Lehtonen, 1996



Citation


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Pikeperch begin their spawing activities before the sunrise No category
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Parental care Soon after spawning, pikeperch females leave the spawning grounds while male guards the nest until their hatch Male parental care
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sandy grounds. However females can lay their eggs also on stones, roots of waterplants and other hard substrates. Also on dead zebra mussel Ambiguous
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The males built nests of 0.5 m in diameter, at a depth of 5-10 cm No category
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Starts either at 10°C, or in other areas only at 12-14°C 13.0 °C
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning water type Occur mainly in sheltered archipelagoes and bays, with turbid waters. On contrats to lakes, where spawning takes place in the shallows of open lakes, Baltic pikeperch spawn entirely in estuaries, inlets and shallow bays. Stagnant water
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning depth The depths of spawning grounds range between 0.7-2.5 m or 1-3 m 1.6 m
Sander lucioperca Egg Egg adhesiveness Highly sticky Adhesive
Sander lucioperca Egg Incubation time Depending on the temperature, the larval development takes 5-9 days 7.0 days
Sander lucioperca Female Age at sexual maturity Attain sexual maturity in the Baltic Sea between 2-5 years of age, the bulk of individuals at the age of 3-4 years. In general, male smature one year earlier and with a smaller body size than females. Due to lower growth rate, pikeperch mature generally later in the northern Baltic (4-5 years of age) 3.5 years
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance The distance between wintering and spawning areas is usually less than 30 km but may in some cases be even > 200 km 30.0 km
Sander lucioperca Egg Egg size after water-hardening 1.02-1.67 [After fertilization] 1.345 mm
Sander lucioperca Egg Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning migration period In autumn, pikeperch seek deeper waters where they stay over winter. Spawning migrations to the the sheltered bays start in March or April ['April', 'March', 'January', 'December', 'February', 'October', 'November']
Sander lucioperca Egg Oocyte diameter 0.7-0.85 [Before fertilization] 0.775 mm
Sander lucioperca Female Absolute fecundity Fecundity of a 45 cm females range from 125 to 260 000, overall range for females 37-86 cm long: 31-2957000 61.5 thousand eggs
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning season Generally takes place in late April-early May in the Southern Baltic Sea and in late May-June in the Nothern Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland ['April', 'May', 'June']
Sander lucioperca Larvae Temperature during larval development The optimal temperature for larval growth is 24-29°C, but in the Baltic sea such temperatures are seldom reached and the development occurs usually between 15-25°C. However, it was also suggested that larvae with the best coefficient favour temperatures between 12-16°C 26.5 °C
Sander lucioperca Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption Their yolk-sacs are totally used after 10-12 days at a length of 6.5-9 mm 11.0 °C * day
Sander lucioperca Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding At the age of 2-5 days the larvae start exogeneous feeding 3.5 °C * day
Sander lucioperca Larvae Initial larval size Either 4.1-4.8 or 3.9-4.5 4.45 mm
Sander lucioperca Larvae Larvae behaviour The larvae live during the first two weeks post hatching near the bottom and then change their habitat from the benthic to the pelagic Demersal
Sander lucioperca Female Age at sexual maturity Attain sexual maturity in the Baltic Sea between 2-5 years of age, the bulk of individuals at the age of 3-4 years. In general, male smature one year earlier and with a smaller body size than females. Due to lower growth rate, pikeperch mature generally later in the northern Baltic (4-5 years of age) 3.5 year
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning release Partly a portion spawner No category