Sander lucioperca

  • Scientific name
  • Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Zander or pikeperch

  • Family
  • Percidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 96%
Total data339
References48
Image of Sander lucioperca

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Agglutinative and are attached on the ground or plant roots] Adhesive Lappaleinen, 2003
4 Egg adhesiveness Mostly attached to plants Non-Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Craig, 2000
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Sticky [At the end of the incubation the stickiness decreases] Adhesive Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
4 Egg adhesiveness Highly sticky Adhesive Lehtonen, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick rapidly to the substrate Adhesive Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness The adhesive chorion that occurs in these fish species allows the eggs to attach to various substrate types Adhesive Demsla-Zakes, 2005
5 Incubation time 6-10 8.0 days Hovarth, 1992
5 Incubation time 10-16 13.0 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 12 [10°C], 3-4 [20°C] 3.5 days Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
5 Incubation time Depending on the temperature, the larval development takes 5-9 days 7.0 days Lehtonen, 1996
5 Incubation time 7 days at 15°C 7.0 days Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
7 Degree-days for incubation 110-120 115.0 °C * day Hovarth, 1992
7 Degree-days for incubation Mass hatching at 137.5 [6.3°C], 213 [8.2°C], 193 [12.6°C], 149.8 [16.2°C], 70.1 [21°C] 137.5 °C * day Kokurewicz, 1969
7 Degree-days for incubation 70-110 90.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation About 120-150 [i.e. 10-16 days at 12-15°C] 135.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
7 Degree-days for incubation 100-110 105.0 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-110 [At a temperature of 15°C] 95.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 100-110 105.0 °C * day Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 70-120 95.0 °C * day Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-70 DD for the first and last 3-6 days at 14°C 65.0 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
7 Degree-days for incubation Hatching usually occurs at 100-110 DD (at 14-15°C) but can occur earlier (65-90 DD) with a low viability if the eggs are small (diamer: 0.8-1 mm) 105.0 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation About 80 80.0 °C * day Szkudlarek and Zakes, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation 12-16 is the optimum [At 20, the number of normal hatched larvae decreased, Incubation temperature must stay below 20°C to avoid deformities] 14.0 °C Lappaleinen, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation 12-16 [Optimum temperature] 14.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Possible between 6.3-21.0 13.65 °C Kokurewicz, 1969
6 Temperature for incubation 12-15 13.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
6 Temperature for incubation 15°C [Recommended temperature of 15°C] 15.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation 12-24 18.0 °C Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 12-18 is optimal [10°C result in serious losses, and above 26°C develop abnormally] 15.0 °C Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
6 Temperature for incubation 14-16 15.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
6 Temperature for incubation 14 14.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
6 Temperature for incubation Incubation temperature must stay below 20°C to avoid deformities 20.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation The eggs were incubated in Weiss jars at 17 +/- 1.0°C until hatching 17.0 °C Szkudlarek and Zakes, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation At 18.5 ± 1°C 18.5 °C Wang, 2009
6 Temperature for incubation The mean, daily water temperature during incubation ranged from 16.0 to 16.6°C 16.0 °C Demsla-Zakes, 2005
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.0-1.5 1.25 mm Hovarth, 1992
2 Egg size after water-hardening The eggs swell after fertilization due to uptake of water No data Craig, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.8-1.67 [Swollen] 1.235 mm Lappaleinen, 2003
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.28-1.5 [After eggs have been deposited, they absorb water, resulting in an increase of approximatively 30 percent] 1.39 mm Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.02-1.67 [After fertilization] 1.345 mm Lehtonen, 1996
2 Egg size after water-hardening About 1-1.5 [Egg fertilized] 1.25 mm Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.8-1, also described at 1-1.5 0.9 mm Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.8-1.5 [Swollen] 1.15 mm Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
2 Egg size after water-hardening In the 2003 spawning, the diameter of the most swollen pikeperch eggs ranged from 1.33 to 1.44 mm 1.385 mm Demsla-Zakes, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Craig, 2000
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Lehtonen, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.5 [Not specfied] 1.25 mm Craig, 2000
1 Oocyte diameter 0.6-0.8 [Dry] 0.7 mm Hovarth, 1992
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 [Not specified] 1.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 0.7-0.85 [Unswollen eggs] 0.775 mm Lappaleinen, 2003
