Coregonus albula

  • Scientific name
  • Coregonus albula (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Vendace

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 84%
Total data167
References42
Image of Coregonus albula

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadhesive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 45 [9.9°C] to 183 [1.1°C] 45.0 days Luczynski and Kirklewska, 1984
5 Incubation time 100-120 110.0 days Maitland, 1977
5 Incubation time [November to early May] No data Karjalainen, 1991
5 Incubation time In natural conditions vary, from a mean of 64.7 days (range 58-71), mean of 80.4 (range 74-88), mean of 113.6 (range 108-121) 64.5 days Wilkonska, 1994
5 Incubation time Eggs from Lake Pyhäselkä, incubated in the laboratory at 2.3°C, reached 50% hatching after 182 days incubation, but the same group in the lake at a temperature of 2.1°C, reached 70% hatching after 174 days, eggs from Lake Orivesi, incubated in the laboratory, (at 2.4°C), reached 50% hatching after 169 days, but eggs in the lake (2°C) reached 74% hatching after 164 days. Overall incubation days to 50% hathcing ranged from 119-217 168.0 days Viljanen and Koho, 1991
7 Degree-days for incubation 400-500 450.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation About 500 [101 days at 4.9°C, optimal temperature] 500.0 °C * day Luczynski and Kirklewska, 1984
7 Degree-days for incubation 230-354 292.0 °C * day Zuromska, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 455 [Effective day-degrees] 455.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation The number of DD from fertilization to 50% hatching ranged from 203-547 depending on egg group and incubation temperature 375.0 °C * day Viljanen and Koho, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation "3-8 [Upper lethal incubation is 10°C, can be incubated successfully at 1°C (""cold breeding""), but such eggs have to be trasnfered to 5-10°C before hatching]" 5.5 °C Rösch, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation 4-7.2 5.6 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 4.9°C, with a range of 2.9-8.4°C [Highest survival was observed at 4.9°C, gradually decreasing at lower and higher temperature] 5.65 °C Luczynski and Kirklewska, 1984
6 Temperature for incubation 7 7.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 9.5-10 [Precocious hatching] and 1.5 [Delayed hatching] 9.75 °C Luczynski and Kolman, 1987
6 Temperature for incubation 1.2-3.3 [Temperature of incubation in natural conditions] 2.25 °C Zuromska, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation 4-8 6.0 °C Czerkies, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation 2-4 in natural conditions 3.0 °C Karjalainen, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at a constant temperature of 9°C 9.0 °C Luczynski, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at a constant temperature of 12°C 12.0 °C Dostatni and Luczynski, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation The optimum temperatures for successful incubation range between 4.0 to 7.2°C 4.0 °C Luczynski, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation Placed into incubation jars supplied with water of different constant temperatures from 0.7-4.1°C. When hatcing in the laboratory reached 10%, the incubation temperature in all jars was raised to 6°C 2.4 °C Viljanen and Koho, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were incubated in Petri dishes at 2-6°C 4.0 °C Kamler, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were incubated at 4°C until day 50, then temperature was gradually increased to 10°C (5°C until day 59, 6°C until day 79, 7°C until day 80, 8°C until day 99, 9°C until day 107) 4.0 °C Duis and Oberam, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.78 ± 0.10, n=186 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 1.78 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening Different means of diameter of water-hardened eggs range between 1.71 to 1.81 mm 1.71 mm Viljanen and Koho, 1991
2 Egg size after water-hardening Average diameter at pH 7.00 was 1.75 (based on Figure 1) 7.0 mm Duis and Oberam, 2000
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 2-3 [not specified] 2.5 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter Mean 1.63, range 1.47-1.80 [Unswollen] 1.635 mm Wilkonska, 1993
1 Oocyte diameter Means of diameter of non-swollen eggs ranged from 1.54 to 1.71 for 10 different populations and 2.29 for a population in lake Kajoonjärvi 1.54 mm Kamler, 1982

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 15-20 [Most suitable for growth and survival] 17.5 °C Rösch, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development 15-20 17.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
