Brylinska and Boron, 2004


Brylinska, M. and Boron, A. (2004) The common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758) (Leuciscinae, Cyrpinidae)., pp.

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Abramis brama Egg Oocyte diameter Troploplasmatic growth oocytes laid on spawning grounds have a diameter of 0.8 to 1.60 mm and weight from 0.75 to 1.25 mg. Also said that mature oocytes, of diameter 0.95-1.60 mm and weight 0.61-0.93 mg are laid during the ovulation 1.27 mm
Abramis brama Egg Egg size after water-hardening Perivitelline liquid of high osmotic pressure absorbs water very rapidly; the eggs becomes hard and attains its final shape and size, the diameter being 1.57 to 2.30 mm 2.3 mm
Abramis brama Egg Egg adhesiveness Egg surface is covered with zona radiata with filaments of the follicular membrane, which breaks during the ovulation. They secrete a sticky fluid (villis) which attaches the egg to the substrate, most frequently on water plants, where they remain until hatching Adhesive
Abramis brama Egg Incubation time Increase in temperature from 11.2 to 23°C reduces the number of days from 12.5 to 3 11.2 days
Abramis brama Egg Degree-days for incubation Increase in temperature from 11.2 to 23°C reduces the number of days from 12.5 to 3 and degree-days from 144 to 56 11.2 °C * day
Abramis brama Larvae Initial larval size Size at hatching ranges from 4.5-5.2 4.85 mm
Abramis brama Larvae Larvae behaviour Eleutheroembryos hangs attached to plants or lies on the bottom. Demersal
Abramis brama Larvae Temperature during larval development Water temperature in nature 12-19°C for the first six days after hatching 15.5 °C
Abramis brama Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption 8-10 days after hatching, reserves of the yolk sac have been used. 9.0 °C * day
Abramis brama Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding After 5-6 days at 12-19°C, noticeably diminished yolk sac. Feed on yolk and some rotifers 5.5 °C * day
Abramis brama Female Age at sexual maturity Age of sexual maturation varies from 2 to 11 years to population. 2.0 year
Abramis brama Female Relative fecundity It ranges in different bream populations from 12 to 352 thousands eggs per 1 kg of body weight. The highest variability of relative fecundity was found among the smallest females. The variability decreased with fish size approaching the average level of 150 to 200 thousand eggs per 1 kg of body weight. For example in lakes: 202.1-304.0 [Wierzchul],163.5-210.5 [Wenecja], 40.0-230.0 [Bershty] and in rivers 133.1-236.9 [Vistula], 79-183 [Volga] 253.05 thousand eggs/kg
Abramis brama Female Absolute fecundity Number of ooctyes of trophoplasmatic growth maturing in a year is determined as individual fecundity, which varies from 5.3 to 782.2 000 eggs in different populations. For example in lakes: 80.2-583.4 [Wierzchul], 65.0-410.8 [Samozero], 76.0-293.0 [Ubinskoe] and in rivers 53.3-483.5 [Vistula], 76-651 [Volga] 331.8 thousand eggs
Abramis brama Female Oocyte development In females with batch spawning asynchronous growth and maturation of the oocytes is noticeable early in ovary development and most frequently during ovaries stage IV. In various A. brama populations, 0.0 to 80.4 % of the females were characterized by asynchronous development of trophoplasmatic growth oocytes. Thefirst oocytes batch is larger, their diameter is 0.8-1.3 mm. The second batch (after 14 to 30 days) is smaller and oocyte diameter is 0.4-0.8 mm. The ratio of oocytenumbers in the second batch to their number in the first batch, ranges from 19.6 to 40.8%. In stunded A.brama from Lake Jaskhan (Turkmenia)three oocyte populations were observed in an ovary but because high water temperatures reaching 30-33°C and food deficiency these oocytes were resorbed. In the Aral Sea, a subspecies Abramis brama orientalis was, according to many authors, charactetised by an asynchronous oocyte development and batch feucndity, but changes in the environment of the Aral Sea have induced single batch spawning. The sub-species of A. brama, introduced into Siberian waters, maintained single -batch spawning. The proportion of females with batch spawning increases in A. brama population southwards in the range in comparison with centrally located waters. Northern A. brama spawn in one portion only Asynchronous
Abramis brama Female Onset of oogenesis In autumn when water temperature drops below 12-10°C, part of oocytes enters further meiosis stages, and vacuolization commences in the cytoplams - stage III of ovaries endogenous vitellogenesis ['October', 'November', 'December']