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.5 [Not specfied] 1.25 mm Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Mean 0.88, range 0.68-1.04 [Ovocyte diameter] 0.86 mm Poulet, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 0.85 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 0.85 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 0.8-1.5 [Not specified, but seems unswollen] 1.15 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 0.7-0.85 [Before fertilization] 0.775 mm Lehtonen, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 0.8 [Mature oocyte] 0.8 mm Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Temperatures lower than 10°C are lethal to the larvae 10.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum temperatures are in the range of 16-20°C. Growth is rather poor at 16-18°C and best between 26-30°C 18.0 °C Hilge and Steffens, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development 14-23 optimum T 18.5 °C Craig, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development 22-26 24.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development 13.1 13.1 °C Fishbase, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development The optimal temperature for larval growth is 24-29°C, but in the Baltic sea such temperatures are seldom reached and the development occurs usually between 15-25°C. However, it was also suggested that larvae with the best coefficient favour temperatures between 12-16°C 26.5 °C Lehtonen, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 14°C 14.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
11 Temperature during larval development The larvae were reared at constant water temperature of 20°C, until the 30th post hatching 20.0 °C Ostasweska, 2005
10 Reaction to light Phototropic Photopositive Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
10 Reaction to light Positively phototactic Photopositive Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
10 Reaction to light Although there is a short stage of positive phototropism in fry, older pike-perch generally prefer dim light Photopositive Hilge and Steffens, 1996
10 Reaction to light The hatched larvae are highly phototropic Photopositive Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism seems to be apply only to Central and Eastern European regions, not to Western Europe Present Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism In rearing conditions, cannibalism has been observed with individuals 2 to 4 cm long. In natural conditions, the cannibalism is maximal with individuals 1.1-2.0 cm long Present Chodorowski, 1975
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism could be a big problem Present Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism This includes the onset of cannbalism due to the size differences bewteen indifviduals of this species. Bi-modality of size frequency distributions is a well-known phenomenon in this species. An earlier start of cannibaslim was observed in pike-perch of smaller size (less than 30 mm) fed in laboratory experiments using artifical diets, however cannibalism ceases at aout 5 cm body length (1.2 g). Present Hilge and Steffens, 1996
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism The first cannibalistic attacks were observed at 4-6th day after rearing Present Mamcarz, 1997
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Larvae are cannibalistic on their siblings [Cannibalism by adults also takes place when larvae are > 18 mm] Present Craig, 2000
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Mortality at all densities was mainly caused by cannibalism II type behaviour (27-35% of total). The first signs of cannibalism were observed in larvae measuring 15 mm in total length, and it increased after the larvae had exceeded 20 mm, consequently, it occurred primarily during the period when they fed exclusively on artificial feed Present Szkudlarek and Zakes, 2007
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 100-110 at 14-15°C 105.0 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Their yolk-sacs are totally used after 10-12 days at a length of 6.5-9 mm 11.0 °C * day Lehtonen, 1996
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 100 100.0 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Nearly resorbed after 4-5 days after hatching at 14°C 4.5 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The end of endogenous feeding of pike-perch larvae reared at 20°C took place at the same time as macroscopic yolk resorption, on the 6 day post hatching. The remaing traces of yolk nutrients visible under the microscope were absorbed until the 17 day of life 20.0 °C * day Ostasweska, 2005
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding At the age of 2-5 days the larvae start exogeneous feeding 3.5 °C * day Lehtonen, 1996
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 3 days after hatching at 15°C 3.0 °C * day Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The period of endogeneous feeding of the pike-perch lasted until the 6th day post hatching, mixed endo-exogenous feeding occurred from the 6th to the 12th day, and from the 17th day on the fish were exclusively fed exogenous feeding 6.0 °C * day Ostasweska, 2005
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 4-18 dph, corresponding to the period extending from the beginning of exogenous feeding to the end of swim bladder inflation. Feedinf started in the final stages of the absorption of the yolk sac (about 4 days post hatching). Feeding with Artemia nauplii started 1 day later 11.0 °C * day Szkudlarek and Zakes, 2007
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5.0 4.75 mm Hovarth, 1992
8 Initial larval size 3.5 3.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5.5 but some at 7.0 (?) 5.0 mm Lappaleinen, 2003
