Abramis brama

  • Scientific name
  • Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Carp bream

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 88%
Total data284
References48
Image of Abramis brama

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Due to their adhesive membrane, eggs stick to plants Adhesive Sidorova, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs stick to plants Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Macrophytes, roots] Adhesive Olivier, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Adhere and develop on plants] Adhesive Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness External layers became highly sticky Adhesive Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
4 Egg adhesiveness Egg surface is covered with zona radiata with filaments of the follicular membrane, which breaks during the ovulation. They secrete a sticky fluid (villis) which attaches the egg to the substrate, most frequently on water plants, where they remain until hatching Adhesive Brylinska and Boron, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Fish eggs were fertilized artificially and incubated by being attached to glass plates put in containers Non-Adhesive Gerasimov and Stolbunov, 2007
5 Incubation time 6-6.5 in natural conditions 6.25 days Sidorova, 2005
5 Incubation time 3-12 [9 at 20°C, 10 at 18°C] 7.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 9 [14.2°] 9.0 days Diamond, 1985
5 Incubation time 4-8 up to 11 [At 11°C] 6.0 days Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
5 Incubation time 8-12 [9.8°C] to 3.2 [16.2°C] 10.0 days Herzig and Winkler, 1986
5 Incubation time 64-78 hours at 20°C 71.0 days Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
5 Incubation time Increase in temperature from 11.2 to 23°C reduces the number of days from 12.5 to 3 11.2 days Brylinska and Boron, 2004
5 Incubation time The hatch took place after seven days of incubation (at 13-15°C) 14.0 days Gerasimov and Stolbunov, 2007
5 Incubation time Based on graph => 220 hours [at 15°C] and 100 hours [at 25°C]. Regression equation for 50% of hatched embryos was Y = 910.1 - 65.88X + 1.318 X² (R² = 0.994) 33.44 days Kucharczyk, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 180 180.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 130 130.0 °C * day Diamond, 1985
7 Degree-days for incubation 110-120 [135-145 hours at 20°C] 115.0 °C * day Olivier, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-120 90.0 °C * day Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
7 Degree-days for incubation 41-49 [Effective day-degrees] 45.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation The motility of embryos inside the shells increased and the first embryos hatched 64 hours from the beginning of development at a water temperature of 20°C, i.e. 1280 hours degree, within the following 14 hours most of the embryos hatched 64.0 °C * day Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
7 Degree-days for incubation Increase in temperature from 11.2 to 23°C reduces the number of days from 12.5 to 3 and degree-days from 144 to 56 11.2 °C * day Brylinska and Boron, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation The hatch took place after seven days of incubation (at 13-15°C) 14.0 °C * day Gerasimov and Stolbunov, 2007
7 Degree-days for incubation The incubation time to mass hatching was 90-100 degree-days (D°) 95.0 °C * day Kucharczyk, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 16-20 are the optimum temperature [Most eggs perish at a temperature below 6°C, and a temperature up to 25.6°C results in early hatching of undevelopped prelarvae] 18.0 °C Sidorova, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 18-20 19.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 20 20.0 °C Kucharczyk, 1998
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum: 14-15, varie from 11-23 [At 6: considerable losses, and 28 is lethal] 14.5 °C Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
6 Temperature for incubation 12.6-18 for embryonic develoment, 6-26 range in which normal development occurs and < 4 lower lethal T°C and > 32 for upper lethal temperature 15.3 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 19-20°C 19.5 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation Reared at a constant temperature of 20°C 20.0 °C Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
6 Temperature for incubation Embryos from female bream (both fertilized with males of bream and white bream) were kept at 10-15°C, and embryos from female wite bream (both fertilized with males of bream and white bream) at 15-17°C, which corresponded to the water temperature at their natural spawning grounds 12.5 °C Vetemaa, 2008
6 Temperature for incubation Water temperature corresponding to its value at the natural spawning grounds (13-15°C) 14.0 °C Gerasimov and Stolbunov, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation The upper lethal temperature of embryonic development is approximately >32°C in the common bream 32.0 °C Nzau Matondo, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation At 20-21°C, which was found as an optimal temperature for bream embryonic development 20.5 °C Kucharczyk, 2005
