Phoxinus phoxinus

  • Scientific name
  • Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Eurasian minnow

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 96%
Total data260
References35
Image of Phoxinus phoxinus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, stick to the pebbles Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, stick to the pebbles Adhesive Billard, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, fixed on plants or stones Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Slight adhesive Adhesive Soin, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness Egg-masses were found attached to the undersite of the stones Non-Adhesive Frost, 1943
5 Incubation time NO INFORMATION No data Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 3-10 [4-5 at 13-14°C] 6.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 14-17 15.5 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 6-7 [18-21°C] 6.5 days Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
5 Incubation time 4-5 4.5 days Bagenal, 1971
5 Incubation time 5 days [18°C], 12 [7°C], in their experiments : At an age around 4 days hatching of the embryo begins. The difference in the time of hatching of embryos from different eggs in one batch at a temperature of 16°C may be as much as 12 hours 5.0 days Soin, 1982
5 Incubation time 4-5 days 4.5 days Frost, 1943
5 Incubation time 5.75 days [At 16°C], 4 [At 20°C] 5.75 days Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-70 60.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 160-180 [14-17 days at 15°C] 170.0 °C * day Fishbase, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation 100-130 [6-7 days at 18-21°C] 115.0 °C * day Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
7 Degree-days for incubation 70 [4 days at 16°C] 70.0 °C * day Soin, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 80-90 at 20 and 16°C respectively 85.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
6 Temperature for incubation 13-14 13.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation NO INFORMATION No data Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 18-21°C 19.5 °C Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
6 Temperature for incubation 7-18 12.5 °C Soin, 1982
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mainly 1.5 [Drifting eggs] 1.5 mm Copp, 2002b
2 Egg size after water-hardening The diameter of the swollen eggs become 1.3 mm 1.3 mm Soin, 1982
2 Egg size after water-hardening Newly deposited eggs are 1.5-1.8 mm 1.65 mm Frost, 1943
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.6 [Not specified] 1.6 mm Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Mann, 1996
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.8 1.4 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.19-1.46 [Released egg] 1.325 mm Mills, 1987
1 Oocyte diameter 0.9-1.2 [Almost ripe eggs] 1.05 mm Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
1 Oocyte diameter 1.40 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 1.4 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter Mainly 1.5 [Not specified] 1.5 mm Copp, 2002b
1 Oocyte diameter 1.3-1.7 eggs to be laid 1.5 mm Heese, 1984
1 Oocyte diameter The mature egg has a mean diameter of 1.13 1.13 mm Soin, 1982
1 Oocyte diameter The egg when just ready for extrusion measures about 1.3-1.4 mm in diameter 1.35 mm Frost, 1943
1 Oocyte diameter The largest eggs (1.4 mm diameter) were found in a sample of P. phoxinus from 3 June in which females freely released eggs from the oviduct following gentle pressure on the abdomen. Fish caught at another site the preivous day (2 June) contained smaller eggs (0.87-0.93 mm) which were presumably some days away from being released 0.9 mm Mills and Eloranta, 1985

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 15-16 15.5 °C Soin, 1982
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20 20.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20 20.0 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Either at 16 or 20°C 16.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
10 Reaction to light Initially the larvae are photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Phoxinus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
10 Reaction to light Like the larvae of most lithophilous species, the prolarvae of the minnow have a negative reaction to light which becomes increasingly noticeable as the amount of pigment in the eyes increase [The hatched embryos are photophobic described in other studies] Photophobic Soin, 1982
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Not described Absent Soin, 1982
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 140-150 [On the 8th -9th day after hatching, when the larvae reach a length of 7.0-8.0 mm, the yolk sac disapperas completely and they go over to exogeneous feeding exclusively at 16°C] 145.0 °C * day Soin, 1982
13 Full yolk-sac resorption About 13-14 days 13.5 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The yolk sac had disappeared by the time the 'pin' minnows were 13-14 days old, they were then 8.0 mm long 13.5 °C * day Frost, 1943
