Rutilus rutilus

  • Scientific name
  • Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Roach

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 96%
Total data322
References69
Image of Rutilus rutilus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhere on plants Adhesive Diamond, 1985
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to the plants [Mucus of their enveloppes] Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Billard, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, fixed on plant or stone Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs firmly attached Non-Adhesive Keinänen, 2004
5 Incubation time 8-15 11.5 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 2-5 3.5 days Rinchard, 1996
5 Incubation time Vast majority hatch in one day but can occur after 6 days at a mean temperature of 15.7°C and after 12 days at 14.5°C 6.0 days Diamond, 1985
5 Incubation time 4-10 7.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time About 10 10.0 days Vollestad, 1987
5 Incubation time About 10-17 days at 10-14°C 13.5 days Bohlen, 1999b
5 Incubation time Eggs ware expected to hatch in approximatively 9 days at 18°C 9.0 days Kort, 2004
5 Incubation time Embryos hatched between 7 and 10 days post-fertilization 7.0 days Paull, 2008
7 Degree-days for incubation 150 150.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 130 130.0 °C * day Diamond, 1985
7 Degree-days for incubation About 160 160.0 °C * day Vollestad, 1987
7 Degree-days for incubation 67 [Effective day-degrees] 67.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation Number of DD until mass hatching for series A in 1965: 297 [At 7.8°C],238 [At 8.2°C],187.5 [At 12.5°C], 151.3 [At 16.1°C], 86 [At 20.0°C], in 1967: 210.3 [At 8.1°C], 145.2 [At 13.4°C], 103.9 [At 21.6°C], 94.6 [At 23.9°C] 297.0 °C * day Kokurewicz, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation 15-20 17.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 14-15 14.5 °C Diamond, 1985
6 Temperature for incubation 10-20 for embryonic development, 7.5-24 range in which normal development occurs, <7 for lower lehtal temperature and >26 for upper lethal temperature 15.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation 18°C 18.0 °C Kort, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperatures for embryonic development of roach eggs is between 12 and 24°C, while <8 and > 26°C all eggs will die 12.0 °C Lappalainen and Tarkan, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation Spawn incubated above 20°C rendered greater incidence of development abnormalities of larvae, as well as higher mortalities 20.0 °C Horoszewicz, 1971
6 Temperature for incubation Most numerous and healthy hatchings were obtained at temperatures ranging within 12 and 24°C 12.0 °C Kokurewicz, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation With lake water to maintain a natural temperature, which was 12-17°C (increasing during the experiment) 14.5 °C Keinänen, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation With recirculating water at 17.5°C 17.5 °C Jobling, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation Experimental studies have shown that a constant 9°C forms a critical temperature minimum for the development of roach embryos 9.0 °C Härmä, 2008
6 Temperature for incubation The water temperature was recorded hourly and controlled at 18°C and 20°C during embryogenesis and breeding, respectively […] The upper lethal temperature of embryonic development is approximately >26°C in the roach 18.0 °C Nzau Matondo, 2007
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.9-2.5 [not precised ?] 2.2 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.93-2.48 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 2.205 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mainly 1.4 [Drifting eggs] 1.4 mm Copp, 2002b
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1.27-1.33 1.3 mm Kuznetsov and Khalitov, 1978
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Rinchard, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 1.1-1.5 1.3 mm Le Houarn, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 0.62-1.09 [Vitellogenic egg], but vary between 1.0-2.1 for other areas in Europe but not specified 0.855 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.5 1.25 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 1.00-1.33 in three different populations, and 1.90-2.10 in three others [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 1.165 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4 [Not specified] 1.4 mm Copp, 2002b
1 Oocyte diameter 1.62 ± 0.3 and 1. 75 ± 0.4 [Mean high egg diameter] 1.62 mm Tarkan, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter The modes of egg size frequencies prior to spawning varied between 1.23 and 1.32 mm. The egg diameter in the prespawning period fluctuated between 0.97 and 1.67 (up to 1.85) in fish caught in 1980 and 1981, whereas in small fish caught in 1982 the variation covered 0.88 and 1.58 mm. In other studies, the average diameter of ova prior to spawning was: 1.1, 1.16, or 1.27 1.23 mm Libovarsky, 1985
