Perca fluviatilis

  • Scientific name
  • Perca fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • European perch

  • Family
  • Percidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness100%
Total data296
References57
Image of Perca fluviatilis

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Lose adhesive properties within 3 minutes in water Adhesive Craig, 2000
4 Egg adhesiveness Outer adhesive layer, but within about 3 min after fertilization, the membrane swells and after hardening lost its adhesive qualities Adhesive Thorpe, 1977
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs of Eurasian perch are strongly attached to each other to form 0.5-5.5 m long and 1-6 cm wide floating jelly strands or ribbons […] When water was added to the wet-eggs, they stuck together within 5s […] After water contact, ovarian fluid reacts with the ZRE to form jelly-like fibrils attaching the eggs with each other Adhesive Mansour, 2008
5 Incubation time 7 [17°C], 19 [10°C] 7.0 days Thorpe, 1977
5 Incubation time 15 at 13.5°C 15.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 8 at 13°C 8.0 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 14-27 20.5 days Dalimier and Voss, 1982
5 Incubation time 27 [At 6.6°C] to 14 [11.8°C] 27.0 days Dalimier, 1982
5 Incubation time 8-16 12.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 8 8.0 days Bagenal, 1971
5 Incubation time The incubation temperature was 11.1°C until the time of 50% hatching (day 19) 11.1 days Jentoft, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation 182-202 192.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 104 104.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
7 Degree-days for incubation 180-216 198.0 °C * day Thorpe, 1977
7 Degree-days for incubation 136-243 are the extreme values [mean 152, 166 at temperature of 8.3°C and 8°C respectively] 189.5 °C * day Dalimier, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation About 200, i.e. 20 days at 10.5 [Most died at T below 7.7°C° 200.0 °C * day Treasurer, 1983
7 Degree-days for incubation Mass hatching at 179.7 [6.3°C], 218 [7°C], 158 [11.3°C], 141 [17.2°C], 114 [19.6°C] for the year 1963 179.7 °C * day Kokurewicz, 1969
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-110 [At a temperature of 15°C] 95.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 120-200 [At 10-18°C] 160.0 °C * day Dubois, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation This study: 126 [At 14°C] [The number of thermal untis (D°) from egg fertilization to hatching varies within a surprisingly wide range (if one is to believe different authors) from 90 through 175 at 12-14°C, to as many as 223 and 195] 13.0 °C * day Korzelecka, 1998
7 Degree-days for incubation 90 [Effective day-degrees] 90.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation The incubation temperature was 11.1°C until the time of 50% hatching (day 19) 11.1 °C * day Jentoft, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 13 13.0 °C Dalimier and Voss, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation 12-20 lead to highest survival 16.0 °C Wang and Eckmann, 1994
6 Temperature for incubation 7.8-16.1 11.95 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Below 6°C and above 25°C no hatching ! 6.0 °C Dalimier, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation 9-18 in natural conditions but optimal is 10-16°C 13.5 °C Guma'a, 1978
6 Temperature for incubation 9-10 in natural conditions in Scotland 9.5 °C Treasurer, 1983
6 Temperature for incubation The range of temperature for successful perch embryo developpment is 8-18°C with an optimum of 13°C 13.0 °C Sandström, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation 15°C [Recommended temperature of 15°C] 15.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation 10-18 14.0 °C Dubois, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal 13, range 8-18 [The lower lethal is 6, and the upper 22-24°C] 13.0 °C Saat and Veersalu, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 14 [The best and longest larvae originate from eggs incubated in 12-16°C] 14.0 °C Korzelecka, 1998
6 Temperature for incubation The incubation temperature was 11.1°C until the time of 50% hatching (day 19) 11.1 °C Jentoft, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation The egg ribbons were incubated over 6 to 7 days at 15°C till the eye-pigmentation stage of embryonic development. The eggs were then transferred into the larval rearing facilities at 20°C to 23°C after a two-hours period of thermal acclimation 6.0 °C Mélard, 1996
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.9-2.8 [within about 3 min after fertilization, the membrane swells] 2.35 mm Craig, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.9-2.8 [In lake 1.9-2.4] 2.35 mm Thorpe, 1977
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.9-2.8 [Three minutes after fecondation] 2.35 mm Goubier, 1990
2 Egg size after water-hardening Swollen egg (without jelly enveloppe, 50 min. after the fertilization) measured 1.25 mm on the average 1.25 mm Korzelecka, 1998