11 Temperature during larval development 15 15.0 °C Karjalainen and Viljanen, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development 9.5-10.5 10.0 °C Luczynski and Kolman, 1987
11 Temperature during larval development After hatching, when 50% of the fish has started to feed on exogeneous food, they were acclimated to 15°C 15.0 °C Luczynski, 1986
11 Temperature during larval development Different rearing temperature: 4.5, 6.0, 8.6, 10.4, 13.5, 15.9 and 19.0°C 4.5 °C Dostatni and Luczynski, 1991
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperatures from 15 to 20°C are recommended as the most suitable for sustained production of larval vendace. Temperatures higher than 22°C will caused increased mortality, whereas temperatures lower than 15°C, although advisable when food is limited, will retard larval growth and development 15.0 °C Luczynski, 1991
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 10°C 10.0 °C Jezierska, 1979
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Never observed Absent Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
13 Full yolk-sac resorption At 10°C, the mortality of starved larvae was greatest between the 10th and the 15 th day 10.0 °C * day Jezierska, 1979
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Gradual transition from yolk utilization to external feeding occured after 10 days at 13.7°C 10.0 °C * day Karjalainen, 1991
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Time from hatching to exogeneous feeding in vendace, larvae decreased from 8 to 2 days when the temperature increased from 4.5 to 19°C. In the vendace population the larvae start exogeneous (mixed feeding at a total length of 9.5 mm [Other studies: at a constant temperature of 10°C, 6 days after hatching, whereas at 9.4°C, it amounted to 4 days] 8.0 °C * day Dostatni and Luczynski, 1991
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The number of days between mass hatching and the commencement of external feeding by 50% of fish is: 4.0 days [4.0°C], 3.5 days [7.3°C], 3.5 [10°C], 3.0 [12.3°C], 2.5 [15.3°C], 2.5 [17.1°C], 2.5 [19.8°C], 2.0 [22.1°C] 50.0 °C * day Luczynski, 1991
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding At 10°C, the first exogenous feeding took place on about the 6th day, and all fish fed exogenously from the 8th-9th day after hathing 10.0 °C * day Jezierska, 1979
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Vendace incubated at pH 7.00 and 7.40 started to ingest paramecia several days after hatching and began feeding on Artemia a week later. The fish at pH 5.50 started to feed on paramecia with 7 days delay compared to the controls 7.0 °C * day Duis and Oberam, 2000
8 Initial larval size 8.61-9.16 [n= 5103] 8.885 mm Wilkonska, 1995
8 Initial larval size 8.5 8.5 mm Karjalainen, 1991
8 Initial larval size Total length means vary between 7.07 to 7.94 7.07 mm Viljanen and Koho, 1991
9 Larvae behaviour Immediatly after hatching vendace larvae accumulate in patches near the water surface, but true schools are not formed until somme weeks later Demersal Karjalainen, 1991

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value Mean is 23.39 ± 4.21 [November] 23.39 percent Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
24 Maximum GSI value 14.63-23.16% in Polish lakes [Up to 33.2%] 18.895 percent Czerniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value 19-27 [Autumn spawner] to 15-20 [Winter spawner] 23.0 percent Lahti, 1991
24 Maximum GSI value 26.5 [15 December], up to 29.92 [23 November] 26.5 percent Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 19.6, range 13.6-25.0 [In December for nominate form] and mean of 10.9, range 9.3-13.9 [In April/May, for deepwater form] 19.3 percent Anwand, 1998
24 Maximum GSI value Gonadosomatic index for 1+ vendace females vary between years from 19 to 29% 1.0 percent Sarval and Helminen, 1995
24 Maximum GSI value Means of GSI very between 24.1-29.5 between years 26.8 percent Sarvala, 1992
24 Maximum GSI value For example in vendace females occurring in brackish waters of the Gulf of Bothnia it fits 10-12%, whereas in neighbouring lakes Keitele and Pyhajarvi it is 23.9% and 19.3%, respectively. In Polish bodies of water the values of GSI are also very variable. In Lakes of West Pomerania (Bucerz, Krzemien, and Kalensko) te size of gonds constitued between 14.63 and 23.16% of the body weight of vendace. Even wider range was determined for Masurian Lakes Dargin, Dobskie, and Kisajno. The mean values of the gonadosomatic index of vendace from lakes of West Pomerania fitted into the above range, however, few specimens from lakes Pile and Pelcz showed low values of gonadosomatic index (GSI < 10%), whereas in a single vendace female from Morynskie Lake the value of the above parameter amounted to more than 30% of the fish body weight 11.0 percent Czeniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