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 170-190 The time for development from fertilization to 'swim-up' larvae at 15°C ranged from 14-17 days 180.0 °C * day Mills, 1988
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The resorption of the yolk sac requires 8 days at 16°C, and 5.5 days at 20°C 8.0 °C * day Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 110 [7 days at 16°C] 110.0 °C * day Soin, 1982
8 Initial larval size 2-5 3.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
8 Initial larval size 2-5 3.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 10-12 [Not specified] 11.0 mm Kestemont, 2001
8 Initial larval size 8.5-10.1 [Not at hatching !] 9.3 mm Mills, 1987
8 Initial larval size When hatching, the larvae have 12-13 mm total length 12.5 mm Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
8 Initial larval size The length of the prolarvae is 3.6 mm 3.6 mm Soin, 1982
8 Initial larval size Newly emerged fry ranged from 4.2-5.0 4.6 mm Frost, 1943
8 Initial larval size At the onset of exogenous feeding young larvae (7.8-12.6 mm TL) began to possess single melanophores 10.2 mm Simonovic,1999
9 Larvae behaviour After hatching, the prolarvae disperse on the bottom of the aquarium. They lie on the side completely still, not reacting to light, water fluctuations or sounds. [The hatched embryos are under stones, described in other studies] Demersal Soin, 1982
9 Larvae behaviour From birth they were most active Demersal Frost, 1943

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Bright colors Absent Spillmann, 1961
18 Female sexual dimorphism Breeding tubercles are located mostly in the posterior body part Present Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
18 Female sexual dimorphism The ventral side becomes intensively red Absent Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
18 Female sexual dimorphism Numerous pearly tubercles, few tubercles may occur on sides of the body, frequently dark coloration of body, widened anus, pectoral, ventral and anal fins slightly reddened at their bases Present Heese, 1984
18 Female sexual dimorphism Some females can display bright colours Present Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
24 Maximum GSI value Mean 20 [early June], but up to 25% 20.0 percent Mills, 1987
24 Maximum GSI value 20 20.0 percent Wooton and Mills, 1979
24 Maximum GSI value Mean 14, up to 16 [May] 14.0 percent Scott, 1979
24 Maximum GSI value 14.2-25.5, mean 18.2 [Not specified when] 19.85 percent Heese, 1984
24 Maximum GSI value Range between 12-14 during May-June 13.0 percent Mills and Eloranta, 1985
24 Maximum GSI value Maximum GSI vary between 4 locations, about 8-9% in Mid-May [Papulampi, eastern forest Lapland], about 6-7% in Mid-June [Lapland], 13-14 in Mid-May [Central Finland] and 21-22 in Mid-June [Southern england] 8.5 percent Mills, 1988
19 Relative fecundity 0.5-5 2.75 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 0.503-0.930 0.7165 thousand eggs/kg Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
19 Relative fecundity 5 5.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Spillmann, 1961
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex not precised] 2.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Male] 1.5 years Kestemont, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Male and Female] 1.5 years Mills, 1987
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 and in very favourable conditions 1 [Both sex] 2.0 years Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 but most 4-5 [Both sex in subalpine lake] 4.5 years Museth, 2002
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Not specified] 2.5 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity Most minnows reach sexual maturity in 3 years of age 3.0 years Soin, 1982
27 Age at sexual maturity The youngest males caught were 5-year-olds (52.0-65.0 mm) 5 fish (mean length 55.6 mm) of those were immature and 21 (mean length 60.4 mm) were mature. All 39 6-year-old and three 7-year-old males were mature 6.0 years Mills, 1988
27 Age at sexual maturity Males are generally mature at 1-2 years 1.5 years Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
26 Resting period August No data Scott, 1979
26 Resting period Very little growth takes place through the summer months No data Frost, 1943
26 Resting period Between 3 June and 15 July there was a sharp drop in total condition princiapply beacause of a fall in GSI. This decline in GSI continued until late August 3.0 months Mills and Eloranta, 1985
22 Onset of oogenesis October, slight increase then remains constant until february ['October'] Mills, 1987
22 Onset of oogenesis The GSI rises somewhat in autumn but remains static throughout the winter ['March', 'January', 'December', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Scott, 1979
22 Onset of oogenesis During late September and early October there is a considerable increase to about nine times the original volume in case of the ovary and bout three times in the cases of the testes. The volume thus attained remains fairly consistent throughout the winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'February', 'October'] Frost, 1943