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [The egg strand is slightly heavier than water] Demersal Craig, 2000
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal, on the bottom Demersal Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy The egg-ribbon itself is freely floaing in water No category Mansour, 2008
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-2.0 [Fertlized egg before water hardening] 1.5 mm Craig, 2000
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2.0 [Not precised] 1.75 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1.6-2.1 [Fertilized egg before hardening] 1.85 mm Thorpe, 1977
1 Oocyte diameter 2.09-2.16 and sometimes 2.3-2.9 2.125 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 0.94-1.62 1.28 mm Treasurer, 1981
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-2.0 1.5 mm Goubier, 1990
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2.5 2.0 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 2.30 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 2.3 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-2.1 [Not specified, but seems unswollen] 1.55 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 16-18 and increasing temperature [Tolerate 3-28] 17.0 °C Craig, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development Best survival and growth at 20 20.0 °C Wang and Eckmann, 1994
11 Temperature during larval development About 20 20.0 °C Kestemont, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development 17-20°C 18.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development Temperatures interval 26-29.5°C are lethal under certain conditions 27.75 °C Brabrand, 2001
11 Temperature during larval development Direct mortality of perch larvae occurs if the temperature drops below 10-12°C 11.0 °C Urho, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature was maintained between 19.7°C and 21.6°C (mean: 20.2°C) 19.7 °C Tamazouzt, 2000
10 Reaction to light Positively phototactic Photopositive Craig, 2000
10 Reaction to light Attracted by light Photopositive Dubois, 2001
10 Reaction to light Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light Perch larvae are found to be photopositive Photopositive Jentoft, 2006
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Present, at about 13 mm Present Goubier, 1990
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism described Present Bry, 1992
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism After one month, cannibalism occur in the mornings Present Wang and Eckmann, 1994
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Intense sibling cannibalism Present Kestemont, 1996
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism The impact of cannibalism was proportionally decreased when fish grew more slowly Present Mélard, 1996
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism One month after hatching, cannibalism occured in the mornings, before food was given Present Craig, 2000
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Perch can act as a piscivore from larval stage VI (body size 10.3 mm) on smaller siblings of its own cohort Absent Brabrand, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Is very frequent [Starts at abour 2.5 cm] Absent Dubois, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Data from the present study indicate that cannibalism emergence is not consistenstly size dependent in Eurasian perch larvae or young juveniles, and that re-establishment of this phenomenon at restocking is independent of the initial predator-prey relationship because size heterogeneity is negatively related to growth rate Present Mandiki, 2007
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 105 105.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
13 Full yolk-sac resorption About 130-150 140.0 °C * day Wang and Eckmann, 1994
13 Full yolk-sac resorption About 4 days 4.0 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding About 100 100.0 °C * day Wang and Eckmann, 1994
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding On 27 and 28 May half of the perch still had some yolk left and 90% had started feeding. Hatching at 24 May and temperature 12-14°C 13.0 °C * day Urho, 1996
8 Initial larval size 4.07-6.6 5.335 mm Craig, 2000
8 Initial larval size 4.07-6.6 [Range in different populations: 4.1-5.5, 5.5-6.0] 5.335 mm Thorpe, 1977
8 Initial larval size 5.8-6.3 6.05 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.2-6.2 5.2 mm Guma'a, 1978
8 Initial larval size 4.7-6.4 5.55 mm Wang and Eckmann, 1994
8 Initial larval size 5.4 5.4 mm Kestemont, 1996
8 Initial larval size About 6 6.0 mm Goubier, 1990
8 Initial larval size 5.3 5.3 mm Balon, 1977
8 Initial larval size 4.1-6.6 5.35 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 4.8-5.0 4.9 mm Wurtz-Arlet, 1950
8 Initial larval size Length of the hatchlings was 3.5 mm on the average [Other studies: newly hatched perch larvae are from 4 to 5.3 mm long, also described at 6.5 mm and 3-6] 4.5 mm Korzelecka, 1998
8 Initial larval size 5-6.2 5.6 mm Kokurewicz, 1969
8 Initial larval size 4.8-5.4 5.1 mm Sandström, 1997