25 Oogenesis duration 6-8 months [From July to December] 7.0 months Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
19 Relative fecundity 12-19 ??? 15.5 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 60-100 80.0 thousand eggs/kg Czerniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
19 Relative fecundity About 100 100.0 thousand eggs/kg Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
19 Relative fecundity 127-140 [Autum spawner] to 39-71 [Winter spawner] 133.5 thousand eggs/kg Lahti, 1991
19 Relative fecundity Relative fecundity of examined nominate form: mean 95600, and deepwater form, mean 84780 95600.0 thousand eggs/kg Anwand, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male] 3.0 years Czerniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Mixed] 2.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Both sex] 1.5 years Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
27 Age at sexual maturity Age 2 and 3 constitued 84% in females [Range 2-6] 4.0 years Wilkonska, 1993
27 Age at sexual maturity Spawners of both forms reached maturity at 2 [Both sex] 2.0 years Anwand, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity Depending on environmental conditions in lakes, females of this species are able to breed, most often, in their second year of life, whereas the males- in third. A number of researchers stated that in some cold bodies of water of north-eastern Europe of vendace mature as late as in the third year of their lives and in the case of Siberian vendace- at the age of 4+. In polish lakes, because of the thermal conditions of waters, the vendace is ready for reproduction as early as the age of 1+. It has been confirmed in the present study, carried out in lakes of Western Pomerania. On the spawning ground, however, dominate 3-year-old fish of much higher fecundity than that of 1+ vendace. 4.0 years Czeniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
26 Resting period 2.5-3 but up to 4-4.5 months in low temperature [January until May] 2.75 months Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
26 Resting period 2.5-3 months 2.75 months Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
26 Resting period About 2 months 2.0 months Witkowski, 1989
26 Resting period During the winter months, vendace remain in the regenerating and resting phaseses (maturation stages VI and II) for nominate form. For deepwater form, from May until July/August No data Anwand, 1998
22 Onset of oogenesis May-June ['May', 'June'] Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
22 Onset of oogenesis May-June to July, slight increase of GSI ['May', 'July', 'June'] Lahti and Muje, 1991
22 Onset of oogenesis Developped slowly from spring to the end of June (Maturation stage III: compressing and stretching phase) for the nominate form. For deepwater form, in summer and autumn, gonads mature very slowly, just passing maturation stages II and III while reaching maturation stage IV inly in december. ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'December', 'June', 'July', 'October', 'November'] Anwand, 1998
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity September-October ['October', 'September'] Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Gonadal development occurs mainly in summer ['August', 'July', 'September'] Lahti and Muje, 1991
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Beginning in the middle of the year gonads develop faster for nominate form. For deepwater form, full maturity (stage V) is reached in April/May only shortly before spawning. ['April', 'May'] Anwand, 1998
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity As in Poland, the main period for ovary formation of vendace in lake Pyhäjârvi is late summer and early autumn ['September', 'August', 'December', 'July', 'October', 'November'] Sarval and Helminen, 1995
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity In the vendace of northeastern Poland intense egg growth and yolk accumulation have found to begin in late June-early July, and to last till the spanwing period, i.e. till November ['November', 'June', 'July'] Wilkonska and Zuromska, 1988
20 Absolute fecundity 9-12 10.5 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 2.0-31.1 [Range of absolute fecundity in 17 lakes] 16.55 thousand eggs Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
20 Absolute fecundity From 2.61-4.12 [For lowest fecundity], to 7.21-16.85 [For highest fecundity] 3.365 thousand eggs Czerniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 1.7-5 3.35 thousand eggs Maitland, 1977
20 Absolute fecundity Range from 3.3 to 31.1 3.3 thousand eggs Wilkonska, 1992
20 Absolute fecundity Absolute fecundity of examined nominate form: mean 6290, range 3270-8540, and deepwater form, mean 1560, range 650-2480 5905.0 thousand eggs Anwand, 1998
