Bradbury, 1999



Citation


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Parental care The male guards and fans the nest and protects the young for up to 2 weeks after hatching or until they are able to fend for themselves Male parental care
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards the nest and aerate the eggs through fanning with their pectoral fins Male parental care
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Parental care After spawning, adullts return to deeper water No category
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Parental care Adults leave spawnig areas shortly after spawning No care
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Parental care Dispersal of adults from spawning areas begins shortly after spawning No care
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning substrate It is generally thought that subsrate is unimportant to shad since spawning occurs in the water column and eggs are carried dowstream by the current. Spawning was observed over sand, silt, muck, gravel and boulder substrates, also over sand or gravel. Ambiguous
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The preferred spawning substrate is a moderatly dense mat of flooded vegetation in shallow (5-60 cm deep), wind sheltered area. Although grasses, sedges and rushes with fine leaves make the best substrate for egg deposition, the type of vegetation does not appear to be critical providing the vegetative susbtrate is adequate to entrap eggs and suspend them above the susbtrate where anoxic conditions can develop. The type of bottom over which spawning occurs varies widely, but a soft, silt-filled area with decaying vegetation is common . The absence of inundated vegetation can inhibit or delayed spawning. Thus, the following characterisctics constitute suitable spawning sites for pike, presence of live or decaying vegetation, shallowness, no significant weter current and some protection from dominant winds. Phytophils
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Over clean sand, gravel or cobble/rubble substrates Ambiguous
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate In marine or estuarine habitats, spawning may occur in a variety of habitats including rock crevices, sheltered ellgrass bads, algal mats and sometimes over sand and silt near vegetation Ambiguous
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Areas containing dense aquatic vegetation Phytophils
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Preferred spawning susbrate appears to be gravel, cobble or boulder, but spawning may occasionally occur over sand [Mud botoms are generally avoided by both river and lake spawners] Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Mainly oversand/gravel/cobble substrate Ambiguous
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel-bottomed riffle sections of streams [In Newfoundland, lake-spawning has been reported to occur over a gravel substrate at depths of 1.51.3 m, Lake-spawning has also been observed along shorelines as well as near areas of moving water, usually outlet streams and near the mouths of inlet streams Ambiguous
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Over a variety of substrates ranging from fine sand and mud to rubble, however, gravel and cobble appear to be the most favoured spawning substrate [Lake-spawning has been observed from mud and gravel to boulders] Ambiguous
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel-bottomed [Preferred lake spawning substrate isgravel or a sand/gravel/small cobble mixture] Ambiguous
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning substrate The spawning substrate is usually composed of large gravel (>2 cm in diameter), cobble and rubble interspered with boulders and is generally free of sand, mud, detritus and vegetation. Ambiguous
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are released into open water Open water/substratum scatter
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Pike are broadcast spawners Open water/substratum scatter
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are broadcast into the water column well above the substrate Open water/substratum scatter
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The male constructs a nest of small twigs, algae or plant debris typically over a sandy or mud bottom Nest built by male
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Males construct a nest made of algae and other plants debris. Nest built by male
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are brodcast into the water column No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in the gravel nest or redd where they incubate over winter Susbtrate chooser
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Females dig a nest or redd in the loose gravel where the eggs incubate over winter Susbtrate chooser
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation During spawning, the female digs and cleans a shallow nest or redd in which the eggs are deposited Susbtrate chooser
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 13-20 16.5 °C
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 6 to 14°C 6.0 °C
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature >8°C 8.0 °C
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 1-3 2.0 °C
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawning activities extending over a three week period in October, with peak spawning occuring in mid-Ocotber No data
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning water type Spawn in rivers or brackish estuarine rivers, seldom if ever in lakes [River spawning usually takes place in moderate to strong flowing water, generally where there is sufficient velocity to eliminate silt deposits, and at the same time, far enough upstream for eggs to drift and hatch before reaching saltwater] Ambiguous
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning water type No significant weter current and some protection from dominant winds. Flowing or turbulent water
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning water type Both lakes and rivers Stagnant water
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Anadromous populations may spawn in brackish or freshwater [Spawning in freshwater has been observed in two distinct habitat types within lakes, open-water areas, or in association with aquatic vegetation Stagnant water
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning water type Although ninespine stickleback have a relatively high salinity tolerance, they have only been reported to spawn in freshwater No category
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Unlike many other species, flowing water is not required for spawning Flowing or turbulent water