8 Initial larval size Either 4.1-4.8 or 3.9-4.5 4.45 mm Lehtonen, 1996
8 Initial larval size 3-3.5 3.25 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.0-5.0 4.5 mm Craig, 2000
8 Initial larval size 6.0 6.0 mm Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
8 Initial larval size 3.5-5.5 4.5 mm Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
8 Initial larval size 3.5 3.5 mm Fishbase, 2006
8 Initial larval size 4-5 4.5 mm Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
8 Initial larval size 4.6 4.6 mm Balon, 1977
8 Initial larval size 4.0-5.0 4.5 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 4.2-5.2 4.7 mm Kokurewicz, 1969
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5.5 5.0 mm Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
8 Initial larval size Total body length of newly hatched larvae was 5.04 +/- 0.05 mm 5.04 mm Ostasweska, 2005
8 Initial larval size The standard length of first feeding pikeperch larvae in ponds was 6.1 mm, on average 6.1 mm Peterka, 2003
8 Initial larval size Larval weight and length at hatching ranged between 0.34 and 0.40 mg, and 5.03 and 5.17 mm 0.34 mm Wang, 2009
9 Larvae behaviour Active Demersal Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae leave the nest immediatly after hatching Demersal Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
9 Larvae behaviour Immediate dispersion after hatching Demersal Urho, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour The larvae live during the first two weeks post hatching near the bottom and then change their habitat from the benthic to the pelagic Demersal Lehtonen, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae alternate between pelagic and benthic phases Pelagic Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
9 Larvae behaviour Show alternate phases of upward swimming to the water surface and passive falling to the tank bottom Demersal Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996

Female (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism During the spawning season, female display a white belly compared to male Present Spillmann, 1961
18 Female sexual dimorphism The genital papilla protrudes more strongly in the female than in mal Present Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
24 Maximum GSI value Can reach 22 for rearing individuals, but only 7 when conditions are bad 22.0 percent Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
24 Maximum GSI value Can reach 22 [Before spawning] 22.0 percent Lappaleinen, 2003
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 9, but up to 21.6 [March] 9.0 percent Poulet, 2004
25 Oogenesis duration The gonald recrusdescence starts much later in pikeperch then in walleye and vitellogenesis is also completed later on No data Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
19 Relative fecundity 150-200 175.0 thousand eggs/kg Hovarth, 1992
19 Relative fecundity From 48 to 467 [Extreme values], average values are 150-400 275.0 thousand eggs/kg Lappaleinen, 2003
19 Relative fecundity 200 200.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity About 200 200.0 thousand eggs/kg Spillmann, 1961
19 Relative fecundity 200 200.0 thousand eggs/kg Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 150-260 [Generally slightly over 200] 205.0 thousand eggs/kg Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
19 Relative fecundity Mean 255.412 ±16.710 255.412 thousand eggs/kg Poulet, 2004
19 Relative fecundity 185-235 210.0 thousand eggs/kg Demska-Zakes and Zakes, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 160-260 210.0 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 135-200 167.5 thousand eggs/kg Environment agency, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 200 200.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
19 Relative fecundity In Szczecin Lagoon: the raltive fecundity estimated for the length class varied from 152 eggs at 39 cm to 643 eggs at 67 cm. In vistual lagoon: the relative fecundity estimated for the smallest length class studied, 42 cm, was 207 eggs, while for the longest class, 84 cm, is was 377 eggs. In Curonian Lagoon, the lowest value 138 eggs was found in the ovary of a 58 cm female, the higesht 449 was noted for a 49 cm female 152.0 thousand eggs/kg Kosior and wandzel, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 200 200.0 thousand eggs/kg Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 years Horvath, 1992
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Sex specified] 2.0 years Raikova-Petrova and Zivkov, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 3.0 years Lappaleinen, 2003
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex not specified, rarely 2] 3.5 years Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Both sex] 3.5 years Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [50% of mature males] 1.0 years Poulet, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 for both sex in France, but in other countries 3-6 1.5 years Goubier, 1977
27 Age at sexual maturity Mature at the end of the first or second year No data Zivkov and Petrova, 1993
27 Age at sexual maturity Attain sexual maturity in the Baltic Sea between 2-5 years of age, the bulk of individuals at the age of 3-4 years. In general, male smature one year earlier and with a smaller body size than females. Due to lower growth rate, pikeperch mature generally later in the northern Baltic (4-5 years of age) 3.5 years Lehtonen, 1996
26 Resting period From May-June the post-spawning season and from June to September the resting period No data Poulet, 2004