2 Egg size after water-hardening Average 2.1 [After swelling] 2.1 mm Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.64 ± 0.04, n=52 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 1.64 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening The formation of perivitelline space ended approximatively at the end of this step when the average egg diameter increased 1.64 times, i.e., to 1.80 mm 1.64 mm Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
2 Egg size after water-hardening Perivitelline liquid of high osmotic pressure absorbs water very rapidly, the eggs becomes hard and attains its final shape and size, the diameter being 1.57 to 2.30 mm 1.57 mm Brylinska and Boron, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.6-2 [Not precised] 1.8 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 0.83-1.16 [First batch] to 0.53-0.73 [Second batch] 0.995 mm Sokolova, 1990
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2 1.75 mm Olivier, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.62-1.82 [Mature eggs] 1.72 mm Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
1 Oocyte diameter Ripe, freshly stripped eggs were yellow-gray in colour and their average size before the activation and swelling was 1.10 mm 1.1 mm Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
1 Oocyte diameter Troploplasmatic growth oocytes laid on spawning grounds have a diameter of 0.8 to 1.60 mm and weight from 0.75 to 1.25 mg. Also said that mature oocytes, of diameter 0.95-1.60 mm and weight 0.61-0.93 mg are laid during the ovulation 1.275 mm Brylinska and Boron, 2004

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 16-25 20.5 °C Sidorova, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development 13.5-34.0 without abnormalities 23.75 °C Kucharczyk, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development 17-20 18.5 °C Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
11 Temperature during larval development 16°C [Reared conditions] 16.0 °C Mooij, 1989
11 Temperature during larval development 20 20.0 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 19.5-20.5 20.0 °C Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 22-31°C 26.5 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature of the lake varied from 17.1 to 21°C (19°C average) during the experimental period (in a lake) 17.1 °C Ziliukiene, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature in nature 12-19°C for the first six days after hatching 15.5 °C Brylinska and Boron, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development In all aquaria constant temperatures of 20 ± 0.5°C 20.0 °C Gerasimov and Stolbunov, 2007
11 Temperature during larval development Fastest growth of bream larvae (weight and length) was observed at a temperature of 27.9°C, the slowest growth was at 13.5°C. Fish reared at the highest temperature (34.0°C) grew much more slowly than those at 27.9°C, showing high weight and length variation. Lowest mortality was observed at 27.9°C, the highest was as 34°C. 27.9 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
10 Reaction to light Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light "At a size of 5.1 to 6.2 mm, the embryos remained passive and typical ""hanging up"" by means of sticky glands of walls and submerged objects reached its maximum in this step. From time to time, the embryos wriggled up to the surface and thereafter slowly sank in a passive way. They were indifferent to light and did not seek shade or cover" Photopositive Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 120-140 [6-8 days at 17-20°C] 130.0 °C * day Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
13 Full yolk-sac resorption A complete resorption of the yolk-sac characterizing the beginning of this step took place at the average length of larve L= 7.7 to 7.9 mm on the 7th to the 8 th of development, i.e. 4-5 after hatching 4.5 °C * day Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Bream larvae, the TL of which was 8.2 mm, switched completely to exogenous food 8.2 °C * day Ziliukiene, 2005
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 8-10 days after hatching, reserves of the yolk sac have been used. 9.0 °C * day Brylinska and Boron, 2004
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 120-140 [6-8 days at 17-20°C] 130.0 °C * day Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding During the 6th of development, i.e. the 3rd after hatching, most individuals began to ingest exogeneous food. Their average total length was 6.6 mm 6.0 °C * day Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The cages were stocked with 6-day-old bream larvae that had just graduated to the mixed feeding stage. Fish TL was 7.9-8.1 mm (average 8.0 mm) and the body weight 1.8 mh. Larvae of this length still retained the yolk sac 8.0 °C * day Ziliukiene, 2005
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding After 5-6 days at 12-19°C, noticeably diminished yolk sac. Feed on yolk and some rotifers 5.5 °C * day Brylinska and Boron, 2004
8 Initial larval size 4.8 4.8 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 6.3 6.3 mm Olivier, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.57-5.30 4.935 mm Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
8 Initial larval size Their average total length at hatching was 4.55 4.55 mm Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
8 Initial larval size Size at hatching ranges from 4.5-5.2 4.85 mm Brylinska and Boron, 2004