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning water type Upwelling does not appear to be important for spawning of rainbow trout No category
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning water type Gravel-bottomed riffle sections of streams No category
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Most spawning takes place in streams [May spawn either in streams or lakes in Labrador] Stagnant water
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Streams and occasionally in lakes Stagnant water
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning water type Spawn in shallow inshore areas of lakes, rarely in streams [Spawning areas are often exposed to prevaling winds that wave action and water currents keep the area free of sand, silt and detritus] Ambiguous
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning depth Range from 0.2-12 m 6.1 m
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning depth Generally 5-60 cm [also in Shallow vegetated area <4 m deep] 32.5 m
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning depth In lakes, spawning occurs in areas with little accumulation of silt or detritus, usually at depths of 0.3-3.0 m, but has been reported at depths of 18-20 m 1.65 m
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Males generally avoid nesting in water shallower than 0.2 m and have been observed nesting at depths of up to 40 m 0.2 m
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning depth Shallow areas, yet spawning has been observed at depths of 5-40 m in some areas 22.5 m
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning depth Spawning in small lakes occurs most frequently at depths <5m, while it may occur uo to 30 m in larger lakes 5.0 m
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning depth 0.2-0.5 m 0.35 m
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning depth Almost exclusively on shallow, gravel bottomed streams, <1.5 m 1.5 m
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning depth In streams, spawning usually occurs at depths of 1.5-2 m with is sufficient to keep the eggs safe from winter ice, but has been reported at depths ranging from 1-11 m. Lake-spawning normally occurs adjacent to inlet streams at depths of 0.5-1.5 m, but has been observed at depths ranging from 2-6 m. [Depths ranging from 0.3 to 120 m] 1.75 m
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning depth In lakes, spawning has been observed at depths ranging from 0.1-8.0, but occurs most commonly at depth < 2 m 4.05 m
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning depth Spawn over a variety of depths rangin from 0.5-55m, or greater than 100 m. In larger lakes, psanwing typically occurs at depths between 5 and 10 m, while in smaller lakes spawning has been reported to occur at depths between 0.1-5 m 27.75 m
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg adhesiveness Nonadhesive Non-Adhesive
Esox lucius Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Gasterosteus aculeatus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs Adhesive
Alosa sapidissima Egg Incubation time 8-12 at 11-15°C 10.0 days
Lota lota Egg Incubation time Eggs incubate for 3-4 months 3.5 days
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Incubation time 4-6 months 5.0 days
Salvelinus namaycush Egg Incubation time Incubate for 4-5 months over winter 4.5 days
Lota lota Female Age at sexual maturity In Canada, burbot generally reach sexual maturity between 2-8 years of age [sex not specified] 5.0 years
Coregonus clupeaformis Female Age at sexual maturity In labrador, lake whitefish usually attain sexual maturiy in 5-11 years, although dwarf populations may mature as early as 2 years of age [Sex not specified] 8.0 years
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Female Age at sexual maturity Generally marure at 2-3 years of age [Sex not specified] 2.5 years
Salvelinus alpinus Female Age at sexual maturity Usually mature at 4-5 years of age [Sex not specified] 4.5 years
Salvelinus namaycush Female Age at sexual maturity In Labrador, lake trout usually attain sexual maturity in 6-11 years [Not specified] 8.5 years
Alosa sapidissima Egg Temperature for incubation 11-15°C 13.0 °C
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Temperature for incubation 1-8°C 4.5 °C
Salvelinus alpinus Egg Temperature for incubation 0-2 in natural conditions 1.0 °C
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Considered maily a sedentary species No data
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Although spawning generally takes place in freshwater close to the sea or in interdital zones, some pink salmon may sapwn in streams several kilometers upstream from slatwater No data
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Remained within 100 km of where they were originally released 100.0 km
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg Buoyancy Eggs are released into open water where they are carried along by currents, and being slightly heavier than water, gradually sink to the bottom Semi-Pelagic
Lota lota Egg Egg Buoyancy Eggs are semi-buoyant when first laid, but become demersal within a few days and settle into interstices into the substrate Ambiguous
Coregonus clupeaformis Egg Egg Buoyancy Settle in rocky crevices where they remain No category
Salvelinus namaycush Egg Egg Buoyancy Shortly after release, eggs settle to the bottomand lodge in crevices among rocks No category
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning migration period In eastern Canada, spawing runs of shad enter rivers between late April and late June, with few, if any, entering rivers before water temperatures reach at least 4°C ['April', 'June']
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Nothern pike migrate to spawning areas immediatly after the ice melts in spring ['April', 'May', 'June']
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Migrations of anadromous stickleback into freshwater usually occurs in late psring (June) ['June']
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning migration period In insular Newfoundland, there is considerable variation in the timing of the upstream spawning migration which extends from early May to early September, while in Labrador upstream migrations are usually restricted ti July and August ['August', 'May', 'July', 'September']
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Ocean migrations of Artic charr in Nothern Labrador are generally of short duration, usually lasting one to three months, in localized areas. Up stream migrations may extend into the last two weeks of September ['September']
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Upstream migrations have been observed as early as July in some Newfoundland rivers ['July']
