Leucaspius delineatus

  • Scientific name
  • Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel, 1843)

  • Common name
  • Belica

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 70%
Total data119
References20
Image of Leucaspius delineatus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Sticky Adhesive Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Gozlan, 2003
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhere to other eggs in the strip, highly adhesive chorion Adhesive Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Mucopolysaccharides contained in the ovarian fluid harden in water, adhering the eggs to the substraum Adhesive Bonislawska, 1999
5 Incubation time 10 10.0 days Billard, 1997
5 Incubation time 5-6 [22-24°C], 6-7 [21°C] 5.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 3-3.5 [At 24.7°C], also described as 6-7 days [At 21-22°C], and 4 [At 25-26°C] 3.25 days Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
5 Incubation time 5 days at 20°C, also described as 4 days in 20°C, also described as 5-6 days in 22-23.6°C 5.5 days Bonislawska, 1999
7 Degree-days for incubation 110-145 127.5 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 100-130 115.0 °C * day Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
7 Degree-days for incubation 75.5-80.7 78.1 °C * day Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation 99.2-101 100.1 °C * day Bonislawska, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation About 100 at 20°C 100.0 °C * day Bonislawska, 1999
7 Degree-days for incubation 110-145 127.5 °C * day Agence de l'eau,
6 Temperature for incubation 22-24 23.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation From activation to hatching, water temperature ranged between 22.8 and 26.5°C 22.8 °C Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation Mean water temperature in the laboratory was 20°C (daily variations ±1°C) 20.0 °C Bonislawska, 1999
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.3-1.4 [After swelling] 1.35 mm Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.1-1.3 [After swelling] 1.2 mm Bonislawska and Winnicki, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.25 ± 0.04, n=100 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 1.25 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.14-1.31 [Egg swollen] 1.225 mm Bonislawska, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean of 1.26 [Swollen egg] 1.26 mm Bonislawska, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
1 Oocyte diameter 0.5-1.5 1.0 mm Coad, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.4 1.2 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4 1.4 mm Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.4 [Not specified] 1.2 mm Agence de l'eau,

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development After hatching free-embryos and larvae in the aquarium were subsjected to temperatures ranging between 15.1 and 27.5°C, with mean daily temperatures ranging between 16.9 and 26°C (mean 21.6°C). 15.1 °C Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20°C 20.0 °C Bonislawska, 1999
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism With the onset of spawning period, adults may turn on feeding on their own eggs and larvae Absent Pipoyan, 1996
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Throughout the spawing season, filial and hetero-cannibaslim was observed in all groups of individuals except parasitic males. Cannibalism in males guarding the nest site containing eggs was rare Present Gozlan, 2003
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 90-100 DD: By day 8, only a small portion of yolk reserves remained to be absorbed (less than 75.5-80.7 hours for incubation) at 21.6°C 95.0 °C * day Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Contents of small yolk sac were very quickly resorbed: 1-2 days at 20°C 1.5 °C * day Bonislawska, 1999
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Onset of exogeneous feeding for the first embryo 88 hours at 21.6°C] .i.e. 3-16 hours after hatching 9.5 °C * day Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
8 Initial larval size 4-4.5 4.25 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size Mean 5.11, range 4.83-5.27 5.05 mm Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
8 Initial larval size TL = 6.1, for eleuterembryo in developental stage A, just hatched (6 days 5 hours from the beginning of development) 6.1 mm Penaz, 1971
8 Initial larval size Slim larva, carrying a small yolk sac, was 4.25 mm long on the average (the smallest one 4.1 mm, the longest 4.4 mm) 4.25 mm Bonislawska, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Pelagic, highly active near the surface Pelagic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Newly-emerged larvae swim actively Demersal Mann, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour The earliest embryos to hatch were onyl able to perform sudden bursts of activity and appeared to be able to swim a few centimetres from the bottom before sinking again. Those embryos that hatched lated, however, were able to perform more sustained swimming that were soon able to swim to the surface Demersal Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
9 Larvae behaviour A specific prolongation of embryonic development within the membane seems to be a fairly unusual development phenomenon, as a result the hatching larvae is capable of an independent life in water [Others described as: hatched larvae had no cement glands and were so advanced in develoment that were able to commence active life and form soals under the water surface as soon as they left the egg membranes while also described as that sun bleak larvae, as of other cyprinids, first attached themselves to the substraum, and sawm upward, to the surface, to fill the air bladder, only after having resorbed the yolk sac] Demersal Bonislawska, 1999

Female (58%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females have a unique fold of skin in the shape of two, large rounded papilla around the genital opening Present Coad, 2005
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females have three small bulges near anus Absent Bonislawska, 1999
24 Maximum GSI value Mean about 13%, up to 16% [In May] 13.0 percent Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
19 Relative fecundity Relative fecundity is very high from 300 thousand to 900 thousand egg per Kg 300.0 thousand eggs/kg Bonislawska, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Male] 1.0 years Le Louarn, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity Sexual maturity is attained at the age of two years (both males and females) No data Bonislawska, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Sex not specified] 1.0 years Agence de l'eau,
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
21 Oocyte development Three kind of ovocytes during the spanwing season No category Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
20 Absolute fecundity 0.4-3.5 1.95 thousand eggs Coad, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 0.6-2.3 1.45 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity Low ranging from 700 to 2100 eggs 700.0 thousand eggs Bonislawska, 1999
20 Absolute fecundity 100-200 (600) eggs per female 150.0 thousand eggs Agence de l'eau,
16 Length at sexual maturity 5.4 5.4 cm Gozlan, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Female] 1.0 year Le Louarn, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity Sexual maturity is attained at the age of two years (both males and females) No data Bonislawska, 1999