9 Larvae behaviour Remain fixed to plants until the full resorption of yolk sac Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Remain fixed to plants until the full resorption of yolk sac [TL of 7.6-8.4] Demersal Olivier, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae motionless, attached to vegetation or resting on bottom. Feed only on yolk Demersal Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
9 Larvae behaviour The hatched embryos mostly rested in a passive way on the bottom and only some of them hung themselves by their sticky glands onto walls or onto submerged silon threads, under natural conditions, the embryos stuck themselves onto submerged plants Demersal Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
9 Larvae behaviour Eleutheroembryos hangs attached to plants or lies on the bottom. Demersal Brylinska and Boron, 2004

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Compared to males, females have their breeding tubercles poorer developped, occupying a much smaller area Present Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 16.8-21 [Up to 23.8] 18.9 percent Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
24 Maximum GSI value Up to 23.3 [Calculated without viscera] 23.3 percent Sokolova, 1990
24 Maximum GSI value GSI observed in different areas: 16.3 [Drukshya], 33-43 [Kama], 8.3-18.5 [Volga], 5.5-28.4 [Goczalkowice] 38.0 percent Brylinska and Boron, 2004
24 Maximum GSI value The lowest and highest mean coefficients in males were 2.141 (June 1976, Lake Dabie) and 24.532 (late May, 1976, Regalicia) 2.141 percent Kompowski, 1982
24 Maximum GSI value In spring, the ovaries accouned for 0.2-24.7% of the total body weight 12.45 percent Neja and Kompowski, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 30-40 35.0 thousand eggs/kg Spillmann, 1961
19 Relative fecundity Mean range from 113-260 [Complete range of 97-200, not indicated for all populations] 186.5 thousand eggs/kg Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
19 Relative fecundity 381.3 is the mean [Range 94.0 to 600.3], calculated without viscera, i.e. IOP 381.3 thousand eggs/kg Sokolova, 1990
19 Relative fecundity 30-40 35.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 50 50.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
19 Relative fecundity It ranges in different bream populations from 12 to 352 thousands eggs per 1 kg of body weight. The highest variability of relative fecundity was found among the smallest females. The variability decreased with fish size approaching the average level of 150 to 200 thousand eggs per 1 kg of body weight. For example in lakes: 202.1-304.0 [Wierzchul],163.5-210.5 [Wenecja], 40.0-230.0 [Bershty] and in rivers 133.1-236.9 [Vistula], 79-183 [Volga] 253.05 thousand eggs/kg Brylinska and Boron, 2004
19 Relative fecundity 116-327 221.5 thousand eggs/kg Sidorova, 2005
19 Relative fecundity 30-40 35.0 thousand eggs/kg Internet, 2005
19 Relative fecundity 150-300 225.0 thousand eggs/kg Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 years Sidorova, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 years Sokolova, 1990
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Southern region] to 6-8 [Nothern region] 2.5 years Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
27 Age at sexual maturity Fish of 4+ to 15+ took part in spawning. The bulk of spawning males was 5+ to 8+ 4.0 years Shestopalova, 1978
27 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 [Both sex] 5.0 years Molls, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 [Not specified] 5.0 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity Male attain maturity in their seventh year (VI+) No data Cowx,1983
27 Age at sexual maturity Males attain sexual maturity one to two years earlier than females No data Brylinska and Boron, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity Male breams reach sexual maturity in Vortsjärv at the age of (6)7-9(10) years 8.0 years Noges and Järvet, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity Other studies: 50% of the males matured having attained TL = 35.5 cm (SL= 27.7 cm) at the age of 7 years. […] Bream inhabiting the Rybinsk reservoir on the Volga to be sexually mature when older than 7 years, when 9.3% of the individuals were mature, at the average length of 27.4 cm. At the age of 9 years, almost half (48.1%) of all the individuals were mature, at the average length of 32.0 cm. All the bream (100%) were mature as last as in their 13th year of life, having attained a mean length of 38.4 cm 9.0 years Neja and Kompowski, 2001
26 Resting period About one month No data Witkowski, 1989
26 Resting period The minimum values are found in June and July, which corresponds to a resting period of gonads after spawning No data Kompowski, 1982
26 Resting period GSI decreases after spawning to 0.88-3.1% in females with single batch spawning, and to 4.6-6.2% in females spawning in batches. In the latter females, the ovary reaches 10-16.3% of body weight again within 14-30 days 1.99 months Brylinska and Boron, 2004
22 Onset of oogenesis In autumn when water temperature drops below 12-10°C, part of oocytes enters further meiosis stages, and vacuolization commences in the cytoplams - stage III of ovaries endogenous vitellogenesis ['October', 'November', 'December'] Brylinska and Boron, 2004