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawning normally occurs in May and June, but may occur as late as July ['May', 'July', 'June']
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning season In Labrador, spawning normally takes place from mid-April to mid-May, shortly after ice-out ['April', 'May']
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawn under the ice, usually between January and March ['March', 'January']
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawning shortly occur after migration, in June [Resident freshwater populations spawn mainly in mid-Summer, during June and July] ['June', 'July']
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning season In most areas thoughout its range, spawning occurs in the summer in relatively shallow areas containing dense aquatic vegetation ['August', 'July', 'September']
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning season In Labrador, spawning usually takes place in lakes in mid-September or October ['October', 'September']
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning season Occurs in late August through October ['October', 'August']
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning season Unlike other salmonids in Newfoundland, rainbow trout spawn in the spring, usually from mid-April to mid-May, although lake-resident trout may spawn as early as late March in cetains areas of Newfoundland ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June']
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning season In Newfoundland, sea-run Atlantic salmon normally spawn between mid-October and mid-November and may occur two weeks earlier in Labrador [For freshwater resident, In newfoundland, spawning typically occurs late September and early November, whereas in Labrador spawning normally occurs between mid-September and October. ['October', 'November', 'September']
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawning normally occurs between mid-October and mid-November in Newfoundland, but occurs two weeks earlier in Labrador [Landlocked Arctic charr may spawn in streams or lakes from early Ocotber to mid-November] ['October', 'November']
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning season Normally occurs between late September and early November in Newfoundland ['November', 'September']
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning season On most areas of Canada, spawning occurs in late summer-early fall, mainly in September or October in Labrador. Several investigators have suggested that declining water temperatures and photoperiod coupled with stron on-shore winds are necessary factors triggering spawning ['October', 'August', 'July', 'September']
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Homing Return to its natal river to spawn Present
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Homing Although some adult return to their natal streams to spawn, the rate of straying amon pink salmon is believed to be much higher than in any other species of salmon Present
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Homing Return to their natal river to undergo spawning for the first time Present
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Homing Exhibited a high degree of homing to their natal rivers Present
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Larvae behaviour Larvae are planktonic and do not metamorphose into juveniles for 4-5 weeks Demersal
Esox lucius Larvae Larvae behaviour Larvae remain atatched to vegetation for 6 to 10 days Demersal
Lota lota Larvae Larvae behaviour Upon hatching larvae are pelagic Pelagic
Gasterosteus aculeatus Larvae Larvae behaviour Upon hatching, young leave the the spawning area but remain close to shore in shallow water Demersal
Pungitius pungitius Larvae Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larve move to the top of the nest where they remain relativelt inactive Demersal
Coregonus clupeaformis Larvae Larvae behaviour Young typically hatch from mid-May to mid-June and remain within the general vicinity of the spawning area Demersal
Salmo salar Larvae Larvae behaviour Alevins remain in the gravel for a few weeks until their yolk sac is absorbed Demersal
Salvelinus alpinus Larvae Larvae behaviour Upon hatching remain in the gravel until the yolk is absorbed Demersal
Salvelinus fontinalis Larvae Larvae behaviour Alevins remain in the nest until the yolk sac is absorbed Demersal
Salvelinus namaycush Larvae Larvae behaviour Upon hatching alevins remain near the bottom in spawning areas for several weeks to three months before moving to deeper water Demersal
Esox lucius Female Age at sexual maturity In Labrador, pike generally mature at 3-5 years [Sex not specified] 4.0 year
Lota lota Female Age at sexual maturity In Canada, burbot generally reach sexual maturity between 2-8 years of age [sex not specified] 5.0 year
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Not specified] 2.5 year
Coregonus clupeaformis Female Age at sexual maturity In labrador, lake whitefish usually attain sexual maturiy in 5-11 years, although dwarf populations may mature as early as 2 years of age [Sex not specified] 8.0 year
Salvelinus alpinus Female Age at sexual maturity Usually mature at 4-5 years of age [Sex not specified] 4.5 year
Salvelinus namaycush Female Age at sexual maturity In Labrador, lake trout usually attain sexual maturity in 6-11 years [Not specified] 8.5 year
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning release Eggs are deposited in clusters in the nest Fractional
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Parity May spawn up to 7 times and live to be 13 years No category
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Parity Have a maximum lifespan of about 2 and 1.5 years No category
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Parity Longevity of the river form was 1 year and some months, whereas the lake form lived for more than 2 years No category
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Parity After spawning, adullts return to deeper water Iteroparous
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Parity Although some adults return to sea immediatly after spawning, others may overwinter in freshwater or estuarine habitats and migrate to sea the following spring Iteroparous
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Parity Adults normally spawn every second or third year, but seldom every year except in southern part of its range No category
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Parity Adults leave spawnig areas shortly after spawning No category
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Parity Dispersal of adults from spawning areas begins shortly after spawning No category