22 Onset of oogenesis September ['September'] Mills and Eloranta, 1985
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity March to May ['March', 'May'] Mills, 1987
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Another increase occurs again in early spring, and finally a rapid increase takes place in late spring immediately prior to spawning ['April', 'May', 'June'] Scott, 1979
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity A final increase takes place in the following spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Frost, 1943
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
21 Oocyte development A macroscopic analysis of the gonads of ripe females showed the presence of at least 3 different generations of oocytes, differing both as regards size and as regards color No category Soin, 1982
21 Oocyte development In both populations, prespawning females contained a group of intermediate-sized vitellogenic oocytes in addition to large, ripe eggs and small oocytes No category Mills, 1988
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous ovogenesis Asynchronous Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
20 Absolute fecundity 1 1.0 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 1-5 3.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 0.2-0.5 [Small individuals] to 2.5-3 [Bigger individuals] 0.35 thousand eggs Kestemont, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 1.35- to 5.515 for females of 47-77 mm 62.0 thousand eggs Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
20 Absolute fecundity 1.027 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 1.027 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 0.2-1 per female 0.6 thousand eggs Environment agency, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity Range within the limit of 0.74-1.774, 0.225-0.552, 0.213-0.858, 0.348-0.726 1.257 thousand eggs Soin, 1982
20 Absolute fecundity In two-year-old specimens of 42-50 mm. Long there were from 105 to 200 eggs per fish, minnows of the same age but of 51-60 mm. Contained from 180 to 330 eggs, and three-year-old fish of 61-70 mm. Had from 293 to 550 ova to the fish 46.0 thousand eggs Frost, 1943
20 Absolute fecundity In May the mean standard fecundity was 623.6 (±112) 623.6 thousand eggs Mills and Eloranta, 1985
20 Absolute fecundity Fecundity is estimated to be between 200 to 500 oocytes per female for the young individual and can reach 2500 to 3000 oocytes for females of great size 200.0 thousand eggs Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
17 Weight at sexual maturity 1.7 g 1.7 kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
17 Weight at sexual maturity 3.5-5.5, 6.0 [Both sex] 4.5 kg Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
16 Length at sexual maturity 4.7 4.7 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 5-6 up to 8 [Male and female] 5.5 cm Mills, 1987
16 Length at sexual maturity 5.5-6.5 [Bot sex] 6.0 cm Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
16 Length at sexual maturity 5.0-5.5 [Both sex in subalpine lake] 5.25 cm Museth, 2002
16 Length at sexual maturity The majority of minnows of over 42 mm, that is, of more than one year old, were sexually mature, although there were some indivudals, males and females, of about 41-45 mm long and in their second year of life which were immature 43.0 cm Frost, 1943
16 Length at sexual maturity The minnows reached 50.9 mm fork length by their second birthday, wich was the age of first maturity. The sexes did not differ significantly either in length or numbers in the first three age-classes 50.9 cm Mills and Eloranta, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 year Spillmann, 1961
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Female] 2.5 year Kestemont, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Male and female] 1.5 year Mills, 1987
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 and in very favourable conditions 1 [Both sex] 2.0 year Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 but most 4-5 [Both sex in subalpine lake] 4.5 year Museth, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [36 months, age at maturation] 3.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Not specified] 2.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity Most minnows reach sexual maturity in 3 years of age 3.0 year Soin, 1982
15 Age at sexual maturity The minnows reached 50.9 mm fork length by their second birthday, wich was the age of first maturity. The sexes did not differ significantly either in length or numbers in the first three age-classes 3.0 year Mills and Eloranta, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity At the dowstream site the one 4-year-old female captured (49.0 mm) was immature but all 27 5-year-old (52.6-65.0 mm) and 48 older females were mature 5.0 year Mills, 1988
15 Age at sexual maturity Female are generally mature a year after males, at 2-3 years 2.5 year Kestemont and Mélard, 1994