22 Onset of oogenesis From August onwards there is a constant increase in the coefficient ['August'] Kompowski, 1982
22 Onset of oogenesis Vitellogenesis in the bream ovaries commenced in August in both lakes ['August'] Kopiejewska, 1989
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Most stages of gonad maturation take place in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Fredrich, 2003
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity The coefficient attains its maximal values in April and May, directly before spawning ['April', 'May'] Kompowski, 1982
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development In females with batch spawning asynchronous growth and maturation of the oocytes is noticeable early in ovary development and most frequently during ovaries stage IV. In various A. brama populations, 0.0 to 80.4 % of the females were characterized by asynchronous development of trophoplasmatic growth oocytes. Thefirst oocytes batch is larger, their diameter is 0.8-1.3 mm. The second batch (after 14 to 30 days) is smaller and oocyte diameter is 0.4-0.8 mm. The ratio of oocytenumbers in the second batch to their number in the first batch, ranges from 19.6 to 40.8%. In stunded A.brama from Lake Jaskhan (Turkmenia)three oocyte populations were observed in an ovary but because high water temperatures reaching 30-33°C and food deficiency these oocytes were resorbed. In the Aral Sea, a subspecies Abramis brama orientalis was, according to many authors, charactetised by an asynchronous oocyte development and batch feucndity, but changes in the environment of the Aral Sea have induced single batch spawning. The sub-species of A. brama, introduced into Siberian waters, maintained single -batch spawning. The proportion of females with batch spawning increases in A. brama population southwards in the range in comparison with centrally located waters. Northern A. brama spawn in one portion only Asynchronous Brylinska and Boron, 2004
20 Absolute fecundity Mean of 92-218 [2-941 are the highest variation] 155.0 thousand eggs Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
20 Absolute fecundity Range from 68.6 to 450.0 [Average of 218.3] 68.6 thousand eggs Shestopalova, 1978
20 Absolute fecundity Average 234.2 [Range 66 to 605.6] 234.2 thousand eggs Sokolova, 1990
20 Absolute fecundity 49-150 and up to 580 for larger female 99.5 thousand eggs Olivier, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 300 [For a female of 70 cm] 300.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity Number of ooctyes of trophoplasmatic growth maturing in a year is determined as individual fecundity, which varies from 5.3 to 782.2 000 eggs in different populations. For example in lakes: 80.2-583.4 [Wierzchul], 65.0-410.8 [Samozero], 76.0-293.0 [Ubinskoe] and in rivers 53.3-483.5 [Vistula], 76-651 [Volga] 331.8 thousand eggs Brylinska and Boron, 2004
20 Absolute fecundity Average is 120-130 [Vary from 317-503.7 for females ages 3-11 years] 125.0 thousand eggs Sidorova, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity Mean of 102.0 (range 20.8-309.6) n = 24 in Kortowski Lake and mean of 182.2 (range 46.4-321.3) n = 30 in Blanki Lake 165.2 thousand eggs Kopiejewska, 1993
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.25-0.4 [Both sex !] 0.325 kg Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.335-1.590 0.9625 kg Sokolova, 1990
16 Length at sexual maturity 25-30 [Full range 12-30] 27.5 cm Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
16 Length at sexual maturity Above 31 31.0 cm Shestopalova, 1978
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 26.4 [Fork length] 26.4 cm Cowx,1983
16 Length at sexual maturity 24.0-39.4 31.7 cm Sokolova, 1990
16 Length at sexual maturity 32.9 ± 0.39 mean with n =122 [Vary from 25.0-43.0] 32.9 cm Poncin, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity No mature bream ware found at Lt < 35 cm 35.0 cm Molls, 1999
16 Length at sexual maturity 18-24 [Sex not precised] 21.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 24.5-27.7 [Rarely at 18-19] 26.1 cm Sidorova, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity Female breams reach sexual maturity in Vortsjärv at 26-36 cm 31.0 cm Noges and Järvet, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity All the individuals measuring up to 12 cm were immature (Maier gonad maturity scale stage I). The smallest length of mature bream (Maier scale stage II) was 13 cm. At the length of 20 cm, 50% of the population were mature. Thus that length should be regarded as the length at first maturity. All the individuals measuring 30 cm and more were mature. [...] Other studies, on average 26.0-33.5 cm in females 29.75 cm Neja and Kompowski, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Southern Europe], 6-10 [Nothern Europe] 3.5 year Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
15 Age at sexual maturity Fish of 4+ to 15+ took part in spawning. The bulk of spawning females was 9+ 4.0 year Shestopalova, 1978
15 Age at sexual maturity Female bream attain maturity in their sixth year of life (V+) No data Cowx,1983
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Rarely 2] 3.0 year Sokolova, 1990