9 Larvae behaviour Gregarious Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae are known to move out into the pelagic area and after some time return to shallow-water areas Pelagic Urho, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour Pelagic larval stock Pelagic Treasurer, 1983

Female (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Gravid females in spring are distinct due to their swollen appearance and slight protusion of the genital orifice Present Thorpe, 1977
24 Maximum GSI value 25 % [April prior to spawning] 25.0 percent Sulistyo,1998
24 Maximum GSI value 21.3-24.3 22.8 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value 21.3-24.3% [Immediatly prior to spawning] 22.8 percent Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
24 Maximum GSI value About 20% [Prior to spawning, in May] 20.0 percent Le Cren, 1951
24 Maximum GSI value May, 18 +/- 0.6% just before spawning. 18.0 percent Noaksson, 2004
25 Oogenesis duration From august to April : 7-8 months 7.5 months Sulistyo,1998
25 Oogenesis duration 6-7 From August-September to April 6.5 months Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
25 Oogenesis duration From August until April No data Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
25 Oogenesis duration Vitellogenesis lasts from September to April-May No data Sandström, 1997
19 Relative fecundity 30-419 [Extreme values in natural field] 224.5 thousand eggs/kg Thorpe, 1977
19 Relative fecundity 70-150 110.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 50-146 98.0 thousand eggs/kg Treasurer, 1981
19 Relative fecundity 130-170 150.0 thousand eggs/kg Goubier, 1990
19 Relative fecundity 100-200 150.0 thousand eggs/kg Dubois, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 80-201 140.5 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 100 100.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
19 Relative fecundity Values reported in various studies: 50-146 [For females 176-324 mm, in Lake Kinord and Davan, GB], 69-216 [For females 115-210 mm, in Lake Agios Vasilios, GR], 52-188 [For females 98-278 mm, in Salpton Ley, GB], 33-141 [For females 145-422, in Lake Pounui, NZ], 91-317 [For females 115-330 mm, in lake Klicava, CSSR] 98.0 thousand eggs/kg Jansen,1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 1.5 years Thorpe, 1977
27 Age at sexual maturity End of first year No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Treasurer, 1981
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Male specified] 1.5 years Goubier, 1990
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Male specified but could be younger if conditions are good] 2.0 years Dubois, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Male] 2.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Male] 3.0 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity Sexual maturity is attained by perch males at the age of 2-3 years, but also 1-3 2.5 years Korzelecka, 1998
27 Age at sexual maturity All males mature at an age of 2 years, and 54.5 were mature at 1 year old 2.0 years Heibo and Vollestad, 2002
26 Resting period 3-4 3.5 months Sulistyo,1998
26 Resting period 4-4.5 [From April until August] 4.25 months Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
26 Resting period Mid-summer No data Le Cren, 1951
26 Resting period After spawning, GSI rapidly decreased to the low values observed during the summer No data Noaksson, 2004
22 Onset of oogenesis August and then increase proceeds regulalry through the winter and spring till the spawing time in May ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'August', 'June', 'February'] Le Cren, 1951
22 Onset of oogenesis GSI rise steadily in August ['August'] Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
22 Onset of oogenesis August-September, then increase gradually until mid-March ['August', 'March', 'September'] Sulistyo,1998
22 Onset of oogenesis Rapid increase of oocyte diameter from late July to November-December ['November', 'December', 'July'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
22 Onset of oogenesis The development of ovocytes starts in August, and vitellogenesis starts in September ['August', 'September'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
22 Onset of oogenesis GSI increased from the onset of oogenesis at the end of July. The onsey of oogenesis coincided with a steady decline in water temperatures from the end of July, with the oocytes continously developing throughout the winter until a rapid increase in water temperature at the beginning of May, triigerered the spanwing. ['March', 'January', 'May', 'July', 'February'] Noaksson, 2004
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Steadily increase from August until April ['April', 'August'] Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Beginning of spring, GSI rapidly reached its maximum ['April', 'May', 'June'] Sulistyo,1998
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity The increase of temperature in March induces the completion of vitellogenesis, resulting in a sharp increase of GSI before spawning ['March'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity March-April ['April', 'March'] Noaksson, 2004