Male (44%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Prominent nuptial tubercles on the dorsal head surface, snout, on the lower jaw in three pairs on the upper jaw in two pairs for a total of about 60 tubercules. The genital opening is depressed Present Coad, 2005
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercles on male at maturity Present Billard, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Reproducing males have white spawing tubercles characteristic of many male cyprinids in spawning condition Absent Bonislawska, 1999
28 Length at sexual maturity 4.5-5.5 [Territorial male] 5.0 cm Gozlan, 2003

Spawning conditions (73%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system An individual male guard a nest, and females visit the nest No category Gozlan, 2003
50 Parental care Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male who covers them with a bacteriostatic thermal mucus No category Coad, 2005
50 Parental care Eggs are guarded by the male Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Eggs are guarded by the male during the time of incubation (about 10 days) Male parental care Billard, 1997
50 Parental care Eggs are protected No category Le Louarn, 2001
50 Parental care "Male guard and ventilate the ""nest"" until hatching " Male parental care Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
50 Parental care Male guards a nest, chases and attcaks any untruders (bittig and head-butting) Male parental care Gozlan, 2003
50 Parental care The egg guarding behaviour of the males No category Gozlan, 2003b
50 Parental care Sun bleak are egg guarder, as soon as he eggs are fertilized, the male starts to fan and guard them eagerly No category Bonislawska, 1999
50 Parental care Male aerate the eggs No category Agence de l'eau,
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil: in plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Around aquatic plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Around plants or on any flat surface Phytophils Coad, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Large leafs, around stems, and floatings objects No category Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils: eggs are laid in thin ribbons on plat leaves and stems Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Submerged plants, roots and sunken objects Phytophils Bonislawska, 1999
44 Spawning substrate On plants Phytophils Agence de l'eau,
45 Spawning site preparation Rudimentary nest No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Females may also lay their eggs in a disc-shaped patch on any flat surface Susbtrate chooser Coad, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Kind of a nest No category Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
45 Spawning site preparation Male guards a single nest site, once a nest site is obtained, the male either encircled or remained a fixed position at the nest site, at times cleaning the nest surface with his mouth No category Gozlan, 2003
45 Spawning site preparation Substratum choosers No category Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Spawn on any smooth objects such as branches, floating leaves, plastic debris, even bottom of boats. No category Gozlan, 2003b
45 Spawning site preparation Females deposits their eggs in a ribbon No category Bonislawska, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 18 is the miminum temperature required for reproduction 18.0 °C Coad, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 15-24 19.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 15-20 17.5 °C Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
41 Spawning temperature 16.0-20.4 18.2 °C Gozlan, 2003
41 Spawning temperature Commnenced spawning at water temperature fo 15°C 15.0 °C Bonislawska, 1999
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 4.5 weeks Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
40 Spawning period duration Few weeks No data Coad, 2005
40 Spawning period duration 8 [From May, 17 to July, 16] 8.0 weeks Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
40 Spawning period duration Commences in May, depedning on thermal conditions, and last until August No data Bonislawska, 1999
42 Spawning water type Sunbleak typically lay their eggs on marginal macrophytes that generally grouw out of anoxic silt No category Pinder and Gozlan, 2004
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April-May and July-August ['April', 'August', 'May', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season March to September ['March', 'September'] Coad, 2005
39 Spawning season Mid-May to Mid-July ['May', 'July'] Le Louarn, 2001
39 Spawning season June to August ['August', 'June'] Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
39 Spawning season Commences in May, depedning on thermal conditions, and last until August ['August', 'May'] Bonislawska, 1999
39 Spawning season May to July ['May', 'July'] Agence de l'eau,
48 Spawning release Several spawnings occur over a few weeks Mutliple Coad, 2005
48 Spawning release Mutiple spawner No category Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Fractional asynchronous Fractional Cassou and Le Louarn, 1991
48 Spawning release Fractionnal spawner : 3 spawns or five generations of ovocytes released by batch of 20-30 Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Spawing is asynhcronous and fractional: the spawning consists of ribbon of 8-10 cm Fractional Le Louarn, 2001
48 Spawning release Female release a strip of up to 80 eggs No category Gozlan, 2003
48 Spawning release Batch spawner Mutliple Gozlan, 2003b
48 Spawning release Typical multiple spawners Mutliple Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Egg are laid in batches, so spawners spawn every few or every several days. Also observed that each female laid 3-5 batches of eggs Mutliple Bonislawska, 1999
48 Spawning release Fractional spawning with 3 to 5 generations of oocytes Fractional Agence de l'eau,
48 Spawning release Batch spawning cyprinid Mutliple Pinder, 2005
49 Parity Life span is about 4-6 years with growth fairly continuous over this period No category Coad, 2005
49 Parity Live up to 2-3 (5) years No category Agence de l'eau,