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 [Both sex] 5.0 year Molls, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Southern Europe], 5-7 [Nothern Europe] 3.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity Age of sexual maturation varies from 2 to 11 years to population. 2.0 year Brylinska and Boron, 2004
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Mass maturation, but rarely at 2] 3.5 year Sidorova, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 [Not specified] 5.0 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity Female breams reach sexual maturity in Vortsjärv at (6)7-10(11) years old 8.5 year Noges and Järvet, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity Bream females in Lake Sniardwy attain sexual maturity at the age of six, seven years […] It may be concluded that 6 and 7-years old females spawned for the first or second time in their life 6.0 year Kopiejewska, 1989
15 Age at sexual maturity Other studies: 50% of the females matured having attained TL = 39 cm (SL= 30.5 cm) at the age of 8 years. […] Bream inhabiting the Rybinsk reservoir on the Volga to be sexually mature when older than 7 years, when 9.3% of the individuals were mature, at the average length of 27.4 cm. At the age of 9 years, almost half (48.1%) of all the individuals were mature, at the average length of 32.0 cm. All the bream (100%) were mature as last as in their 13th year of life, having attained a mean length of 38.4 cm 8.0 year Neja and Kompowski, 2001

Male (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on head, fins, and sides. Colors become brighter Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism Territorial males are brown-yellow in colouration with tubercules Absent Poncin, 1996
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males have their breeding tubercles much more intensively developped, and larger individuals have distincly more numerous tubercles than smaller Absent Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
30 Male sexual dimorphism Most authors revealed that there was no secondary sexual dimorphism or that is was very weak. Males have keratinized spawning tubercles. Tubercles appear 20-30 days before spawning, and in some males may last as long as to the autumn. Tubercles are more noticeable in older males and they extend from the fish head (large tubercles) to caudal region (small ones). They are most numerous over the head and dorsal part of the body. Absent Brylinska and Boron, 2004
33 Maximum GSI value Up to 6.1% [Calculated without viscera] 6.1 percent Sokolova, 1990
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 2.8-3.4 [Up to 4.6] 3.1 percent Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
33 Maximum GSI value The lowest and highest mean coefficients in males were 0.867 (July 1976, Lake Dabie) and 4.411 (late May, 1976, Lake Dabie) 0.867 percent Kompowski, 1982
33 Maximum GSI value In spring, the testes accounted for up to 3.7% 3.7 percent Neja and Kompowski, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 23.0-35.6 29.3 cm Sokolova, 1990
28 Length at sexual maturity 25-30 [Full range 9-30] 27.5 cm Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
28 Length at sexual maturity No mature bream ware found at Lt< 35 cm 35.0 cm Molls, 1999
28 Length at sexual maturity 27.7 [Fork length] 27.7 cm Cowx,1983
28 Length at sexual maturity Male breams reach sexual maturity in Vortsjärv 25-32 cm long 28.5 cm Noges and Järvet, 2005
28 Length at sexual maturity All the individuals measuring up to 12 cm were immature (Maier gonad maturity scale stage I). The smallest length of mature bream (Maier scale stage II) was 13 cm. At the length of 20 cm, 50% of the population were mature. Thus that length should be regarded as the length at first maturity. All the individuals measuring 30 cm and more were mature. 12.0 cm Neja and Kompowski, 2001
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.260-1.104 0.682 kg Sokolova, 1990
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.25-0.4 [Full range 0.1-0.5] 0.325 kg Backiel and Zawiska, 1968

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system May be considered polygamous : each male can mate successively with several females, and each female can mate simultaneously and successively with several males [One female followed by two to eight males] Polyandry Poncin, 1996
47 Mating system Male and female spawn repeatedly with different partners. Mating is therefore promiscuous Promiscuity Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
47 Mating system Group, communal spawning. One female and two to eight males released eggs and sperm. Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
47 Mating system Fish pairs move around each other. A. brama females remain over a limited territory and defend it against other fish. Some authors state the A. brama spawn in small groups (few fish), over a limited area, and the fish taking part in spawning move from one place to another. Yet, also described that the reproductive behavior of common bream is polyandrous, mating tactics is territoarial and sneaking. Promiscuity Brylinska and Boron, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night Spillmann, 1961
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the day but decrease slighy during the afternoon Day Poncin, 1996