1 Oocyte diameter The egg diameter, from ovary, varied from 0.9 to 1.45 mm in Gomishan roach compared to 0.95-1.3 mm in Anzali roach 1.125 mm Naddafi, 2005

Larvae (71%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 16°C [Reared conditions] 16.0 °C Mooij, 1989
11 Temperature during larval development 20 20.0 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 15-20°C 17.5 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Reared from 12 to 15°C, 18 and 23°C 12.0 °C Horoszewicz, 1971
11 Temperature during larval development During the roach tests (16-25 June) the water temperature was 15 ± 0.3°C (mean ± SE of daily measurements, range 13.5-15.7°C, increasing during the tests) 15.0 °C Keinänen, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development The water temperature was was recorded hourly and controlled at 18°C and 20°C during embryogenesis and breeding, respectively 18.0 °C Nzau Matondo, 2007
10 Reaction to light Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Starts swimming and feeding one to three days after hatching No data Hlnterleitner, 1989
8 Initial larval size 4.5-6.5 5.5 mm Rinchard, 1996
8 Initial larval size 5-5.5 5.25 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Fixed to the aquatic plants or stones by their adhesive gland Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Roach spawned in the middle of May, and on 24 May the yolk sac larvae were observed hanging on plants. Two days later almost all the roach larvae caught had gas in the swim bladder, although the majority still had some yolk left. Most of the orach larvae caught the next day had started feeding. By the last day of May, the mean length of roach larvae was 8.5 mm and the flecxion stage was just beginning with temperature between 12-14°C Demersal Urho, 1996

Female (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Tubercules cover both head, body sides and fins only in largest specimens Absent Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
24 Maximum GSI value 21 [Mid-May, prior to spawning] 21.0 percent Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
24 Maximum GSI value 21 [Not precised] 21.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value 14-16 [Just prior spawning in May] 15.0 percent Mann, 1973
24 Maximum GSI value Between 9.03 up to 16.67 increase with the age of female [7.35 for the smallest mature female] 9.03 percent Papageorgiou, 1979
24 Maximum GSI value About 11% in 2001 and 15% in 2002 [End of April] 11.0 percent Tarkan, 2006
24 Maximum GSI value No data Libovarsky, 1985
24 Maximum GSI value Mean 18%, up to 30% [In April, in Gomishan] and Mean of 15% up to 23% [In April for Anzali] 18.0 percent Naddafi, 2005
24 Maximum GSI value Peak at the end of May at 20-23% 21.5 percent Gillet and Quétin, 2006
25 Oogenesis duration 8-9 [From September until mid-May] 8.5 months Mann, 1973
25 Oogenesis duration From September until May No data Kopiejewska, 2003
19 Relative fecundity 123.5-167.8 145.65 thousand eggs/kg Kuznetsov and Khalitov, 1978
19 Relative fecundity 95-187 141.0 thousand eggs/kg Spivak, 1979
19 Relative fecundity 154-199 176.5 thousand eggs/kg Wilkonska, 1994
19 Relative fecundity 350 350.0 thousand eggs/kg Le Houarn, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 90-172 131.0 thousand eggs/kg Papageorgiou, 1979
19 Relative fecundity The relative number of eggs fluctuated between 241 (in 1982) and 291 (1981) eggs. The individual variability fluctuated within the range 170 to 354 eggs, the frequancy distribution was rather flat, the mode lying within the range 250 to 270 eggs 241.0 thousand eggs/kg Libovarsky, 1985
19 Relative fecundity Different means vary between 158.98 to 320.41 158.98 thousand eggs/kg Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Rinchard, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex specified] 3.5 years Mann, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 minimal age (with n=4543) 3.0 years Spivak, 1979
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Male] 2.5 years Le Houarn, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity First male spawned at age 2, all males older than 3 are mature 2.0 years Vollestad, 1987
27 Age at sexual maturity 1+ 1.0 years Papageorgiou, 1979
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Males] 3.0 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity The sizes at 50% maturity correponds to 3 years of age for both sexes of roach [Review from other populations: 3, 1, 2-3, 3-4, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2, 3, 2 and 4]] 2.5 years Tarkan, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity A proportion of the males matured at age 2+ 2.0 years Mackay and Mann, 1969
27 Age at sexual maturity Males roaches reach their sexual maturity at 2(3)-4(5) years age 2.0 years Noges and Järvet, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 years for females 2.5 years Paull, 2008
