Rhodeus sericeus

  • Scientific name
  • Rhodeus sericeus (Pallas, 1776)

  • Common name
  • Amur bitterling

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 64%
Total data81
References16
Image of Rhodeus sericeus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (71%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
5 Incubation time 1.5 1.5 days Smith, 2004
5 Incubation time 14-21 [To leave the mussel ?] 17.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 20 20.0 °C Aldridge, 1999
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.59 ± 0.04 x 1.74 ± 0.07 [n = 63] 2.59 mm Aldridge, 1999
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.3-2.6 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 1.95 mm Bonislawska, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Dense, sinking quickly in freshwater Semi-Pelagic Smith, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 2.4-3.1 [Not specified] 2.75 mm Smith, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 2.6 [Larger diameter, the other is 1.7] 2.6 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.5 to 2.5-3.0 1.25 mm Oliver and Carrel, 2001

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 20 20.0 °C Aldridge, 1999
10 Reaction to light Negatively phototaxic Photophobic Smith, 2004
10 Reaction to light Photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Mussels incubate the eggs for 2-4 weeks, until the yolk is absorbed when the young bitterling swim out the exhalant siphon of the living mussel] 3.0 °C * day Mills and Reynolds, 2002
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 560 [28 days at 20°C] 560.0 °C * day Aldridge, 1999
8 Initial larval size 3.3 3.3 mm Smith, 2004
8 Initial larval size 3.3 [Pigmented eye only at 7.9] 3.3 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 3.3 3.3 mm Aldridge, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the mussel Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Positively rheotaxic, remains in the mussel Demersal Smith, 2004

Female (50%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Long ovipositors that they use to place their eggs onto the gills of a mussel trough the mussel'sexhalant siphon Absent Smith, 2004
18 Female sexual dimorphism Female develops a conduit ovipository by which it deposits its ovules between the gills of the bivalve Absent Fishbase, 2006
18 Female sexual dimorphism Females use their long ovipositors to force eggs throught the exhalant siphon into the gills of the museel host Absent Mills and Reynolds, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value 7-10 8.5 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex] 1.0 years Smith, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Sex not precised] 1.0 years Oliver and Carrel, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Unsexed] 2.5 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex] 1.0 years Rosecchi, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex for amarus] 1.0 years Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 0.08-0.250 are the typical breeding season fecundity 0.165 thousand eggs Smith, 2004
20 Absolute fecundity 0.095-0.480 0.2875 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 3-3.5 3.25 cm Smith, 2004
16 Length at sexual maturity 3-3.5 3.25 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex] 1.0 year Smith, 2004
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 1.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Sex not precised] 1.0 year Oliver and Carrel, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Unsexed] 2.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex] 1.0 year Rosecchi, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex for amarus] 1.0 year Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002

Male (44%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Develop bright nuptial coloration Present Smith, 2004
30 Male sexual dimorphism Breeding tubercles only in males, only on the head Absent Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
28 Length at sexual maturity 3-3.5 [Both sex] 3.25 cm Smith, 2004

Spawning conditions (73%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One male and one female each time Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Males defend territories around one or several mussel No category Smith, 2004
50 Parental care Male defend a territory around one or several mussels, then a he brings a female Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Male guards the eggs and larvae until they quit the mussel Male parental care Billard, 1997
50 Parental care Non guarders, brood hiders [The male keeps the eggs and alevins until they leave the refuge] No care Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Mussels Ostracophils Smith, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Spawns on the gills of living unionid freshwater mussels Ambiguous Smith, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Mussels Ostracophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Mussels [Unionidae] Ostracophils Oliver and Carrel, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Ostracophils Ostracophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Ostracophils Ostracophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Obligate spawning relationship between a species of freshwater fish, the bitterling, and four species of freshwater mussels [The mussels were collected along the silt bottoms near to the banks] Ambiguous Mills and Reynolds, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Males defend territories around one or several mussel No category Smith, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation Male defend a territory around one or several mussels, then a he brings a female No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Male defend territories around mussels to which they lead females to spawn No category Smith, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Males defend territories around freswater mussels No category Aldridge, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Males defend territories around freswater mussels No category Oliver and Carrel, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Maes defend a territory around a mussel, for amarus No category Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
41 Spawning temperature 15-21 18.0 °C Oliver and Carrel, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 22 [Rerared conditions] 22.0 °C Mills and Reynolds, 2002
41 Spawning temperature 15-21 for amarus 18.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 9-10 9.5 weeks Terver, 1984
42 Spawning water type In tributary of the river, near to banks No category Mills and Reynolds, 2002
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
39 Spawning season April-August with a peak in May ['April', 'August', 'May'] Smith, 2004
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season Early spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Aldridge, 1999
39 Spawning season April to August ['April', 'August'] Oliver and Carrel, 2001
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season April to mid-June ['April', 'June'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season April to August for amrus ['April', 'August'] Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
48 Spawning release Batch spawners with determinate fecundity, breeding season is fixed at the onset of the spawning season. with egg number in the ovary declining over the spawning season Mutliple Smith, 2004
48 Spawning release Several batches of eggs, the time between two batch is about 5-20 mn Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Female can spawn in more than one mussel and lay 50-100 clutches of 1-6 eggs during a breeding season No category Smith, 2001
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner: up to 5 Mutliple Oliver and Carrel, 2001
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner: up to 5, batch of 40-100 eggs Mutliple Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
49 Parity 2-3 up to 5 No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001