Abramis brama Female Maximum GSI value GSI observed in different areas: 16.3 [Drukshya], 33-43 [Kama], 8.3-18.5 [Volga], 5.5-28.4 [Goczalkowice] 38.0 percent
Abramis brama Female Resting period GSI decreases after spawning to 0.88-3.1% in females with single batch spawning, and to 4.6-6.2% in females spawning in batches. In the latter females, the ovary reaches 10-16.3% of body weight again within 14-30 days 1.99 months
Abramis brama Male Age at sexual maturity Males attain sexual maturity one to two years earlier than females 1.0 years
Abramis brama Male Male sexual dimorphism Most authors revealed that there was no secondary sexual dimorphism or that is was very weak. Males have keratinized spawning tubercles. Tubercles appear 20-30 days before spawning, and in some males may last as long as to the autumn. Tubercles are more noticeable in older males and they extend from the fish head (large tubercles) to caudal region (small ones). They are most numerous over the head and dorsal part of the body. Absent
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Migrations of tagged A. brama have been observed in a number of freshwater bodies and brackish coastal waters. The longest recorded distance covered by tagged bream was 200 km from the place of release. 200.0 km
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Semi-migratory species in some parts of its distribution in brackish waters. In the Caspian Sea, spring migrations to the Volga river delta commenced whith ice melting, but they were most intensive at a water temperature of 10-12°C ['April', 'May', 'June']
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawns in spring. Spawning begins at the end of March and extends till the first half of June. In heated waters spawning may take place in winter and early spring ['January', 'February', 'March', 'April', 'May', 'June']
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawning may take place in phases or extend over longer periods, from 3 to some tens of days. One to three even more spawning phases were observed in different populations 3.0 weeks
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Range of temperature is from 9 to 20.6°C, while during phase II and later from 13 to 27°C 9.0 °C
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning water type Consist of shallow areas, overgrown with vegetation and protected from winds, or old river beds connected with the main course, river mouths areas, lake shores. May also spawn on flooded meadows. Stagnant water
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning depth Depth of spawning grounds are usually to 0.5-1.5 m. Besides shallow, shore areas, A. brama may also spawn on more deeper grounds, 1.5-5.0 m, or even on quite deep grounds , from 6 to 20 meters in depth at a pressure about 3 atm 1.0 m
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning substrate It is a non-obligatory phytophilic plant spawner Phytophils
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Mass spawning has been observed in the evening, at sunset, during windless weather. In the case of strong winds, spawning occurs at night. After a break, it continues before sunrise. Also observed intensive spawning in shallow areas of the Vistula River mostly at night, another authors at high water temperatures in the afternoon or else later and hot and windless days Day
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Mating system Fish pairs move around each other. A. brama females remain over a limited territory and defend it against other fish. Some authors state the A. brama spawn in small groups (few fish), over a limited area, and the fish taking part in spawning move from one place to another. Yet, also described that the reproductive behavior of common bream is polyandrous, mating tactics is territoarial and sneaking. Promiscuity
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning release Only some females in thermally polluted waters show a tendency for batch spawning and due to en ecological stress in dam reservoirs in the first years after flooding . The proportion of females with batch spawning increases in A. brama populations southwards in the range in comparison with centrally located waters. Northern A. brama spawn in one portion only Multiple
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Parity In June, July, and August, that is after spawning, the fish moved back to deeper parts or deeper water bodies, where they feed intensively. Abramis brama is a long-lived species in northern area of distribution.Age of A. brama un its southern area of distribution rarely exceeds 10 to 12 years Semelparous