26 Resting period 3-4 (May-June-July-August) 3.5 months Rinchard, 1996
26 Resting period 3 [From June to September] 3.0 months Mann, 1973
26 Resting period 1.5-2 months, but could be shorted in heated reservoirs 1.75 months Witkowski, 1989
26 Resting period <2% (End of May until Mid-Augsut) 2.0 months Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
26 Resting period May to June, July and stops in August [From graph] No data Tarkan, 2006
26 Resting period After the spawning period, a quiescent period of gonad activity occurs during the summer because warm temperature (>20°C) and the long hours of daulight block the development of gonads until the end of August 20.0 months Gillet and Quétin, 2006
22 Onset of oogenesis Starts in september and October ['October'] Rinchard, 1996
22 Onset of oogenesis Starts in September and then increase regularly until May ['May', 'September'] Mann, 1973
22 Onset of oogenesis Vitellogenesis starts in September and proceeds up to spawning ['September'] Kopiejewska, 2003
22 Onset of oogenesis September-October, increase in GSI (Graph) ['October', 'September'] Tarkan, 2006
22 Onset of oogenesis Maturation of gonads is synchronous and complete in the previous autumn ['October', 'November', 'December'] Fredrich, 2003
22 Onset of oogenesis Developed quickly during the autumn, in September. Ovary development proceeded slowly during the winter, increased by 3 in the period from December to February [Roach belong to a group of temperate zone cyprinids that initiates gonad develoment while the temperature and photoperiod are decreasing in autumn. Ovarian development begins in early autum, and then vitellogenesis proceeds slowly throughout winter with the final maturation stages of oocytes and spawning occuring in spring or early winter] Could indicate that the lowest temperature at which roach ovary development occurs is close to 3°C ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'September', 'December', 'June', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Gillet and Quétin, 2006
22 Onset of oogenesis Eggs for next spring start to develop already in July ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Noges and Järvet, 2005
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Not a true main activity because there is a regular increase No data Mann, 1973
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Increase until 6 in January then a sharp increase from 6 to max value in February-March ['February', 'March', 'January'] Tarkan, 2006
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity The final stages of ovary development occurred rapidly in early spring. Ig increased by 5 in the period from the beginning of April to mid-May ['April', 'May', 'June'] Gillet and Quétin, 2006
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
21 Oocyte development Synchronous ovogenesis Synchronous Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Luksiene, 2000
21 Oocyte development Roach is a total spawner with synchronous oocyte development, i.e. roach contain only one stage of developing oocytes, and ovulation is synchronous for all vitellogenic oocytes No category Gillet and Quétin, 2006
21 Oocyte development Two categories of eggs could be recognized in active ovaries at all times up to the beginning of spawning Asynchronous Mackay and Mann, 1969
21 Oocyte development Développement groupe-synchrone des ovocytes Group-synchronous Beelen, 1998/1999
20 Absolute fecundity 20-100 60.0 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 12.4-23.7 18.05 thousand eggs Kuznetsov and Khalitov, 1978
20 Absolute fecundity 6.8-210 108.4 thousand eggs Spivak, 1979
20 Absolute fecundity 14.9-100.3 57.6 thousand eggs Wilkonska, 1994
20 Absolute fecundity 7-19 [log F = - 4.42 + 3.74 log FL, with FL is the fork length in mm], [Vary between 4-50 in different ears in Europe for a standard female of 170 mm in FL] 13.0 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 0.92-32.810, with a mean of 9.2 16.865 thousand eggs Papageorgiou, 1979
20 Absolute fecundity 7.937-16.262, in seven different populations, up to 49.354 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 12.0995 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 1-15 8.0 thousand eggs Environment agency, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity Varied from 7.829 to 95.387 eggs between ages 3 and 9 [Review from other populations: 7.829-95.387, 0.92-32.810, mean of 18.519,3.031-43.649, 2.2, 6.8-210, mean of 49.354, mean of 11.053, mean of 16.262, mean of 16.539, 4.251-11.180, mean of 9.506, 4.435-19.065, 3.4-272.8, 7.2-52.4, mean of 25.565, 1.98-13.59] 51.608 thousand eggs Tarkan, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity A roach female measuring 20 cm in standard length spawned some 67 thousand eggs. The individual variation in number of eggs fluctuated between 2.6 and 184.9 thousand. [Other studies: a range of 1.4 to 26 thousands eggs in roach 7 to 16 cm in length from the lower Danube, 1 to 24 thousand eggs in roach 8 to 17 cm in length, 36 to 67 thousand eggs in roach 13 to 25 cm in length from the Klicava reservoir, and 4 to 120 thousand eggs from the Kijevskije reservoir] 20.0 thousand eggs Libovarsky, 1985