22 Onset of oogenesis From September to December, pre-maturation of gonads ['December', 'September'] Poulet, 2004
22 Onset of oogenesis In the Northern hemisphere, gametogenesis is initiated in August-September when both temperature and photoperiod are decreasing. Gametes are synthesized during autumn, winter and spring ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'December', 'June', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Wang, 2009
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Ovary growth takes place during the coolest season when the body growth ceases No data Lappaleinen, 2003
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Based on GSI graph, increases regularly between September to March, slight increase in March ['March', 'September'] Poulet, 2004
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Synchronous oocyte growth Synchronous Lappaleinen, 2003
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 100-300 200.0 thousand eggs Hovarth, 1992
20 Absolute fecundity Up to 1000 1000.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 200-300 but up to 2500 250.0 thousand eggs Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
20 Absolute fecundity 60-682.5 371.25 thousand eggs Demska-Zakes and Zakes, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 260 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 260.0 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Mostly vary from 200-600 for females 450-600 mm long, based on a graph 400.0 thousand eggs Zivkov and Petrova, 1993
20 Absolute fecundity Fecundity of a 45 cm females range from 125 to 260 000, overall range for females 37-86 cm long: 31-2957000 61.5 thousand eggs Lehtonen, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity In the Szczecin: the absolute fecundity varied from 73.7 thousand to 2024.1 thousand eggs. The fecunidty of 45 cm long was estimated at 12.8-234.9. In the Vistula Lagoon, the estimated fecundity of the smallest female (42 cm) was 111.1 thousand eggs, and that of the longest female (84 cm) was 1582 thousand eggs. The fecundity of females from the 45 cm length class ranged from 189.1 to 227, 204.8 was the average. In the Curonian lagoon, the lowest fecundity was noted in a female 48 cm long at only 214.6 thousand eggs, while a female 81 cm long had 1164.5 thousand eggs 123.85 thousand eggs Kosior and wandzel, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 400000 for two females of 1.5 and 1.7 kg, and only 216000 for a female of 2 kg 400000.0 thousand eggs Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.73-3.0 1.865 kg Hovarth, 1992
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.230-0.275 [Smallest weight, sex specified] 0.2525 kg Raikova-Petrova and Zivkov, 1998
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.270-0.870 0.57 kg Lappaleinen, 2003
17 Weight at sexual maturity Smallest mature female are 23 23.0 kg Zivkov and Petrova, 1993
16 Length at sexual maturity 30-40 35.0 cm Hovarth, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity For females, maturity is reached at a longer size than males. Up to 33 cm, all the females are immatures. Beyond 42 cm, all females are mature. Between thse two sizes, the percentage of mature fish is egal to 60% [In other countries about 40 cm] 33.0 cm Goubier, 1977
16 Length at sexual maturity 27.8-29.7 [Smallest size, sex specified] 28.75 cm Raikova-Petrova and Zivkov, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity About 40 but 23 in Tunisia 40.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 28-36 32.0 cm Lappaleinen, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 40 [Female] 40.0 cm Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 42-44 [Female] 43.0 cm Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
16 Length at sexual maturity About half mature at 32.2, and 100% at 42.0 32.2 cm Poulet, 2004
16 Length at sexual maturity Smallest mature female are 27.8 27.8 cm Zivkov and Petrova, 1993
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 year Hovarth, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 for both sex in France, but in other countries 3-6 1.5 year Goubier, 1977
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 year Raikova-Petrova and Zivkov, 1998
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 in France but 1 in Tunisia 4.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-6 [Sex specified] 4.5 year Lappaleinen, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Sex not specified, rarely 2] 3.5 year Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Both sex] 3.5 year Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
15 Age at sexual maturity 3+ [Female mature] 3.0 year Poulet, 2004
15 Age at sexual maturity 3.5 [42 months, age at maturation] 3.5 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity Mature at the end of the first or second year No data Zivkov and Petrova, 1993
15 Age at sexual maturity Attain sexual maturity in the Baltic Sea between 2-5 years of age, the bulk of individuals at the age of 3-4 years. In general, male smature one year earlier and with a smaller body size than females. Due to lower growth rate, pikeperch mature generally later in the northern Baltic (4-5 years of age) 3.5 year Lehtonen, 1996

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism According to Hungarian aquaculturists sexually mature pike-perch can be sexed on the basis of external features, males have a darker abdomen than the females, and females show a white rounded belly, a broader head, and a higher back than males. In our experiments in early spring, these criteria proved to be unreliable Present Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
