perivitelline space] No category Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
3 Egg Buoyancy Bathypelagic, require tuburlent current to stay suspended No category Schrank, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water column by the turbulence of the moving water in order to hatch Ambiguous Kolar, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Develop in pelagic water No category Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of chinese carps are semibuoyant and are carried by currents until they hatch Ambiguous Scholfield, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs are bathypelagic and must float to hatch [In rivers of eastern Asia, if spawning occurs during periods of rising water levele, the eggs and larvae are carried out dowstream by the current to quiet, flodded lakes, creeks, and channels, which serve as nursery areas] Pelagic Jennigs, 1988
3 Egg Buoyancy They produce eggs that are semi-buoyant and require a curent to float Ambiguous Schrank, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy Having a greater specific gravity than water, eggs sink to the bottom in still water, yet, they are semi-buoyant in a current, floating until the fry hatch Ambiguous Naca, 1989
1 Oocyte diameter 0.7-1.3 1.0 mm Horvath, 1992
1 Oocyte diameter Most 0.5-1.2 [Egg within ovary], but up to 1.8 0.85 mm Schrank and Guy, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.25-1.55 [Egg before swelling up] 1.4 mm Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
1 Oocyte diameter Average 1.64 [Diameter of the ovulated oocytes] 1.64 mm Makeyeva, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4-1.5 [Unswollen egg] 1.45 mm Jennigs, 1988
1 Oocyte diameter Mean of 1.51 ± 0.016 in 1982 and 1.52 ± 0.06 in 1983 1.51 mm Verigin, 1990

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 24.5 [Reared conditions] 24.5 °C Kilambi and Zdinak, 1981
11 Temperature during larval development 22-26 24.0 °C Jennigs, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development 26-30°C [Reared conditions] 28.0 °C Santiago, 2003
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 25°C 25.0 °C Dabrowski, 1984
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 25-33°C 29.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism is observed in juveniles Present Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 154-162 [At 7 days at 22-26°C, the yolk sac is completely absorbed and the larvae migrate along the shore, feeding exclusively on external food] 158.0 °C * day Jennigs, 1988
13 Full yolk-sac resorption High mortality of unfed fish larvae was observed starting on day 6 and, except for one tank, all larvae in replicate tanks were dead by day 11 (at 26-30°C) 28.0 °C * day Santiago, 2003
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding [After 4.5-5 days at 22-26°C, the larvae are 8.5-9.0 mm, the larvae swim in the water column and feed, but also continue to utilize yolk] 4.75 °C * day Jennigs, 1988
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Carp larvae that just started to feed exogeneously (about 3 days post-hatch) were used, T= 26-30°C 28.0 °C * day Santiago, 2003
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The first feeding bighead carp larvae (about 3 days post-hacth), with temperature range 26-28°C in the morning and 28-30°C in the afternoon 27.0 °C * day Santiago, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Rearing fry and fingerlings involves nurturing 3-4 day-old postlarvae, which have begun to eat 3.5 °C * day Naca, 1989
8 Initial larval size 5-5.2 5.1 mm Horvath, 1992
8 Initial larval size 5.72 (range 5-.67-5.80) BUT hybrid between female grass carp and male bighhead 5.72 mm Kilambi and Zdinak, 1981
8 Initial larval size 5.5-6.0 5.75 mm Jennigs, 1988
8 Initial larval size 8.1 mm at 2 days old 8.1 mm Naca, 1989
9 Larvae behaviour Motile under natural conditions, however, it is carried out by the water current Demersal Jennigs, 1988
9 Larvae behaviour One day after fertilization, larval bighead haTch and enter the ichthyoplankton drift. Seven days after hatching, bighead carp larvae migrate to shore Demersal Schrank, 1999

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism External sexual dimorphism can be determined by examining the pectoral fins. In the male, these fins have a sharp edge along the dorsal surface of several front rays, whereas in the female this characteristic is absent. This secondary sexual characteristic of the male is formed before maturity, and once formed, persists throughout its lifetime. Absent Jennigs, 1988