20 Absolute fecundity The absolute fecundity for Caspain Sea roach has been recorded at the amazing range of 940-140000. In the present study, the ranges were 4262-98804 and 6035-32141 for Gomishan and anzali roach, respectively 70470.0 thousand eggs Naddafi, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity Estimated fecundity of a 6-year-old fish was 5157 with 95% confidence limits 4725 and 5631 [In other studies: The average figure for Thames roach is about 5000 or 6000 eggs per fish, caspian semi-migratory roach lay in the range 34,000-51,000, whereas in the following year it had fallen to 19000 to 41000. 25.5 thousand eggs Mackay and Mann, 1969
20 Absolute fecundity Mean of 14 816, range 2 615-70 897 35.0 thousand eggs Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
20 Absolute fecundity > 100 00 eggs per reproductive cycle 100.0 thousand eggs Cattanéo, 2001
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.175 minimal weight (n=3232) and mean=0.524 0.175 kg Spivak, 1979
17 Weight at sexual maturity 14.60 ± 0.61 g !! [Smallest mature female 11.7 g] 14.6 kg Papageorgiou, 1979
17 Weight at sexual maturity Weight of male sampled: 73.95 ± 51.65, range 11.15-467.20 g in Gomishan wetland and 96.41 ± 39.14, range 37.37-238.34 g in Anzali 73.95 kg Naddafi, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity 19.4 minimal size (n=3232) and mean=25.8 19.4 cm Spivak, 1979
16 Length at sexual maturity Between 10-12 cm for age 3, and 12-14 cm for age 4 [Female] 11.0 cm Vollestad, 1987
16 Length at sexual maturity 11-12 [Smallest mature female 10.6 cm long] 11.5 cm Papageorgiou, 1979
16 Length at sexual maturity 14.98 for LT50 [Review for other populations: 10.6 (TL), 8.1-9 (SL), 13.5-15.3 (SL), 10-11 (TL)] 8.55 cm Tarkan, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity In the lower Danube, the first mature females among two-year-old individuals of standard length 9 to 13 cm, also described as at the end of the second year of life the first mature individuals reached a length array of 135-153 mm, and 71-180 mm in the Batak reservoir 144.0 cm Libovarsky, 1985
16 Length at sexual maturity Length of female sampled: 184.65 ± 26.39, range 104-311 (most 176-180) in Gomishan wetland and 203.69 ± 23.61, range 153-271 (most 191-200) mm in Anzali 184.65 cm Naddafi, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 18.37, range 11.7-28.2 for females studied 19.95 cm Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
16 Length at sexual maturity Bigger than males 10-13 cm 11.5 cm Noges and Järvet, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity Females are often larger than males No data Kortet, 2004b
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 year Rinchard, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex specified] 3.5 year Mann, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 : minimal age (with n=3232) 3.5 year Spivak, 1979
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Female] 3.5 year Le Houarn, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Female] 3.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity The first females spawned at age 3, all females older than age 5 are mature 3.0 year Vollestad, 1987
15 Age at sexual maturity 2+ 2.0 year Papageorgiou, 1979
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 in height different populations from south to north [30-36 months, age at maturation] 3.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 [Females] 4.0 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity The sizes at 50% maturity correponds to 3 years of age for both sexes of roach [Review from other populations: 3, 2, 2-3, 3-4, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3,3,3,3, 2, 4.5, 2 and 5] 2.5 year Tarkan, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity The first sexually mature females were found to be aged 2 (age group III), the roach spawned after three winters of their life. [Other studies: 85% of roach females in age group II took part in spawning. Most authors however have shown that roach females spawned in age group III. Attainment of sexual maturity in age group IV for the first time was also reported, the age 3 to 4] 2.0 year Libovarsky, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity The youngest maturing females seen were age 3+ 3.0 year Mackay and Mann, 1969
15 Age at sexual maturity Female first time spawners are older, 3(4)-5(6) years 3.0 year Noges and Järvet, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity All female fish of 4 yr or older from both reference sites in the autumn were undergoing sexual maturation 4.0 year Jobling, 2002b
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 years for females 3.5 year Paull, 2008