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Day and night, becoming more intensive at night [Most intensive spawning last from 10.00 to 11.00 and after a break at noon from 16.00 to 17.00] Ambiguous Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Mass spawning has been observed in the evening, at sunset, during windless weather. In the case of strong winds, spawning occurs at night. After a break, it continues before sunrise. Also observed intensive spawning in shallow areas of the Vistula River mostly at night, another authors at high water temperatures in the afternoon or else later and hot and windless days Ambiguous Brylinska and Boron, 2004
50 Parental care Never described in the FAO Fisheries Synopsis No category Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care None No category Ah-King, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Phytophilic : eggs are deposited on aquatic plants as well as drifting remains of aquatic vegetation Phytophils Sidorova, 2005
44 Spawning substrate On plants but also pebbles Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants : phytophil or phyto-lithophyl Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Phytophilous : roots of alder, willow trees and aquatic plants Phytophils Poncin, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Only spawned on adventitious roots of willow No category Diamond, 1985
44 Spawning substrate Plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Litho-phytophil Phytophils Olivier, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Generally phytophilous: flooded land plants, remains of previous year's aquatic vegetation, tree leaves, stems, and roots of emergent plants, algae, submerged macophytes Phytophils Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
44 Spawning substrate Eggs adhere to sumerged plants, bit other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Deposit their eggs on plants Phytophils Kennedy, 1969
44 Spawning substrate Dense weed, rarely on gravel Ambiguous Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Under natural conditions of bream spawning, when the bottom is covered with mud and oxygen content is decreased, this adapatation enables an ecologically favourable incubation because the eggs stick to aquatic plants and others substrates Phytophils Penaz and Gajdusek, 1979
44 Spawning substrate It is a non-obligatory phytophilic plant spawner Phytophils Brylinska and Boron, 2004
44 Spawning substrate On water plants, e.g. dead Carex sp. Ambiguous Vetemaa, 2008
45 Spawning site preparation No nest, but some males are territorial and very aggressive and others are non-territorial Open water/substratum scatter Poncin, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Males are territorial No category Olivier, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation No, eggs are deposited on plants nut male defends its teritory and when another male appears there is intensive slashing Susbtrate chooser Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Territorial males No category Ah-King, 2004
41 Spawning temperature 8-25 16.5 °C Sidorova, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 13-14 13.5 °C Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 14-17.2 15.6 °C Diamond, 1985
41 Spawning temperature Above 12°C 12.0 °C Billard, 1997
41 Spawning temperature 13-20 16.5 °C Olivier, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Most common is 16-18 [12-13 is the lowest temperature, highest being 27°C] 17.0 °C Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
41 Spawning temperature 16-18, temperature observed for the peak of spawning 17.0 °C Shestopalova, 1978
41 Spawning temperature 12-20 16.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature About 15 15.0 °C Kennedy, 1969
41 Spawning temperature 12-20 16.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature When temperatures are between 15°C and 18°C 15.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
41 Spawning temperature Our five years observations showed that the temperature during the spawning time (May and June) of bream fluctuated on spawning grounds between 13.5 and 26.5°C. On the other hand, when temperatures decreased below 20°C bream discontinuted spawning and left the spawning grounds. [...] Bream spawn at different temperatures depending on location: in the Volga River, spawning occurs between 10.0 and 13.5°C, in the Don River between 23 and 24°C, in Finland between 18 and 19°C, and in Masurian Lakes, Poland, bream spawn at about 17°C. In Kortowskie Lake, where spawners were caught, bream spawn at 20-21°C 20.5 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
41 Spawning temperature Range of temperature is from 9 to 20.6°C, while during phase II and later from 13 to 27°C 9.0 °C Brylinska and Boron, 2004
41 Spawning temperature Above 13°C 13.0 °C Vetemaa, 2008
41 Spawning temperature For bream, the typical range is 12-20°C, while extremes may reach 8 and 24°C […] The median water temperature measured in large lakes at the beginning of spawning in bream in rivers respective of lakes (correspondinglyn 12.9 and 13.3°C) was not significantly different [...] Spawning starts at water temperature of 13-14°C and reaches its peak at 16-19°C 16.0 °C Noges and Järvet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature Our five years observations showed that the temperature during the spawning time (May and June) of bream fluctuated on spawning grounds between 13.5 and 26.5°C 13.5 °C Kucharczyk, 2005