18 Female sexual dimorphism Pectoral fin is smooth Absent Naca, 1989
24 Maximum GSI value 17-20% 18.5 percent Jennigs, 1988
24 Maximum GSI value Average maturity rate 13.6% 13.6 percent Naca, 1989
24 Maximum GSI value Max=14.7 [Up to 20% in China] in May 14.7 percent Schrank and Guy, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value In Fish from Moldova ponds maturation indexes comprised only 6-9%, on other coolers of Ukraine 10-12%. By our observations in ponds in Turmenistan and Uzbekistan this index comprises 11-13% 7.5 percent Makeyeva, 1996
19 Relative fecundity Avrage relative fecundity 96.7 96.7 thousand eggs/kg Naca, 1989
19 Relative fecundity 40-80 60.0 thousand eggs/kg Horvath, 1992
19 Relative fecundity 48.055 ± 14.224 [Female reared in artificial conditions] 48.055 thousand eggs/kg Santiago, 2004
19 Relative fecundity 60 [A female of 18.5 kg has 1.1 million eggs] 60.0 thousand eggs/kg Kolar, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 5.0 years Horvath, 1992
27 Age at sexual maturity 5-7 make up most of the run, about 90 % [Smallest male of 5] 6.0 years Abdusamadov, 1986
27 Age at sexual maturity 6-8 in temperate conditions [Both sex, but usually male mature earlier] 7.0 years Kolar, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity Range from 2-3 [South China] to 5-6 [Northeast China] to 9 [Moscow] 2.5 years Jennigs, 1988
27 Age at sexual maturity Reach sexual maturity at ages 3 through 9 depending on the environmental conditions [Both sex] 3.0 years Schrank, 1999
22 Onset of oogenesis In autumn and early spring gonads were at III stage of maturation ['April', 'May', 'December', 'June', 'October', 'November'] Makeyeva, 1996
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity At end of April and beginning of May, gonads reached the IV stage of maturation [Gsi about 7-13%] ['April', 'May'] Makeyeva, 1996
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Vitellogenesis in these fishes completes in spring, when the maturation coefficients of females reaches maximum level ['April', 'May', 'June'] Makeeva, 1988
21 Oocyte development Low indexes of recorded maturation and of asynchronism in gamete development were characteristic of this species Asynchronous Makeyeva, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 313.6 to 1860.800 313.6 thousand eggs Abdusamadov, 1986
20 Absolute fecundity 288-1100 694.0 thousand eggs Jennigs, 1988
20 Absolute fecundity Average fecundity: 1,925,000 1.0 thousand eggs Naca, 1989
20 Absolute fecundity Mean of 712.5 ± 42.1 (range 381.6-964.4) in 1982 and 810.2 ± 62.2 (range 204.3-1658.8) in 1983 712.5 thousand eggs Verigin, 1990
20 Absolute fecundity 200-1500 850.0 thousand eggs Horvath, 1992
20 Absolute fecundity Mean of 226.213 [Range from 11.558 to 769.964] 226.213 thousand eggs Schrank and Guy, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 280 [First spawners] up to 478-549 [older spawners], up to 1.860 513.5 thousand eggs Kolar, 2005
17 Weight at sexual maturity 9.3 [16% at 7.9 kg] 9.3 kg Abdusamadov, 1986
17 Weight at sexual maturity 5-10 [Female] 7.5 kg Jennigs, 1988
17 Weight at sexual maturity Average weight of 19,900 kg for fishes in the Changjiang River 19.0 kg Naca, 1989
17 Weight at sexual maturity 3-10 6.5 kg Horvath, 1992
17 Weight at sexual maturity 5-10 kg [Both sex, in Asia and Europe] 7.5 kg Schrank, 1999
17 Weight at sexual maturity 3.38 ± 0.87 [Females reared in control conditions] 3.38 kg Santiago, 2004
17 Weight at sexual maturity 5-10 in temperate conditions [Both sex] 7.5 kg Kolar, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity Most (81%) 75-100 [16% at 76] 87.5 cm Abdusamadov, 1986
16 Length at sexual maturity 67.2-70.3 [Female] 68.75 cm Jennigs, 1988
16 Length at sexual maturity 40-100 70.0 cm Horvath, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity 50-70 [Both sex, in Asia and Europe] 60.0 cm Schrank, 1999
16 Length at sexual maturity 53.8 ± 4.7 [Females in reared conditions] 53.8 cm Santiago, 2004
16 Length at sexual maturity 70-80 in temperature conditions [Both sex] 75.0 cm Kolar, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity Most (81%) at 6-7 [Some at 5] 6.5 year Abdusamadov, 1986
15 Age at sexual maturity Differ between regions from 3-4 [South China and Taiwan] to 6-7 [Northeast China, Israel] to 10 [Moscow] 3.5 year Jennigs, 1988