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on head, snout, sides of the head, fins Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism Numerous nuptial tubercules on head, snout, sides of the head, fins Present Rinchard, 1996
30 Male sexual dimorphism Tubercules cover both head, body sides and fins Absent Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bears nuptial tubercles all over the body, and particularly on the anterior part Present Le Houarn, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism Have secondary sexual ornements, breeding tubercles, that are keratin-based epidermal nodules which are common in males of several fish taxa Absent Kort, 2004
30 Male sexual dimorphism All the males studied, including the ones with no breeding tubercles, were sexually mature and ready to spawn Absent Kortet, 2004b
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September until November [stops during winter] ['March', 'January', 'September', 'February', 'November'] Escaffre and Billard, 1976
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September-October and contiue to increase regularly ['October', 'September'] Mann, 1973
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September to October ['October', 'September'] Tarkan, 2006
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Gonads of the male in August ['August'] Noges and Järvet, 2005
33 Maximum GSI value 9 9.0 percent Suquet, 1994
33 Maximum GSI value 9 [March] 9.0 percent Escaffre and Billard, 1976
33 Maximum GSI value 8-9 [March] 8.5 percent Mann, 1973
33 Maximum GSI value 9.7-11.07, quite constant during the life of male 10.385 percent Papageorgiou, 1979
33 Maximum GSI value About 7.5% in 2001 and 8% in 2002 [April] 7.5 percent Tarkan, 2006
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 4.5, up to 7.5 and even 9% [In March, in Gomishan] and mean of 4, up to 7.5% [In March for Anzali] 4.5 percent Naddafi, 2005
32 Main spermatogenesis activity February ['February'] Escaffre and Billard, 1976
32 Main spermatogenesis activity February-Beginning of March ['February', 'March'] Mann, 1973
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Increase regularly from October to April, slight increase in February-March ['February', 'October', 'April', 'March'] Tarkan, 2006
35 Resting period About 1 [During June-August] 1.0 months Escaffre and Billard, 1976
35 Resting period About 1 [June, July until August] 1.0 months Mann, 1973
35 Resting period June, July and August No data Tarkan, 2006
34 Spermatogenesis duration 7 months [Duration between the beginning of spermatogonial multiplications and the appartion of spermatozoa] 7.0 months Escaffre and Billard, 1976
28 Length at sexual maturity 17.5 minimal length (n=4543) and mean=24 17.5 cm Spivak, 1979
28 Length at sexual maturity From 8-9 at age 2, to 10-11 for age 3, male 8.5 cm Vollestad, 1987
28 Length at sexual maturity Smallest mature male 7.4 cm long 7.4 cm Papageorgiou, 1979
28 Length at sexual maturity 12.26 for LT50 [Review from other populations: 7.4 (TL), 6.3-7.0 SL), 11-13.5 (SL) and 9-10 (SL)] 6.65 cm Tarkan, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Length of male sampled: 167.72 ± 33.58, range 91-237 (most 161-170) in Gomishan wetland and 202.65 ± 21.45, range 137-275 (most 201-210) mm in Anzali 167.72 cm Naddafi, 2005
28 Length at sexual maturity When they are 8-11 cm long 9.5 cm Noges and Järvet, 2005
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.098 minimal weight (n=4543) and mean=0.319 0.098 kg Spivak, 1979
29 Weight at sexual maturity Smallest mature male 3.78 g !! 3.78 kg Papageorgiou, 1979
29 Weight at sexual maturity Weight of male sampled: 53.11 ± 29.36, range 6.38-148.08 g in Gomishan wetland and 93.88 ± 31.56, range 24.21-245 g in Anzali 53.11 kg Naddafi, 2005

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Spawning usually take place when the female had one to six (generally two or three) males in close attendance swimming alonside or just behind her (more details in the article). No category Diamond, 1985
47 Mating system Intensive lek-like group-mating Promiscuity Kort, 2004
47 Mating system Spawning in several groups was observed in rare cases Promiscuity Noges and Järvet, 2005
47 Mating system Group spawners Promiscuity Jobling, 2002b
47 Mating system In large groups Promiscuity Kortet, 2004b
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Morning, most spawning took place before 1600 hours with infrequent spawning until 2100 hours Day Diamond, 1985
50 Parental care No, after spawning the shoal dispersed No category Diamond, 1985
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care Does not display parental care No category Kort, 2004
50 Parental care Roach show no parental care for their offspring No care Kortet, 2004b
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophyl: plants, roots, stones (sometimes concrete) Ambiguous Rinchard, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Above and around plants Phytophils Diamond, 1985