40 Spawning period duration 3 to 40 days [During warm and calm weather, bream spawn in masses in a short time (2-3 days) but longer under bad conditions, males are ready to spawn first and remain longer on the spawning grounds] 2.5 weeks Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
40 Spawning period duration 4 [Spawning was at its height between May 10 and 20] 4.0 weeks Shestopalova, 1978
40 Spawning period duration Adult fish may remain in the river for several weeks or months and participate in multiple spawnings No data Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
40 Spawning period duration Spawning may take place in phases or extend over longer periods, from 3 to some tens of days. One to three even more spawning phases were observed in different populations 3.0 weeks Brylinska and Boron, 2004
40 Spawning period duration The duration of the spawning period may depend on the latitude, in the USSR for instance the bream spawning season varies from 58 to 60 days in the North to 16 days in the Volga delta. 58.0 weeks Billard, 1981-1982
40 Spawning period duration Median values (upper and lower quartiles in parenthesis) => 3 (2-6) in lakes and 2 (1-3) in rivers 4.0 weeks Noges and Järvet, 2005
42 Spawning water type In border of river [current about 30 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Typical spawning sites are temporarily flooded water bodies, low-floodplains and lakes Stagnant water Sidorova, 2005
42 Spawning water type Near the shoreline Stagnant water Spillmann, 1961
42 Spawning water type Weed beds No category Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type In border of river No category Olivier, 2001
42 Spawning water type Sheltered places, where the water is either still or the current is weak Flowing or turbulent water Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
42 Spawning water type Oxbows, with vegetation adults remain in that site after spawning No category Molls, 1999
42 Spawning water type Current velocity < 20 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
42 Spawning water type Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
42 Spawning water type Consist of shallow areas, overgrown with vegetation and protected from winds, or old river beds connected with the main course, river mouths areas, lake shores. May also spawn on flooded meadows. Stagnant water Brylinska and Boron, 2004
42 Spawning water type Spawning grounds of bream in Estonia as relatively shallow places on water plants, e.g. dead Carex sp. No category Vetemaa, 2008
42 Spawning water type The spawning grounds of A. brama are the shallow waters of the lake where there is dense vegetation Stagnant water Herzig and Winkler, 1986
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters : 20-80 cm 50.0 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Near the surface No data Spillmann, 1961
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Internet, 2005
43 Spawning depth Water depth ranges between 25 and 50 cm 25.0 m Poncin, 1996
43 Spawning depth In shallow waters < 30 cm 30.0 m Diamond, 1985
43 Spawning depth 0.4-2 m 1.2 m Olivier, 2001
43 Spawning depth Most common is 20 to 80 cm [From 9 cm to 17 m] 20.0 m Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
43 Spawning depth Depth of spawning grounds are usually to 0.5-1.5 m. Besides shallow, shore areas, A. brama may also spawn on more deeper grounds, 1.5-5.0 m, or even on quite deep grounds, from 6 to 20 meters in depth at a pressure about 3 atm 1.0 m Brylinska and Boron, 2004
43 Spawning depth Spawning grounds of bream in Estonia as relatively shallow places No data Vetemaa, 2008
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Herzig and Winkler, 1986
36 Spawning migration distance Make migrations No data Olivier, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Most of the population does not migrate for long distances No data Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
36 Spawning migration distance Localised migrations to spawning areas No data Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Migrations of tagged A. brama have been observed in a number of freshwater bodies and brackish coastal waters. The longest recorded distance covered by tagged bream was 200 km from the place of release. 200.0 km Brylinska and Boron, 2004
36 Spawning migration distance Holobiotique migrations No data Agence de l'eau,
37 Spawning migration period The peak run of spawners takes place through the second half of April- first ten days of May at water temperature 8-12°C ['April', 'May'] Sidorova, 2005
37 Spawning migration period The spring migration begins with the melting of ice on the sea, the first group strat their upstream migration at the begnning of April, while the second and larger run lasting for 15-30 days begins when the water of the river reaches 8°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
37 Spawning migration period Bream had two distinct migration waves and at least two seperate spawning periods which resulted in distinct cohors on shore seine catches No data Molls, 1999
37 Spawning migration period In the spring, when water temperatue is about 10-14°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