15 Age at sexual maturity 5-7 6.0 year Horvath, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity Reach sexual maturity at ages 3 through 9 depending on the environmental conditions [Both sex] 3.0 year Schrank, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 in tropical conditions [Both sex], but 6-8 in temperate conditions 3.5 year Kolar, 2005

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Mature males had rough body surface and callosities on the fins Absent Santiago, 2004
30 Male sexual dimorphism External sexual dimorphism can be determined by examining the pectoral fins. In the male, these fins have a sharp edge along the dorsal surface of several front rays, whereas in the female this characteristic is absent. This secondary sexual characteristic of the male is formed before maturity, and once formed, persists throughout its lifetime. Males usually reach sexual maturity one year earlier than females Absent Jennigs, 1988
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males generally mature one year earlier and at smaller size than females Absent Schrank, 1999
30 Male sexual dimorphism Edges of the upper rims of several of the foremost pectoral fin rays are sharp and slant backward Absent Naca, 1989
33 Maximum GSI value 1.1 1.1 percent Schrank and Guy, 2002
33 Maximum GSI value 1.07 [Not specified if the maximum and when ?] 1.07 percent Belova, 1981
28 Length at sexual maturity 40-90 65.0 cm Horvath, 1992
28 Length at sexual maturity 81-90 for 90% of males [75 for smallest male] 85.5 cm Abdusamadov, 1986
28 Length at sexual maturity 70-80 in temperate conditions [Bot sex] 75.0 cm Kolar, 2005
28 Length at sexual maturity 48.4 ±2.4 [Males in reared conditons] 48.4 cm Santiago, 2004
28 Length at sexual maturity 50-70 [Both sex, in Asia and Europe] 60.0 cm Schrank, 1999
28 Length at sexual maturity Individuals studied were 95.5 ± 1.1 cm long 95.5 cm Belova, 1981
29 Weight at sexual maturity 3-7 5.0 kg Horvath, 1992
29 Weight at sexual maturity 7.1 [For smallest male] 7.1 kg Abdusamadov, 1986
29 Weight at sexual maturity 5-10 in temperate conditions [Bot sex] 7.5 kg Kolar, 2005
29 Weight at sexual maturity 2.4 ±0.3 [Males in reared conditions] 2.4 kg Santiago, 2004
29 Weight at sexual maturity 5-10 kg [Both sex, in Asia and Europe] 7.5 kg Schrank, 1999
29 Weight at sexual maturity Most of the caught individuals weigthed 6-12 kg, this size is a characteristic of the sexually mature individuals 9.0 kg Ciolac, 2004
29 Weight at sexual maturity Individuals studied were 7705 +- 207 g 7705.0 kg Belova, 1981

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Usually more than two males follow one female [Promiscuous] Promiscuity Kolar, 2005
47 Mating system Promiscuous [The males actively chase the females, occasionally prodding their head against the belly of the females] Promiscuity Jennigs, 1988
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Any time of the day Day Jennigs, 1988
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Pelagophilous Pelagophils Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1980
44 Spawning substrate Their eggs are deposited in flowing water and develop in palegic water Pelagophils Kunz, 2004
44 Spawning substrate The silver carp an the grass carp seem to prefer the superficial waters as well as the big head stay in the deeper horizons of the water Ambiguous Ciolac, 2004
44 Spawning substrate The eggs are fertilized in the water Pelagophils Naca, 1989
45 Spawning site preparation No, open water/substratum eggs scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 21-25 23.0 °C Horvath, 1992
41 Spawning temperature 18-20 19.0 °C Abdusamadov, 1986
41 Spawning temperature 22 22.0 °C Verigin, 1979
41 Spawning temperature Optimum teperature for spawning is 22-26°C, and water temperature must exceed 19°C to induce spawning activity 24.0 °C Schrank, 2001
41 Spawning temperature From 26-30, also 18.3-23.5 28.0 °C Kolar, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 19.2-29.0 24.1 °C Scholfield, 2005
41 Spawning temperature Must be higher than 18°C, about 26-30°C 28.0 °C Jennigs, 1988
41 Spawning temperature Optimum temperature for spawning is 22-26°C, and must be greater than 18°C 24.0 °C Schrank, 1999
41 Spawning temperature The water temperature stabilized for a relatively large period of time in the interval of 18°C to at least 22°C 18.0 °C Ciolac, 2004
41 Spawning temperature The optimum temperature for spawning is 22-28°C 25.0 °C Naca, 1989
41 Spawning temperature D'autre part pendant la journée l'eau stagnante du bassin, avait une température bien trop élevée (maximum 31°C, minimum 28°C) pour influencer favorablement la fraie 31.0 °C Lloze, 1967