44 Spawning substrate Plants, roots, stones Ambiguous Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophyle No category Le Houarn, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Eggs adhere to sumerged plants, but other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent, 5-15 cm in diameter Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Dense weed, occasionally gravel Ambiguous Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate In lake Geneva, roach usually spawn on rocks Lithophils Gillet and Quétin, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Spawn over willow tree roots and long-leafed vegetation Phytophils Smith, 2004
44 Spawning substrate It spawns generally on vegetation, but it can spawn also on the remnants of vegetation, other debris or even in stones Ambiguous Lappalainen and Tarkan, 2007
44 Spawning substrate Spawns on stones and vegetation Ambiguous Kortet, 2004b
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Diamond, 1985
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Dos not display parental care No category Kort, 2004
41 Spawning temperature Above 15 15.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 12-15 13.5 °C Rinchard, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 14-17.2°C in the Lake and 16.2°C and 17.4°C in the canal 15.6 °C Diamond, 1985
41 Spawning temperature The threshold of water temperature is 14°C 14.0 °C Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 16-20°C 18.0 °C Dubois and Gillet, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 7.4-10.5 8.95 °C Vollestad, 1987
41 Spawning temperature Spawning after the water has reached 10°C 10.0 °C Papageorgiou, 1979
41 Spawning temperature 7-19 13.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 8-14 11.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature From early April (13°C) to late May (18°C) [review from other populations: 10, 8-10, 11-19, 12, 16-17.8, 14, 14, and 6-10] 9.0 °C Tarkan, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 14-16 15.0 °C Libovarsky, 1985
41 Spawning temperature 18-20, also described as 18-20, 16, 12, and 10 19.0 °C Gillet and Quétin, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 13-14 13.5 °C Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
41 Spawning temperature The onset of spawning is synchronized by photoperiod, and water temperature is important in regulating the intensity and duration of spawning. Spawning usually takes place in water temperature 8 and 17°C. Also found to spawner at a lower temperature (7.4°C) which coule be an adaptation to the colder climatein Norway. The onset temperature vary from differente sources from 7.8 to 18, mostly 10-14°C 12.0 °C Lappalainen and Tarkan, 2007
41 Spawning temperature The temperature ranged from 12 to 16°C was the longest prevailling one in natural roach spawning grounds in Uchinskoye reservoir near Moscow 12.0 °C Horoszewicz, 1971
41 Spawning temperature The temperature of water during spawning in seperate years amounted to 19.4 and 18.7°C 19.4 °C Kokurewicz, 1970
41 Spawning temperature Roach spawns most typically at temperatures between 8 and 19.4°C with extremes reaching to 5 and 22°C […] Spawned spontaneously in the laboratory when the temperature reached 18-20°C […] Spawning started in lakes when the median water temperature measured at four stations in large lakes reached 8.7°C. During roach spawning in rivers, the lake temperature was almost one degree lower [...] In lake Peipse roach starts to spawn at water temperature of 8-10°C, and mass spawning takes place at 10-13°C 19.0 °C Noges and Järvet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature In the laboratory, the fish were maintained at 11°C in single-sex groups in circular 1500 l tanks to keep their spawning stage stable prior to ehavioural tests […] The water temperature in the stream tank was kept between 18 and 20°C 11.0 °C Kortet, 2004b
40 Spawning period duration Short period, all individuals spawn together No data Spillmann, 1961
40 Spawning period duration Short period : about 1 week 1.0 weeks Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
40 Spawning period duration Few days No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
40 Spawning period duration Short No data Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
40 Spawning period duration Lasted 15-25 days 20.0 weeks Vollestad, 1987
40 Spawning period duration 1-2 [0.50-1.00 months, length of breeding season] 1.5 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 8-10 9.0 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration From 1 to 3 months [4 populations at 4 weeks, one at 8 weeks and two few days] 1.0 weeks Tarkan, 2006
40 Spawning period duration In 1980, spawing took place between May 12 and 19. All females taken fater May 19 were spent, two of them partially spent. In 1981, the spawning began round May 12. On May 14 and 19 no famles were caught retaining all egs, two were found partially spent 1980.0 weeks Libovarsky, 1985