37 Spawning migration period The bream exibited limited pre-spawning acitivty with a gradual increase of proportion of ripe individuals and low migration rate. This period was followed by the main spawning rung when the daily migration represented hundreds of individuals (13-14°C). in the same period, massive spawning of bream was recorded in the whole reservoir No data Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
37 Spawning migration period Semi-migratory species in some parts of its distribution in brackish waters. In the Caspian Sea, spring migrations to the Volga river delta commenced whith ice melting, but they were most intensive at a water temperature of 10-12°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Brylinska and Boron, 2004
37 Spawning migration period During the upstream migration (March-June), mature roach, silver bream and common bream females were collected from natural populations in a fish pass at the Lixhe dam (Belgian River Meuse, 50°45', 5°40'E) ['March', 'June'] Nzau Matondo, 2007
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season Begins in early May and mass spawing occurs in mid-May ['May'] Sidorova, 2005
39 Spawning season Mid-May until Mid-June ['May', 'June'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season Usually May-June ['May', 'June'] Olivier, 2001
39 Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June'] Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
39 Spawning season May, 3 until June, 3 ['May', 'June'] Shestopalova, 1978
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season Spawning takes place during the first half of June ['June'] Herzig and Winkler, 1986
39 Spawning season Lake bream usually spawn in the beginning of June ['June'] Kucharczyk, 1997
39 Spawning season Spawns in spring. Spawning begins at the end of March and extends till the first half of June. In heated waters spawning may take place in winter and early spring ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'February'] Brylinska and Boron, 2004
39 Spawning season The experiments with female bream eggs were started on 24 May (three females) and 29 May (three females) and with female white bream eggs on 5 June (four females) due to the earlier spawning of bream in Estonia […] The spawning of bream in south-east Estonia usually begins at the water temperature of c. 13°C, in most cases in the second half of May ['May', 'June'] Vetemaa, 2008
39 Spawning season Bream started to spawn 16-17 days later than roach, the median dates being 16 May for rivers and 22 May for lakes. One half of all measurements fell into a range of 16 days between 13 and 28 May. ['May'] Noges and Järvet, 2005
39 Spawning season Bream females in Lake Sniardwy commence spawning in May-June ['May', 'June'] Kopiejewska, 1989
39 Spawning season In the Trent, the main hatching period for bream occurred around the second week of June, with the majority of hatching complete by mid-July ['June', 'July'] Nunn, 2007
39 Spawning season May and June on bream spawning grounds in the Kortowskie Lake ['May', 'June'] Kucharczyk, 2005
48 Spawning release Once No category Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Once or repeated spawning No category Backiel and Zawiska, 1968
48 Spawning release Several batches of eggs are released and fertilized by different males Mutliple Poncin, 1996
48 Spawning release At least two batches of eggs per female Mutliple Sokolova, 1990
48 Spawning release In most cases, spawns once per breeding season, but it is known to spawn twice or three times especially in southern water bodies No category Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Clement weather and increased temperature stimulated further spawning of this fracionally spawning species No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
48 Spawning release Only some females in thermally polluted waters show a tendency for batch spawning and due to en ecological stress in dam reservoirs in the first years after flooding . The proportion of females with batch spawning increases in A. brama populations southwards in the range in comparison with centrally located waters. Northern A. brama spawn in one portion only Mutliple Brylinska and Boron, 2004
48 Spawning release Bream is a single spawner in the sense the in one individual all eggs mature synchronously […] In lake Peipsi, breams lay their eggs usully in 2-3 groups during the spawning period Total Noges and Järvet, 2005
48 Spawning release Adopt multiple spawning strategies, with up to three batches of eggs produced by individual fish Mutliple Nunn, 2007
49 Parity Iteroparous : spawn every year [During its life cycle, it can spawn 8-9 times] Iteroparous Sidorova, 2005
49 Parity The spawning populations included up to height age classes No category Sokolova, 1990
49 Parity Many bream returned back to the reservoir after spawning while another part stayed every season in the river pools above the traps for a longer time and returned after subsequent spawning No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
49 Parity In June, July, and August, that is after spawning, the fish moved back to deeper parts or deeper water bodies, where they feed intensively. Abramis brama is a long-lived species in northern area of distribution.Age of A. brama un its southern area of distribution rarely exceeds 10 to 12 years Semelparous Brylinska and Boron, 2004