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Migaud, 2002
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Luksiene, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 0.95-210 105.475 thousand eggs Thorpe, 1977
20 Absolute fecundity 26 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 26.0 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 10-200 per female 105.0 thousand eggs Environment agency, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 17.36-84.24 eggs for fish in a 205310 mm length 50.8 thousand eggs Gillet, 1995
20 Absolute fecundity 12-300 depedning on female 156.0 thousand eggs Korzelecka, 1998
20 Absolute fecundity Values reported in various studies: 9277-74124 [For females 176-324 mm, in Lake Kinord and Davan, GB], 2080-24488 [For females 115-210 mm, in Lake Agios Vasilios, GR], 1000-30500 [For females 98-278 mm, in Salpton Ley, GB], 2657-63858 [For females 145-422, in Lake Pounui, NZ], 6710-144000 [For females 115-330 mm, in lake Klicava, CSSR] 41700.5 thousand eggs Jansen,1996
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.02-0.24 [20-240 g] 0.13 kg Thorpe, 1977
16 Length at sexual maturity 12-18 15.0 cm Thorpe, 1977
16 Length at sexual maturity About 11 cm 11.0 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 15-18 16.5 cm Treasurer, 1981
16 Length at sexual maturity 12-15 [Female] 13.5 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity In lake Geneva, 87% of perch female became mature during the second year and their size varied from 13 to 20 cm 87.0 cm Gillet, 1995
16 Length at sexual maturity Described as female P. fluviatilis to first spawn as smal as 9.3 and 10 cm, the smallest size recorded for this species. 9.3 cm Jansen,1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 year Thorpe, 1977
15 Age at sexual maturity End of second year No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 but sometimes 3 4.0 year Treasurer, 1981
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Female specified] 2.5 year Goubier, 1990
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Female specified but could be younger if conditions are good] 3.5 year Dubois, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Female] 3.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [36 months, age at maturation] 3.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-6 [Female] 5.0 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity In lake Geneva, 87% of perch female became mature during the second year 2.0 year Gillet, 1995
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Female], but also 2-4 3.5 year Korzelecka, 1998

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males at spawning are generally brighter in colour Present Thorpe, 1977
31 Onset of spermatogenesis End of August ['August'] Sulistyo, 2000
31 Onset of spermatogenesis August ['August'] Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
31 Onset of spermatogenesis August ['August'] Le Cren, 1951
33 Maximum GSI value 8.5 ± 1.8 [September] 8.5 percent Sulistyo, 2000
33 Maximum GSI value 6.6-7.1 6.85 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
33 Maximum GSI value 6.6-7.1 [September-October] 6.85 percent Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
33 Maximum GSI value About 8% [October] 8.0 percent Le Cren, 1951
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September-October, then decrease slightly until spawning and remain at about 5% during winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'February', 'October'] Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September ['September'] Sulistyo, 2000
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September-October, then remain at this size during winter until spring ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'September', 'June', 'February', 'October'] Le Cren, 1951
35 Resting period 0,2 ± 0,1 [Late June, July, August) 2.0 months Sulistyo, 2000
35 Resting period 0.2 [June, July] 0.2 months Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
35 Resting period < 1% [June, July, and most of August] 1.0 months Le Cren, 1951
34 Spermatogenesis duration 1,5 [The development of the testes occured within about 6 weeks in end of August and September] 1.0 months Sulistyo, 2000
34 Spermatogenesis duration About 6 weeks 6.0 months Le Cren, 1951
28 Length at sexual maturity 5-12 8.5 cm Thorpe, 1977
28 Length at sexual maturity About 7.7 7.7 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 6 6.0 cm Treasurer, 1981
28 Length at sexual maturity 8 but FL 8.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity "For male, the size at maturity is 6.3 cm, or possibly smaller. Also reported the smallest maturing males to measure ""about 55 mm"" in the fall. " 6.3 cm Jansen,1996
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.01-0.06 [10-60 g] 0.035 kg Thorpe, 1977

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One female and two up to five males, during about 30 mn [described in more details] No category Craig, 2000