31 Onset of spermatogenesis In the Northern hemisphere, gametogenesis is initiated in August-September when both temperature and photoperiod are decreasing. Gametes are synthesized during autumn, winter and spring ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'December', 'June', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Wang, 2009
33 Maximum GSI value 1% 1.0 percent Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
28 Length at sexual maturity 25-30 27.5 cm Horvath, 1992
28 Length at sexual maturity Male reach maturity at about 30 cm [In other countries 35 cm] 30.0 cm Goubier, 1977
28 Length at sexual maturity 35 35.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 28-39 33.5 cm Lappaleinen, 2003
28 Length at sexual maturity 21.3-29.0 [Smallest size, sex specified] 25.15 cm Raikova-Petrova and Zivkov, 1998
28 Length at sexual maturity 35 [Male] 35.0 cm Olivier and Schlumberger, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 35 [Male] 35.0 cm Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
28 Length at sexual maturity 50% of mature male at 24.6 and 100% at 30.0 50.0 cm Poulet, 2004
28 Length at sexual maturity The smallest mature male are 21.3 21.3 cm Zivkov and Petrova, 1993
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.5-2 1.25 kg Horvath, 1992
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.255-0.610 0.4325 kg Lappaleinen, 2003
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.110-0.270 [Smallest weight, sex specified] 0.19 kg Raikova-Petrova and Zivkov, 1998
29 Weight at sexual maturity The smallest mature male are 110 g 110.0 kg Zivkov and Petrova, 1993

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Female and male are monogamous as the female lays all eggs simultaneously No category Craig, 2000
47 Mating system Monogamous, by pair [The actual spawning lasts only 30-40 min, of which 20-25 min is considered courtship and during the last 10-15 min female lay eggs] Monogamy Lappaleinen, 2003
47 Mating system By pair, eggs and sperm are broadcasted over a circular pit constructed by the male, may be monogamous Monogamy Ah-King, 2004
47 Mating system By pair Monogamy Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Dawn Dawn Craig, 2000
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During night or early in the morning Ambiguous Lappaleinen, 2003
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Most spawning occurs in the early morning hours Day Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Pikeperch begin their spawing activities before the sunrise No category Lehtonen, 1996
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning takes place at night Night Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
50 Parental care Male stays to protect the eggs and young fry Male parental care Craig, 2000
50 Parental care Males guards the eggs anf fans clean water over them. After spawning, the male chases the female away from the nest, and are very agreesive and attacks if thretened Male parental care Lappaleinen, 2003
50 Parental care The spawning is guarded No category Spillmann, 1961
50 Parental care Males guards the eggs Male parental care Billard, 1997
50 Parental care Guarders No category Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Male protects the eggs, which takes up a great deal of his time during the spawning season Male parental care Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
50 Parental care A long period of protection by one sex (> 1 month) or brief care by both sexes Biparental care Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care Males guard eggs Male parental care Environment agency, 1996
50 Parental care Male guards and fans the eggs Male parental care Ah-King, 2004
50 Parental care Soon after spawning, pikeperch females leave the spawning grounds while male guards the nest until their hatch Male parental care Lehtonen, 1996
50 Parental care The male stays to aerate by fin movements and protects the spawn and young fry Male parental care Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Sand or stones Ambiguous Craig, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Clear ground of coarse gravel or pebbles with short plants, also with trees and submerged plants Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Sandy or gravel bottoms, but rarely on submerged plants Ambiguous Lappaleinen, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Preferably roots, but can be sand, gravel or stones, from which ther males removes the silt to built its nest Ambiguous Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Sand or gravel Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Gravel and sand Ambiguous Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Over gravel [Eggs are found attached to emergent vegetation or stones and gravel] Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Spawn preferably on a sandy or stony bottom. The eggs are deposited upon plant roots Ambiguous Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
44 Spawning substrate Nest at base of weed beds Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Plants Phytophils Laurent, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Sandy grounds. However females can lay their eggs also on stones, roots of waterplants and other hard substrates. Also on dead zebra mussel Ambiguous Lehtonen, 1996
44 Spawning substrate The sole substratum that can be used for spawning in the Futhermorte Canal are roots and other woody debris No category Poulet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Females usually attach their egg stands to physical supports (plants, branches, etc …) Phytophils Dubois, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Males build nests, exposes plants roots on which the eggs are later deposited and where they stick Susbtrate chooser Craig, 2000