20 Absolute fecundity Numerical fecundity adjusted for female size vary between years from 7731 to 12986 7731.0 thousand eggs Sarval and Helminen, 1995
20 Absolute fecundity Overall, mean fecundity was 10390 ±3890 10390.0 thousand eggs Sarvala, 1992
20 Absolute fecundity The values of absolute fecundity in vendace from different lakes of western Pomerania show substantial variability. Vendace of lakes Komorze and Drawsko show the highest absolute fecundity (7.21-16.85 103 and 6.9-22.23 103 of eggs), whereas the lowest fecundity can be attributed to vendace of Pelcz Lake (2.61-4.12* 103) 12.03 thousand eggs Czeniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
17 Weight at sexual maturity 40.3-263.5 g ! 151.9 kg Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
17 Weight at sexual maturity 30.0-64.0 g ! 47.0 kg Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
17 Weight at sexual maturity Weight of the female examined range from 34.6 to 263 g ! 34.6 kg Wilkonska, 1992
17 Weight at sexual maturity Mean 65.1, range 23-249 [Gutted wieght] 136.0 kg Wilkonska, 1993
17 Weight at sexual maturity Weight of examined nominate form: mean 65.8, range 44.0-85.0, and deepwater form, mean 18.4, 10.2-34.8 64.5 kg Anwand, 1998
17 Weight at sexual maturity Overall mean weight was 71.5±25.0 71.5 kg Sarvala, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity 15.3-26.5 [Female in two different populations] 20.9 cm Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
16 Length at sexual maturity 14.5-19.0 16.75 cm Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
16 Length at sexual maturity Length of the female examined range from 14.5 to 26.0 14.5 cm Wilkonska, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean 18.3, range 14.5-28.2 21.35 cm Wilkonska, 1993
16 Length at sexual maturity Length of examined nominate form: mean 20.8, range 18.5-22.5, and deepwater form, mean 14.2, 10.4-17.7 20.5 cm Anwand, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity Overall mean length was 20.9 ±2.3 20.9 cm Sarvala, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 1.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Sex specified] 1.5 year Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [For female, but the dominant age on spawing ground is 3] 1.5 year Czerniejewski and Filipiak, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Mixed] 2.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Both sex] 1.5 year Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [not specified] 2.5 year Maitland, 1977
15 Age at sexual maturity Age of the females examined ranged from 1 to 6 years 1.0 year Wilkonska, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity Age 2 and 3 constitued 83% in females [Range 2-6] 4.0 year Wilkonska, 1993
15 Age at sexual maturity Spawners of both forms reached maturity at 2 [Both sex] 2.0 year Anwand, 1998
15 Age at sexual maturity Age 1+ females form the major part of the spawning stock 1.0 year Sarval and Helminen, 1995
15 Age at sexual maturity The spawning stock consisted mainly of age 1+ fishes, and thier numbers varied little during the study period 1.0 year Sarvala, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity Depending on environmental conditions in lakes, females of this species are able to breed, most often, in their second year of life, whereas the males- in third. A number of researchers stated that in some cold bodies of water of north-eastern Europe of vendace mature as late as in the third year of their lives and in the case of Siberian vendace- at the age of 4+. In polish lakes, because of the thermal conditions of waters, the vendace is ready for reproduction as early as the age of 1+. It has been confirmed in the present study, carried out in lakes of Western Pomerania. On the spawning ground, however, dominate 3-year-old fish of much higher fecundity than that of 1+ vendace. 4.0 year Czeniejewski and Filipiak, 2002

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
31 Onset of spermatogenesis In June and July spermatogonial divisions were observed in the ampules of some gonads ['June', 'July'] Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Developped slowly from spring to the end of June (Maturation stage III: compressing and stretching phase) for the nominate form. For deepwater form, in summer and autumn, gonads mature very slowly, just passing maturation stages II and III while reaching maturation stage IV inly in december. ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'December', 'June', 'July', 'October', 'November'] Anwand, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value 2.35 [End of November], 4.08%[October] 2.35 percent Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 5.1, range 3.9-6.5 [In December for nominate form] and mean of 4.9, range 3.5-6.1 [In April/May, for deepwater form] 5.2 percent Anwand, 1998