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Bear nuptial tubercules on head, and bright colours Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial color: male are much clearer than female : blue-black back and red belly Absent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism Breeding tubercles are more developped in males than females, covered the head, trunk, some on pectoral fins Absent Witkowski and Rogowska, 1991
30 Male sexual dimorphism Spawning colours and well-developed tubercles Absent Mills, 1987
30 Male sexual dimorphism Before spawning, the sexual dimorphism becomes more evident, a nuptial colouration develops: the dorsal side of male becomes dark blue-blackish, the ventral slight red, small pointed white breeding tubercles occur on the upper side of head and of body Absent Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
30 Male sexual dimorphism Pectoral and ventral fins are larger and stouter in males. These traits almost always allow to determine sex in the minnow older than 3 years, before the fish is dissected. Additionnally, the spawning fish show nuptial (pearly tubercles) on their foreheads, the trait again being strouger in males. Singular pearly tubercles may appear also on the sides of the body. The spawning coloration is different in both sexes as well, the males bearing more intensive colours: the dorsal side is occsionally almost black, and the pectoral and ventral fins, particularly in their basal part, are bright red. The male show a red coloration on the basal part of the pectoral, ventral and anal fins Present Heese, 1984
30 Male sexual dimorphism Characterisitic of the minnow is a spawning livery which is particularly marked in males and to a lesser degree in females. During the spawning period the head of the fish is covered with tubercles, represented by sharp conical epithelial formations covered in a horny substance. According to our observations tubercles are characteristic mainly in male, in females tubercles are rarely encountered and ten to be weakly expressed. During the spawning period the coloration of the fish also changes in both males and females, but in the latter these changes are less marked. The dorsum of the males become darked, the sides acquire an intensive yellow-green, more frequently adark-green color... Present Soin, 1982
30 Male sexual dimorphism In the male the pectoral fin is broad and rounded, i.e. fan shaped, whereas in the female it is narrow and weakly rounded. Also observed that the first eight fin rays of the pectoral fin thickened in the male and not in the female, a character which first appears in sexually ripe individuals and remains for the rest of life. Windermere fish sowed this sexual dimorphic character well at breeding period, but outside this period it was a little less obvious, no thickening of the fin rays was seen in immature in fish. On the top of the head were a number of milk-white spinose tubercule. The female had much the same colouring of back and sides as the male, the metallic sheen of the sides being perhaps more golden and less green than the male. The head opercules were also present although, in some specimens, much less bodly developed. The breeding coloration in the male is weakly suggested as early as mid-March, but neither male nor female have head tubercles at this time. in both sexes the tubercles are lost after spawning and a tiny hole on the head marks their place Present Frost, 1943
30 Male sexual dimorphism During the spawning season, males displayed a bright coloration all over the body and bear nuptial tubercles over the head Present Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Mid-February to begining of March ['February', 'March'] Mills, 1987
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September-October. By October, GSI had risen to 1.23% ['October', 'September'] Mills and Eloranta, 1985
33 Maximum GSI value 5.5 [Early May] 5.5 percent Mills, 1987
33 Maximum GSI value 4.65% [18-20 May] 19.0 percent Mills and Eloranta, 1985
32 Main spermatogenesis activity March ['March'] Mills, 1987
35 Resting period Almost 0 [From September to February] 0.0 months Mills, 1987
34 Spermatogenesis duration March-April No data Mills, 1987
28 Length at sexual maturity 4.1 4.1 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 5-6 up to 8 [Male and female] 5.5 cm Mills, 1987
28 Length at sexual maturity 5.5-6.5 [Bot sex] 6.0 cm Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
28 Length at sexual maturity 5.0-5.5 [Both sex in subalpine lake] 5.25 cm Museth, 2002
28 Length at sexual maturity The majority of minnows of over 42 mm, that is, of more than one year old, were sexually mature, although there were some indivudals, males and females, of about 41-45 mm long and in their second year of life which were immature 43.0 cm Frost, 1943
29 Weight at sexual maturity 1 g 1.0 kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
29 Weight at sexual maturity 3.5-5.5, 6.0 [Both sex] 4.5 kg Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Group, communal spawning: spawning shoals Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
