Mills, 1988


Mills, C.A. (1988) The effect of extreme northerly climatic conditions on the life-history of the minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus (L.). J. Fish. Biol., pp. 545-561

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Phoxinus phoxinus Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption 170-190 The time for development from fertilization to 'swim-up' larvae at 15°C ranged from 14-17 days 180.0 °C * day
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Age at sexual maturity At the dowstream site the one 4-year-old female captured (49.0 mm) was immature but all 27 5-year-old (52.6-65.0 mm) and 48 older females were mature 58.8 year
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Oocyte development In both populations, prespawning females contained a group of intermediate-sized vitellogenic oocytes in addition to large, ripe eggs and small oocytes No category
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Maximum GSI value Maximum GSI vary between 4 locations, about 8-9% in Mid-May [Papulampi, eastern forest Lapland]; about 6-7% in Mid-June [Lapland]; 13-14 in Mid-May [Central Finland] and 21-22 in Mid-June [Southern england] 8.5 percent
Phoxinus phoxinus Male Age at sexual maturity The youngest males caught were 5-year-olds (52.0-65.0 mm) 5 fish (mean length 55.6 mm) of those were immature and 21 (mean length 60.4 mm) were mature. All 39 6-year-old and three 7-year-old males were mature 58.5 years
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawning lasts from April to August, but early in the season the spawners are mostly 2-year-old fish with lengths of 60 mm and over. During May the remaining 2 year-olds, now generally at least 55 mm in length, commence spawning. From June onwards 2-year-olds begin to disappear and are replaced in the spawning shoals by 1-year-old fish which mature at a length of approximatively 49-50 mm, though one ripe male was captured wihc was only 44 mm long 49.5 weeks
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning release In southern habitat, this species spawns multiple clutches over a prolonged spawning season (April to August) but few individuals survive their first breeding season. Production of multiple clutches persist as far north as Konnevesi in central Finland, and the life-span remains relatively short. A greatly prolonged life-span has been reported from a minnow population in eastern forest Lapland Multiple