32 Main spermatogenesis activity In October the spermiogenesis was more intensive, but could also occur in September ['October', 'September'] Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Beginning in the middle of the year gonads develop faster for nominate form. For deepwater form, full maturity (stage V) is reached in April/May only shortly before spawning. ['April', 'May'] Anwand, 1998
35 Resting period 0.13-0.7 % [From December until March] 0.415 months Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
35 Resting period During the winter months, vendace remain in the regenerating and resting phaseses (maturation stages VI and II) for nominate form. For deepwater form, from May until July/August No data Anwand, 1998
28 Length at sexual maturity 14.5-17 15.75 cm Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean 24.3, range 14.5-23 18.75 cm Wilkonska, 1993
29 Weight at sexual maturity 33.0-51.0 g ! 42.0 kg Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
29 Weight at sexual maturity Mean 232, range 26-142 [Gutted weight] 84.0 kg Wilkonska, 1993

Spawning conditions (80%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Parental care is absent in coregonids and lake char No care Willson, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Often stony or gravelly bottom which is most frequently covered with Dreissentia polymorpha, sometimes covered with vegetation Ambiguous Zuromska, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Over gravel or stones Lithophils Maitland, 1977
44 Spawning substrate Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Kamler, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Kamler, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 3.3-3.4 3.35 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Starts at 6.7-7.7 7.2 °C Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
41 Spawning temperature 0.4-8 is the full range, mainly 2-5 4.2 °C Zuromska, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 3-8 5.5 °C Kamler, 1996
41 Spawning temperature When the water temperature was about 4°C 4.0 °C Sarvala, 1992
40 Spawning period duration Several weeks No data Lahti and Muje, 1991
40 Spawning period duration The duration of spawning does not exceed 2-3 weeks, only seldom being longer 2.5 weeks Zuromska, 1982
42 Spawning water type Located at the either steep or gentle slopes of shore lines and islands, in the region of under-water wells or river mouths, and in rivers with strong current Ambiguous Zuromska, 1982
42 Spawning water type Spawning areas are mainly situated in the sublitoral zone. No category Anwand, 1998
43 Spawning depth 1.5-10 [Does not excced 10, except some very deep and big lakes] 5.75 m Zuromska, 1982
43 Spawning depth 0.2-0.3 m or more 0.25 m Maitland, 1977
37 Spawning migration period Ascend a short distance up the rivers in late August to mid-October ['October', 'August'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season October to December ['October', 'December'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season November-December ['November', 'December'] Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
39 Spawning season November-December [But described in February-March in some lakes in Finland] ['February', 'November', 'March', 'December'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Usually in autumn, at the end of October, but sometimes during the winter [December to April] ['April', 'March', 'January', 'December', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Kuopio, 1991
39 Spawning season Autumn No data Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
39 Spawning season October to December ['October', 'December'] Maitland, 1977
39 Spawning season Most whitefish spawn in fall No data Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season Late November to early December ['November', 'December'] Wilkonska, 1993
39 Spawning season December for nominate form and April/May for the deepwater form in Lake Stechlin ['April', 'December', 'May'] Anwand, 1998
39 Spawning season In 9 Finnish and Polish Lakes range between October/November/December except one population in lake Kajoonjârvi which is in Febr./March ['October', 'November', 'March', 'December'] Kamler, 1982
39 Spawning season Vendace spawn in Pyhäjärvi in early November ['November'] Sarvala, 1992
48 Spawning release Observations and histological analysis revealed that vendace in both lakes was a monocyclic spawner No category Demska-Zakes and Dlugosz, 1995
48 Spawning release Observations on the annual cycle of gonad development suggest that in lakes under study vendace lied eggs in one portion only Total Dlugosz and Worniallo, 1985
49 Parity Can live up to 10 years No category Maitland, 1977
49 Parity Four year ages sampled No category Sarvala, 1992