47 Mating system The whole mass of minnows, consisting of many males and a few females, in their bright spawning livery, was in a constant state of activity, swimming, twisting and turning in the current, occsionally some of the fish left it for quiter water at the side of the stream, where they disappeared under fist-sized stones. Presumably oviposition occurred then No category Frost, 1943
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Observation of spawning were made at about 4.30 p.m. No category Frost, 1943
50 Parental care No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Eat his own eggs No category Kestemont, 2001
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care No care No care Ah-King, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Pebbles and gravels Lithophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil : gravels and stones Lithophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Stones and gravels Lithophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Clean and well-oxygenated gravels Lithophils Kestemont, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Clean gravel and stones Lithophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Gravel grounds Lithophils Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils Wooton and Mills, 1979
44 Spawning substrate Stones and gravel: 2-3 cm Lithophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil Lithophils Kennedy, 1969
44 Spawning substrate Gravel and weed Ambiguous Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Rocky substrates Lithophils Soin, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Gravels are required to induce spawning Lithophils Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation No, female lays their eggs on substrates No category Kestemont, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Not any male spawning territory No category Ah-King, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation Lay their eggs Susbtrate chooser Frost, 1943
41 Spawning temperature 10-12 11.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 17-20 18.5 °C Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
41 Spawning temperature 11-22 16.5 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 7-12 9.5 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
41 Spawning temperature Ripe males first appear in the spawning grounds in early May at a water temperature about 10°C, and ripe females at a temperature of 11-12°C 11.5 °C Soin, 1982
41 Spawning temperature Temperature of 58°F, i.e. 14.5°C 58.0 °C Frost, 1943
41 Spawning temperature 11-22 16.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
41 Spawning temperature A minimum temperature of 12-14°C is required in natural conditions to observe spawning 13.0 °C Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
40 Spawning period duration About 6 6.0 weeks Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
40 Spawning period duration 110 days 110.0 weeks Mills, 1987
40 Spawning period duration 8-10 weeks 9.0 weeks Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
40 Spawning period duration At least 3 weeks 3.0 weeks Museth, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 5-6 5.5 weeks Wooton and Mills, 1979
40 Spawning period duration 8 [2.00 months, length of breeding season] 8.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration Eggs are laid in three portions, also reported as 4 to 5 portions of eggs being laid by the minnow at about 15-day intervales 4.0 weeks Heese, 1984
40 Spawning period duration Continues around 2 months from May to July 2.0 weeks Soin, 1982
40 Spawning period duration Some females still contained ripe eggs on 15 July, 50 days after the first spent females had been captured 15.0 weeks Mills and Eloranta, 1985
40 Spawning period duration Spawning lasts from April to August, but early in the season the spawners are mostly 2-year-old fish with lengths of 60 mm and over. During May the remaining 2 year-olds, now generally at least 55 mm in length, commence spawning. From June onwards 2-year-olds begin to disappear and are replaced in the spawning shoals by 1-year-old fish which mature at a length of approximatively 49-50 mm, though one ripe male was captured wihc was only 44 mm long 49.5 weeks Mills, 1988
42 Spawning water type Slow current Flowing or turbulent water Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Flowing water Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Close to the shore of the river or brook Stagnant water Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
42 Spawning water type Water edge of lakes Stagnant water Wooton and Mills, 1979
42 Spawning water type Current velocity: 20-30 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
42 Spawning water type Tributary streams No category Scott, 1979
42 Spawning water type Where the water is well-saturated with oxygen, mainly on bars and in channels No category Soin, 1982
42 Spawning water type Running waters No category Frost, 1943
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Spillmann, 1961