45 Spawning site preparation In the spawning ground, males build nests by cleaning it from mud. The nest has a dimaeter of 0.5 m and depth of a depth of 5-10 cm [Sometimes nest contains plant roots and other plant material] No category Lappaleinen, 2003
45 Spawning site preparation Male build a rudimentary nest and keeps it clean Nest built by male Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Nesters Nest built by both parents Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Male builts the nest Nest built by male Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Nest No category Environment agency, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Nest spawner No category Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Nest No category Ah-King, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation The males built nests of 0.5 m in diameter, at a depth of 5-10 cm No category Lehtonen, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Spawning takes place in a nest that is previously prepared by the male No category Poulet, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation He guards the nest and attracts one female, after a 'mating dance' No category Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Shortly after spawning, each nest was transported in plastic bags No category Wang, 2009
41 Spawning temperature 10-12 11.0 °C Hovarth, 1992
41 Spawning temperature Possible at 8°C but normally 12°C 8.0 °C Craig, 2000
41 Spawning temperature Most at 8-16°C [But could start at 3-4°C and last until 24°C] 12.0 °C Lappaleinen, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 14-16 but as low as 11 in nothern region 15.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature About 15 15.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 14-16 15.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
41 Spawning temperature 8-10 [Nothern part], to 10-14 [Southern part] 9.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
41 Spawning temperature About 11°C 11.0 °C Billard, 1997
41 Spawning temperature Around 11 11.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Begins in most waters at 12°C [Sometines at 8-9] 8.5 °C Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
41 Spawning temperature 8-22 15.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 12-14 13.0 °C Poulet, 2004
41 Spawning temperature 6-12 9.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 8-12 10.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 12°C 12.0 °C Laurent, 1973
41 Spawning temperature Starts either at 10°C, or in other areas only at 12-14°C 13.0 °C Lehtonen, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Vary according to the area studied between 4-5, to 14-15 4.5 °C Raikova-Petrova and Zivkov, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 14-15 14.5 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
41 Spawning temperature When water temperature reaches 10-14°C depending on latitude 12.0 °C Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Generally when temperature reaches 14-15°C 14.5 °C Wang, 2009
40 Spawning period duration 3-4 [i.e. 20-27 days] 3.5 weeks Craig, 2000
40 Spawning period duration 2-6 with a mean of 26 days [Males arrive first at the spawning grounds and are followed by females] 4.0 weeks Lappaleinen, 2003
40 Spawning period duration Over a period of 2-3 weeks 2.5 weeks Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
40 Spawning period duration 2 [i.e. May 9-21, and April 29 to May 6] 15.0 weeks Demska-Zakes and Zakes, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 2 [0.50 months, length of breeding season] 2.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 4-6 5.0 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration Over a period of 3 weeks 3.0 weeks Schlumberger and Proteau, 1993
42 Spawning water type Shallow inlets and bays, bays sheltered by islands, river outlets No category Lappaleinen, 2003
42 Spawning water type Slow-flowing current : < 1.5 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Water velocities of 0.1-0.2 m.s-1 Flowing or turbulent water Craig, 2000
42 Spawning water type Water with current: 1.40-1.50 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Billard, 1997
42 Spawning water type Moving water, in a current of 1.4-1.5 m/sec Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Water with current 0.1-0.2 m/s Flowing or turbulent water Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
42 Spawning water type Occur mainly in sheltered archipelagoes and bays, with turbid waters. On contrats to lakes, where spawning takes place in the shallows of open lakes, Baltic pikeperch spawn entirely in estuaries, inlets and shallow bays. Stagnant water Lehtonen, 1996
42 Spawning water type In March, pikeperch were located in the parts of the canal where the bank vegetation was dominated by bushes. In April and May, pikeperch occured in shallow parts with trees (ot high vegetation) or without vegetation but with woody debris. During June and early July, they were frequently found in deeper parts in tributaries with bank vegetation of grass and reed Stagnant water Poulet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Fish spawning out of the tributary area: carp, pikeperch, catfish Silurus glanis and eel No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
43 Spawning depth Most at 1-3 m, but sometimes at 8 m 2.0 m Lappaleinen, 2003