47 Mating system One female is followed by two males No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system One female and several males Polyandry Dubois, 2001
47 Mating system Polyandry, one female and one or two males Polyandry Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Group, communal spawning: groups spawns Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Day and night Ambiguous Thorpe, 1977
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Mostly during the dawn [mostly between 7-8 a.m.] Dawn Dalimier and Voss, 1982
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Eggs are released at dawn Dawn Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Day and night Ambiguous Craig, 2000
50 Parental care Little if any protections No care Craig, 2000
50 Parental care Not any observations of parental care No category Dalimier, 1982
50 Parental care Perch do not provide care to their offspring No category Smith, 2001
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care No parental care No category Ah-King, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Would spawn anywhere away from fast currents attaching their eggs to plants or logs, also over sand and gravel, floating debris: wide variety of habitats Ambiguous Thorpe, 1977
44 Spawning substrate Various substrates : plants, branchs, rocks Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Wide variety of substrates including boulders and gravel, aquatic macrophytes, roots of trees, dead branches and other materials Lithophils Craig, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Mainly macrophytes No category Treasurer, 1983
44 Spawning substrate Around vegetation, on the bottom Phytophils Smith, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Female lays the ribbon of eggs over weeds or other submerged objects Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Dense submerged weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Bottom overgrown with a variety of submerged plants, and with patches of emergent vegetation. Underwater sandy and gravel bottom elevations are also preferred by this fish Ambiguous Korzelecka, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Perch accept a wide variety of substrates on which to deposit spawn, which they generally drape or wind round the chosen object in order to hold it clear of the lake bed No category Urho, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Female perch have no specific substrate and can spawn on submerged vegetation, plants and fallen branches, and even on artificial substrates Phytophils Mansour, 2008
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Thorpe, 1977
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Craig, 2000
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Dalimier, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation No male spawning territory No category Ah-King, 2004
41 Spawning temperature 12-14 but 7°C in deep water of lakes 13.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 13-14 13.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 10-11 [Scotland] 10.5 °C Treasurer, 1983
41 Spawning temperature Stars at 7 and ends at 20°C, but for other areas 12-14 until 24°C 13.0 °C Sandström, 1997
41 Spawning temperature Above 7°C, between 8-16°C 12.0 °C Goubier, 1990
41 Spawning temperature Ranging from 7 to 20°C [Usually 10-13°C] 11.5 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
41 Spawning temperature 8-10 9.0 °C Dubois, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 6-15 10.5 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 5-11 8.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 8.5-13.5 11.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Range 8-16 12.0 °C Gillet, 1995
41 Spawning temperature 12-14°C 13.0 °C Urho, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Spawning activity culminated when the water temperature reached 8-12 10.0 °C Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
41 Spawning temperature Rapid 2-week increase in water temeprature from 4-6°C to 10-13°C 5.0 °C Noaksson, 2004
40 Spawning period duration 3-7 [2-18 days on the spawning ground for males and 1-4 days for females] 5.0 weeks Thorpe, 1977
40 Spawning period duration 7 7.0 weeks Dalimier, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 2-8 [Male arrive on spawnning grounds earlier than female] 5.0 weeks Craig, 2000
40 Spawning period duration 1.5 1.5 weeks Treasurer, 1983
40 Spawning period duration spawning last for > 9 weeks. The length of the main spawning period was about 5weeks. [The spawning period was very extended in the heated environments] 9.0 weeks Sandström, 1997
40 Spawning period duration 7 7.0 weeks Goubier, 1990
40 Spawning period duration 2 [0.50 months, length of breeding season] 2.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 4-6 [But spawning activity was intensive during 12 days] 5.0 weeks Gillet, 1995
42 Spawning water type Lakes, they would spawn anywhere away from fast currents Ambiguous Thorpe, 1977
42 Spawning water type Near the shore, most within 3 meters Stagnant water Smith, 2001