40 Spawning period duration During the first half of the survey period, roach spawned at the end of may or at the beginning of June. The spawning period lasted c. 1 week. During the second half of the survey period, the roach spawning period occurred in mid-May 1.0 weeks Gillet and Quétin, 2006
40 Spawning period duration Short spawning period No data Mackay and Mann, 1969
40 Spawning period duration Within a few days the bulk of spawning roach returned downstream No data Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
40 Spawning period duration Duration vary according to different sources from 1 day to 60, mostly 3-15 days 9.0 weeks Lappalainen and Tarkan, 2007
40 Spawning period duration Median values (upper and lower quartiles in parenthesis) => 5 (3-9) in lakes and 3 (2-5) in rivers […] Our analysis revealed a rather short period spawning duration (median 5 days) at a particular spawning ground, but obviously bue to the large spatial variability of conditions in the whole basin, the spawning period is extended to several weeks 6.0 weeks Noges and Järvet, 2005
40 Spawning period duration Takes place in the spring over 1 or 2 days 1.0 weeks Jobling, 2002b
42 Spawning water type Canal Stagnant water Diamond, 1985
42 Spawning water type Rivers, small tributaries of lakes Stagnant water Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
42 Spawning water type Stream near a lake Stagnant water Vollestad, 1987
42 Spawning water type Current velocity: >20 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
42 Spawning water type In lake Geneva, along the embankments Stagnant water Gillet and Quétin, 2006
42 Spawning water type Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
42 Spawning water type Littoral waters, bays, creeks and small ponds, which are warm in spring Stagnant water Kortet, 2004b
42 Spawning water type Shallow, sheltered, and vegetated shores are important as spawning and larval areas for roach in lakes Stagnant water Härmä, 2008
43 Spawning depth Near the surface No data Diamond, 1985
43 Spawning depth Near the surface of the water No data Gillet and Quétin, 2006
43 Spawning depth In relatively shallow waters No data Kortet, 2004b
36 Spawning migration distance Limited home range, spawning migrations No data Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Roach migrate towards deeper water (25-35 m) in winter when water temperature is constant through the water column in deep lakes. Roach migrate towards warmer waters near the surface when a temperature gradient begins to appear again in the spring 30.0 km Gillet and Quétin, 2006
37 Spawning migration period The first migrations of roach to the backwaters started in mid-January and peaked from early February until late April. In mid-May, the daily migrations into the backwaters decreased considerably whereas no fish were caught after then end of June. ['April', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'February'] Kestemont, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Adult roach migration was maximal by the end of April ['April'] Molls, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Upstream migration of mature roach strated in early May with medium or falling watr level (3-6°C). Main stream migration lasted about 5-7 days ['May'] Vollestad, 1987
37 Spawning migration period Early March, the roach started moving to the spawning ground which occur during the first half of April ['April', 'March'] Papageorgiou, 1979
37 Spawning migration period The roach strated migrations also very early in the spring, the first migration waves occurred in the first half of April. The main spawing runs of ripe individuals strated on the turn of April and May when the water temperature in the river continuously increased and reached 13-14°C. Prespawning pahse of the main cyprinid species. approximatively 10 april until 1 may. Phase after finishcing of asp spawning (all females spent)., but before the main spawning run of cyrpinids. The males of roach, bleak, bream and chub, may be active and releasing milt, but the females do not release eggs. Perch spawnig starts in this period. ['April', 'May', 'June'] Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
37 Spawning migration period The upstream migration of roach started in a small river in Norway at water temperatures of 6-10°C, and in the Malse River (Czech Republic) at 13-14°C No data Noges and Järvet, 2005
37 Spawning migration period The fish were caught during the spawning migration (spring 2007) in the Volga Reach of Rybinsk Reservoir ['April', 'May', 'June'] Talikina, 2008
37 Spawning migration period During the upstream migration (March-June), mature roach, silver bream and common bream females were collected from natural populations in a fish pass at the Lixhe dam (Belgian River Meuse, 50°45', 5°40'E) ['March', 'June'] Nzau Matondo, 2007
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season Last week of April, first week of May ['April', 'May'] Rinchard, 1996