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters : 2-2.5 m 2.25 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth 0.5-1.0 but in lakes 0.5-17 0.75 m Craig, 2000
43 Spawning depth Quite deep No data Spillmann, 1961
43 Spawning depth Quite deep water No data Billard, 1997
43 Spawning depth 0.5-1.0 m [But in still waters up to 11-17 m ] 0.75 m Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
43 Spawning depth 1.10, up to 6 m 1.1 m Laurent, 1973
43 Spawning depth The depths of spawning grounds range between 0.7-2.5 m or 1-3 m 1.6 m Lehtonen, 1996
43 Spawning depth Spawns in depth from 1 to 5-6 m in rivers and up to 17 m in lakes 5.5 m Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Dubois, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Distances in spawning migrations are relatively short, less than 35 km (but sometimes 250 km in brackish waters) 35.0 km Lappaleinen, 2003
36 Spawning migration distance May migrate several tens of kms to find an appropriate spawning ground No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Limited home range around 1 km 1.0 km Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance The distance between wintering and spawning areas is usually less than 30 km but may in some cases be even > 200 km 30.0 km Lehtonen, 1996
37 Spawning migration period Begin 1 month prior to the actual spawning No data Lappaleinen, 2003
37 Spawning migration period Between April, soon after ice breakup at a water of about 4°C, and the beginning of June [The potential migrations could last 2 months] ['April', 'June'] Saulamo, 2005
37 Spawning migration period When the temperature rises above 2.8°C in spring, they commence upstream migration ['April', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
37 Spawning migration period Leave their winter shelters from the main channel of danube for entering into the spawning areas when water temperature is about 4-6°C ['February', 'March', 'January'] Ciolac, 2004
37 Spawning migration period In autumn, pikeperch seek deeper waters where they stay over winter. Spawning migrations to the the sheltered bays start in March or April ['April', 'March', 'January', 'December', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Lehtonen, 1996
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Hovarth, 1992
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season February until July, usually in April and May ['February', 'April', 'May', 'July'] Craig, 2000
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Schlumberger and Proteau, 1991
39 Spawning season From April to mid-summer ['April', 'August', 'July', 'September'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
39 Spawning season April-May [March to August] ['April', 'August', 'March', 'May'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Generally in April-May, with its extremes late in February and early in July ['February', 'April', 'May', 'July'] Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Poulet, 2004
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Demska-Zakes and Zakes, 2002
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season Mid-March to April ['April', 'March'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Laurent, 1973
39 Spawning season Generally takes place in late April-early May in the Southern Baltic Sea and in late May-June in the Nothern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland ['April', 'May', 'June'] Lehtonen, 1996
39 Spawning season Pike perch in the Batak Dam usually spawn from the end of March until the end of April, at water temperatures between 4°C and 6°C. Spawning begins earlier in the cooling reservoir (end of February to the end of March) at water temperatures between 6°c and 12°C ['February', 'April', 'March'] Raikova-Petrova and Zivkov, 1998
39 Spawning season March is the peak spawning period ['March'] Poulet, 2005
39 Spawning season Spring No data Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
39 Spawning season End of April - Beginning of June ['April', 'June'] Dubois, 1996
39 Spawning season Spawning season starts in April-May ['April', 'May'] Wang, 2009
38 Homing Homing of pikeperch to a certain spawning area is well developped based on tagging experiment Present Lappaleinen, 2003
38 Homing Some return to natal spawning have been described Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
38 Homing Tend to return to the same spawning place next year Present Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
48 Spawning release Total spawner Total Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Annual spawning Total Lappaleinen, 2003
48 Spawning release Once a year Total Craig, 2000
48 Spawning release One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Lays all the eggs simultaneously, monogamous [Female can participate in reproduction only once per season, the same applies for male] No category Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
48 Spawning release Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release Partly a portion spawner No category Lehtonen, 1996
48 Spawning release Female lays all the eggs simultaneously No category Schlumberger and Proteau, 1996
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Craig, 2000
49 Parity She can participate in reproduction only once per season [Spawn only once a year] No category Deeler and Willemsen, 1964
49 Parity The spawner survival rate in both years was similar, 98 and 99%, respectively No category Demska-Zakes and Zakes, 2002
49 Parity After spawning, the pikeperch from the Szcecin and Curonian lagoons migrate to the bays and coastal waters of the Baltic Sea to feed No category Kosior and wandzel, 2001