40 Spawning period duration 1-2 [June 16-21 or June 21-July 5] 1.5 weeks Schrank, 2001
40 Spawning period duration Spawning period continues from April to July [Mass spawning takes place at the end of May and in the beginning of June] No data Abdusamadov, 1986
42 Spawning water type Spawning takes place after a sharp rise in the water level and current velocity Flowing or turbulent water Abdusamadov, 1986
42 Spawning water type Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Mikodina and Makeyeva, 1981
42 Spawning water type Typically occurs ar river confluences or behind sandbars, gravels bars, and islands charcaterized by current faster then 0.8 m/s and turbulent flow Flowing or turbulent water Schrank, 2001
42 Spawning water type Primarily used low velocity habitats behind wing dikes Flowing or turbulent water Kolar, 2005
42 Spawning water type Spawning grounds are usually located in river reaches characterized by turbulent or whirlpool-like flow, often in the vicinity of islands or stream junctions [Reported current velocities of spawning areas in China ranged from 0.33 to0.90m/s] Flowing or turbulent water Scholfield, 2005
42 Spawning water type Natural reproduction occurs in channel of large rivers in swift current where velocities exceed 0.8 m/sec [The spawning is generally deposited among the rocks of rapids in river channels, behind sandbars, and at islands at the junction of the currents] Flowing or turbulent water Jennigs, 1988
42 Spawning water type Spawning typically occurs at the confluence of two rivers, behind sanbars, stonebeds, or islands. These areas are characterized by rapid current (>0.8 m/s) and mixing of water Flowing or turbulent water Schrank, 1999
42 Spawning water type The existence and the persistence of the increasing water level, the water flow up to 3 m per second No category Ciolac, 2004
42 Spawning water type En effet, en Chine, les géniteurs sont placés dans des bassins frayères traversés par un courant d'eau continu dont la vitesse est comprise entre 30 et 60 m/s, qui a pour but de créer un facteur mécanique rappelant aux géniteurs leurs lieux de ponte naturelle Flowing or turbulent water Lloze, 1967
43 Spawning depth Near the surface No data Kolar, 2005
43 Spawning depth Much to the activity is generally at the surface of the water No data Jennigs, 1988
36 Spawning migration distance About 125-260 km 192.5 km Abdusamadov, 1986
36 Spawning migration distance Often migrate upstream to spawn No data Schrank, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Sometimes exceeding 80 km 80.0 km Kolar, 2005
37 Spawning migration period Spawing migrations starts in the second week of May at 18-19°C ['May'] Abdusamadov, 1986
37 Spawning migration period In May, there is an increasing amount of adults, probably as a result of the start of the crowding process that usually precedes the upstream migration. In June, the capture was the largest one, it signalises the peak of migration. The water temperature is of 19°C to 24°C ['May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Horvath, 1992
39 Spawning season Spawning period continues from April to July [Mass spawning takes place at the end of May and in the beginning of June] ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Abdusamadov, 1986
39 Spawning season April-June, peaking in lale May in Asia, in their study in June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Schrank, 2001
39 Spawning season In China, generally spawn between April and June, peaking in late May [Initiated by rising water levels following the heavy rains that occur in spring] ['April', 'May', 'June'] Kolar, 2005
39 Spawning season The spawning season in China extends from April to June, peaking in late May ['April', 'May', 'June'] Jennigs, 1988
39 Spawning season In Asia, bighead carp generally spawn between April and June with a peak in late May ['April', 'May', 'June'] Schrank, 1999
39 Spawning season The grass carp spawns earlier, at a lower temperature than silver carp and big head No data Ciolac, 2004
39 Spawning season In the Changjiang River drainage, bighead carp begins to spawn in middle or late May ['May'] Naca, 1989
48 Spawning release Bighead carp often have two or three spawning periods per year [Extended spawing period or multiple spawning] Mutliple Schrank, 1999
49 Parity After spawning, they migrate to floodland lakes No category Jennigs, 1988
49 Parity The maximum age of Bighead carp was reported to be 16 years of age No category Kolar, 2005