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Billard, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow water (a few cm deep) No data Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
43 Spawning depth The minnows, which were in great numbers were in gravelly, fairly swiftly flowing shallows at the side of the stream No data Frost, 1943
36 Spawning migration distance Tend to remain in localized areas for extended period in the wild No data Kennedy and Pitcher, 1975
36 Spawning migration distance Short migrations No data Spillmann, 1961
36 Spawning migration distance Localised spawning migrations No data Environment agency, 1996
37 Spawning migration period At spawning time the mature lake minnows migrate in large numbers up the inflowing streams, but apart from this no other mass movement has been observed No data Frost, 1943
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season May and mid-June [July-August in cold region] ['August', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season From April to July, sometimes August [with a peak in May-June] ['April', 'May', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Kestemont, 2001
39 Spawning season June to July, but starts also in April ['April', 'June', 'July'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season From April to August ['April', 'August'] Mills, 1987
39 Spawning season From the second half of May or the beginning of June till the second half of July or the middle of August ['August', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
39 Spawning season June in subalpine lake ['June'] Museth, 2002
39 Spawning season From May 11 to June, 15 ['May', 'June'] Wooton and Mills, 1979
39 Spawning season April-August ['April', 'May', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season Mainly June-July ['June', 'July'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season May-July, with a peak in June ['May', 'July', 'June'] Bagenal, 1971
39 Spawning season April-June (July) ['April', 'June', 'July'] Herzig and Winkler, 1986
39 Spawning season Spawn from May through July ['May', 'July'] Heese, 1984
39 Spawning season May to July ['May', 'July'] Soin, 1982
39 Spawning season The breeding season extends from May to July ['May', 'July'] Frost, 1943
39 Spawning season May-August ['August', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
39 Spawning season From April to July (sometimes in August), but with a peak of spawning in May-June ['April', 'May', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
39 Spawning season In the Ouse catchment, the main hatching period for minnow was around early June, with fish from subsequent cohorts appearing in small numbers thereafter ['June'] Nunn, 2007
48 Spawning release Multiple Mutliple Runchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Multiple and fractional spawning Ambiguous Kestemont, 2001
48 Spawning release One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Mutiple No category Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
48 Spawning release 4 to 5 batches, each batch contains about 200-1000 ovocytes Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release A potential to spawn 7 to 9 batches of eggs Mutliple Mills, 1987
48 Spawning release Two to four spawnings per year No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
48 Spawning release Spawning is protracted, intermittent Fractional Soin, 1982
48 Spawning release The condition of spent fish in Windermere, particulalryl of females captured in late May, indicates that all the eggs are shed at one time, and thus long-drawn-out breeding time is not due to the same individuals shedding their eggs and sperm during a protracted period but to a population composed of fish, which mature at different times from may to July No category Frost, 1943
48 Spawning release Analysis of the changes in egg numbers in the gonads over this period indicates that each female ripens and sheds several batches of eggs over the spawning season. Spawn at least four successive batches of eggs Mutliple Mills and Eloranta, 1985
48 Spawning release In southern habitat, this species spawns multiple clutches over a prolonged spawning season (April to August) but few individuals survive their first breeding season. Production of multiple clutches persist as far north as Konnevesi in central Finland, and the life-span remains relatively short. A greatly prolonged life-span has been reported from a minnow population in eastern forest Lapland Mutliple Mills, 1988
48 Spawning release Frationnal spawning with an interal of 12-15 days between two spawnings No category Kestemont and Mélard, 1994
48 Spawning release Adopt multiple spawning strategies, with up to three batches of eggs produced by individual fish Mutliple Nunn, 2007
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity Few males survived to their fourth birthday and the oldest fish, aged five years, was a female No category Mills and Eloranta, 1985
49 Parity The lifespan is on average 3-4 years with a maximum of 5-6 years, which thus limit the sexual life of females to 2-3 years No category Kestemont and Mélard, 1994