39 Spawning season Start at May, 25 until May, 27 when the shoal dispersed, in the lake the roach spawned for at least 4 days, and one year later they spawned intermittently over a period of 19 days ['May'] Diamond, 1985
39 Spawning season April until June ['April', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season Latter half of May ['May'] Mann, 1973
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Le Houarn, 2001
39 Spawning season May ['May'] Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
39 Spawning season April-May, sometimes June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Started in Mid-May until Mid-June ['May', 'June'] Vollestad, 1987
39 Spawning season May ['May'] Kopiejewska, 2003
39 Spawning season First half of April ['April'] Papageorgiou, 1979
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season April to early July ['April', 'July'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season The spawning occurs in early April to late May ['April', 'May'] Tarkan, 2006
39 Spawning season Perch spawned between 16 and 24 May (peak 17-19 May) near the shoreline on branches. Roach spawned at the same time as or a few days earlier than perch ['May'] Urho, 1996
39 Spawning season Late winter or early spring ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'February'] Fredrich, 2003
39 Spawning season In mid-May [Other authors descibed it in: last from May 11 to 22 in the Klicava reservoir, in southern Poland spawning occurred from the 3rd decade of April till the 1st decade of June] ['April', 'May', 'June'] Libovarsky, 1985
39 Spawning season Spawn in May or June, depending on the water temperature in Lake Geneva ['May', 'June'] Gillet and Quétin, 2006
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Cattanéo, 2001
39 Spawning season The spawning of roach occured in Lake Konnevesibetween 1 and 4 June ['June'] Kort, 2004
39 Spawning season Roach stared to spawn on average aound 30 April (day no. 120) in rivers and around 5 May in lakes within the Narva River Basin. One half of all measurement fell into a range of 16 days between 26 April and 11 May […] In lake Peipsi roach starts to spawn at the end of April. Spawning ends during the second half of May ['April', 'May'] Noges and Järvet, 2005
39 Spawning season In the Trent, roach hatched between the end of April (2003) and the beginning of June (2002), but usually in the third and fourth weeks of May ['April', 'May', 'June'] Nunn, 2007
39 Spawning season One to coincide with the annual spawning (spring sampling: Aire, n = 44, 18 May 1998, Nene, n = 70, 22 May, 1998, refrence 3, n = 51, 19 May 1998) ['April', 'May', 'June'] Jobling, 2002b
39 Spawning season Spawning in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Kortet, 2004b
39 Spawning season In the Baltic Sea, roach spawn in early May after the ice breakup ['May'] Härmä, 2008
38 Homing Fish tend to return on their spawning site Present Rinchard, 1996
38 Homing "Roach have ""fixed spawning grounds"", which they use annualy" Present Diamond, 1985
38 Homing Show a certain degree of homing Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
38 Homing Return with 90.2% precision to their home tributary for subsequent spawnings Present Vollestad, 1987
38 Homing Tendendy to return to the same spawning ground (reproductive homing) Present Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Single No category Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
48 Spawning release Once, no evidence of further spawning No category Diamond, 1985
48 Spawning release Spawn only once No category Molls, 1999
48 Spawning release Single spawner Total Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Spawns only one batch of eggs per season Mutliple Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
48 Spawning release Spawn a single time per spawning season No category Kopiejewska, 2003
48 Spawning release Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release Synchronous type of spawning has been reported No category Tarkan, 2006
48 Spawning release One single spawning Total Luksiene, 2000
48 Spawning release Spawn once a year Total Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Sheld all their eggs in one batch Mutliple Mackay and Mann, 1969
48 Spawning release Only one spawning of roach occurred each year No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
48 Spawning release One batch Mutliple Cattanéo, 2001
48 Spawning release R. rutilus spawned only once, the embryos hatching around May 23rd No category Rheinberger, 1987
48 Spawning release Shed a single batch of eggs in a well-defined spawning period Mutliple Nunn, 2007
48 Spawning release Single event No category Jobling, 2002b
48 Spawning release Pondeur unique No category Beelen, 1998/1999
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Diamond, 1985
49 Parity Iteroparous, oldest male was 13 and oldest female 17 years Iteroparous Vollestad, 1987
49 Parity Iteroparous cyprinid Iteroparous Kort, 2004