42 Spawning water type Near the shore Stagnant water Dubois, 2001
42 Spawning water type Ponds, lakes, rivers Stagnant water Gillet, 1995
42 Spawning water type Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
43 Spawning depth Spawn mostly at 0.5-3 m in natural lakes, but may also spawn at depths to 8 m in large lakes and reservoirs 1.75 m Thorpe, 1977
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters: 0.6-1.50 1.05 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters: normally 0.5-8 m 4.25 m Craig, 2000
43 Spawning depth Usually less than 12 m [But the deepest was 26 m] 12.0 m Dalimier, 1982
43 Spawning depth 0.5-1 m deep 0.75 m Treasurer, 1983
43 Spawning depth Mean depth of 22.6 cm 22.6 m Smith, 2001
43 Spawning depth Up to 12 m 12.0 m Dubois, 2001
43 Spawning depth At the beginning of the spawning period, perch preferentially laid their eggs at a depth of 4 m in lake Geneva, while at the end of the spawning period, a depth of 12 m was preferred by the spawners 4.0 m Gillet, 1995
43 Spawning depth Spawn in shallow water (usually <3m), althoug egg-masses are know to deposit at depths of 4 to 14 m in some deeper lakes 3.0 m Urho, 1996
43 Spawning depth Different water depths No data Mansour, 2008
36 Spawning migration distance Movement from the deep water, where the fish have over-wintered, to shallow water spawning areas No data Craig, 2000
36 Spawning migration distance Usually migrations are really short No data Thorpe, 1977
36 Spawning migration distance Can migrate large distances No data Environment agency, 1996
37 Spawning migration period Males arrive on the spanwing ground days or weeks before females and remaining behind afterwards No data Thorpe, 1977
37 Spawning migration period Perch, started migratory activity very soon in th study period and spawning activity culminated when the water temperature reached 8-12 No data Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
39 Spawning season March until May ['March', 'May'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season February and July in Nothern Hemisphere ['February', 'July'] Thorpe, 1977
39 Spawning season March-April-May but end of June in Nothern Region ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season March to June ['March', 'June'] Dalimier and Voss, 1982
39 Spawning season End April to Mid-June ['April', 'June'] Dalimier, 1982
39 Spawning season 20 April [Scotland] ['April'] Treasurer, 1983
39 Spawning season Beginning of April until June ['April', 'June'] Sandström, 1997
39 Spawning season April-May until beginning of June in the Leman Lake ['April', 'May', 'June'] Gillet and Dubois, 2003
39 Spawning season Spawning period extends from March to late June ['March', 'June'] Kestemont and Mélard, 2000
39 Spawning season March-June ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season Mid-April to Mid-June ['April', 'June'] Dubois, 2001
39 Spawning season Mainly March to May ['March', 'May'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season May-June, peak in 20 May ['May', 'June'] Bagenal, 1971
39 Spawning season Mid-March to April ['April', 'March'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season The spawning period of perch was May in lake Geneva ['May'] Gillet, 1995
39 Spawning season Spawnings in natural conditions in early spring, commecing from March in south regions and from June in the north ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Korzelecka, 1998
39 Spawning season Perch spawned between 16 and 24 May (peak 17-19 May) near the shoreline on branches ['May'] Urho, 1996
39 Spawning season Perch in both lakes spawned in the middle of May, following a rapid 2-week increase in water temeprature from 4-6°C to 10-13°C ['May'] Noaksson, 2004
39 Spawning season In the Trent and Avon, perch hatched at approximately the same time as roach, between the end of April (2003) and the middle of May (all other years) ['April', 'May'] Nunn, 2007
39 Spawning season During the spawning time in May ['May'] Mansour, 2008
38 Homing "Not well established, but once ""home range"" has been recorded" Present Thorpe, 1977
48 Spawning release Total spawner Total Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Once a year. All together in a ribbon Total Craig, 2000
48 Spawning release All together, unique transparent gelatinous accordion-folded stran Total Thorpe, 1977
48 Spawning release All together, in a ribbon Total Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release All eggs are shed in a single batch Mutliple Treasurer and Holliday, 1981
48 Spawning release All together Total Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release One single spawning Total Luksiene, 2000
48 Spawning release Shed a single batch of eggs in a well-defined spawning period Mutliple Nunn, 2007
49 Parity Iteorparous, but perch spawn only once per year but it is not know with certainity that they spawn every year after reaching maturity No category Thorpe, 1977
49 Parity Spawn once a year No category Dubois, 2001
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Blanchard, 1997