Morone saxatilis

  • Scientific name
  • Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792)

  • Common name
  • Striped bass

  • Family
  • Moronidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 92%
Total data207
References45
Image of Morone saxatilis

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Non-adhesive Non-Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Lack of adhesiveness Adhesive Burdick and Hightower, 2005
5 Incubation time 2 days at 17-18°C 17.5 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 48 hours at 17-20 18.5 days Rue, 2001
5 Incubation time 3.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 3.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time 29-48 hours 38.5 days Burdick and Hightower, 2005
5 Incubation time In about 2 days 2.0 days North and Houde, 2001
5 Incubation time 74 hours at 58°F and 48hours at 67°F 74.0 days Merriman, 1937
5 Incubation time 34-36 hours at 21-22°C 35.0 days Woods III, 1992
5 Incubation time Hatching of viable eggs was completed by 54 h after fertilization at 19 +/- 0.5°C 19.0 days Monteleone and Houde, 1990
5 Incubation time Larvae hatched within 3 days post-fertilization at 16.1°C 3.0 days Martin-Robichaud and Peterson, 1998
5 Incubation time Hatched in approximatively 42 hours at 19°C 42.0 days Harrell, 2002
5 Incubation time Development is rapid, eggs hatch in about 48 hours 48.0 days Macintosh and Duston, 2007
7 Degree-days for incubation 40-50 [70-74 hours at 14.4-15.6°C, and 48 hours at 17.8-19.4°] 45.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 40 [2 days at 17-18°C] 17.5 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation [33-36 hours at 21-22°C] 34.5 °C * day Woods III, 1992
6 Temperature for incubation 14-15.6 or 17.8-19.4 14.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 17-18 17.5 °C Internet, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation Temperatures <12°C are considered lethal to eggs 12.0 °C Rue, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 16.7-17.9°C 17.3 °C Burdick and Hightower, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 14-16°C 15.0 °C Rogers and Westin, 1981
6 Temperature for incubation Rapid drops in temperature to below 12°C are lethal to striped bass eggs and larvae 12.0 °C Rutherford and Houde, 1994
6 Temperature for incubation 21-22 21.5 °C Woods III, 1992
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal calculated temperatures were 18.2°C 18.2 °C Kamler and Kato, 1983
6 Temperature for incubation Water temperature was adjusted to 19 +/- 0.5°C 19.0 °C Monteleone and Houde, 1990
6 Temperature for incubation Water temperature for all tests were set at 19°C 19.0 °C Harrell, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.6 [Not precised] 3.6 mm Mellinger, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean 3.3, or range 3.4-4.2 3.8 mm Internet, 2005
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2.4-3.9 3.15 mm Fishbase, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.6 [A few hours after they are fertilized and have undergone swelling] 3.6 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.6 [Eggs] 3.6 mm Merriman, 1937
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.2 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] ??? 3.2 mm Olden, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Slightly heavier than freswater, suspended near bottom, planktonic Pelagic Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Planktonic Pelagic Will, 2002
3 Egg Buoyancy Buoyant (pelagic) Pelagic Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Semibuoyant and may be swept by the current Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy Semibuoyant Ambiguous Everly and Boreman, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy The semi-buoyant eggs are spawned near the surface where they rely on water turbulence to keep from sinking Ambiguous Burdick and Hightower, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Pelagic Pelagic Secor, 2002
3 Egg Buoyancy Spawn pelagic eggs, the slighly heavy eggs are suspended by current greater than 0.3 m/s No category North and Houde, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Semibuoyant: that is they sink but are swpet up from the bottom by the slightest disturbance of the water Ambiguous Merriman, 1937
3 Egg Buoyancy Most eggs were maintained in the water column by the upwelling current generated by micropore aeration around the central standpipe and the 1.1 liter per min circular flow of incoming water below the surface No category Martin-Robichaud and Peterson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.35 [Before extrusion] 1.175 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 0.7 [Final egg size] 0.7 mm Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 0.8 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 0.8 mm Olden, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter Fully mature and ovulated oocytes have a diameter of approximatively 1-1.2 mm before water hardening 1.1 mm Woods III and Sullivan, 1993
1 Oocyte diameter 0.911 ± 0.177 in May 0.911 mm Blythe, 1994
1 Oocyte diameter Oocyte diameter reached their maximum in April: 0.84 ± 0.014 0.84 mm Vuthiphandchai, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter Mean ooocyte diameter from all females at the second sampling (20 March) was 838 +/- 18 µm. When oocytes completed FOM and were ovulated (1131 +/- 20 µm in diameter) 0.838 mm Mylonas, 1997

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 26.5-30.3 [Temperature range corresponding to 90% of mawimum growth] 28.4 °C Kellog and Gift, 1983
11 Temperature during larval development 16-17 is around the optimal for larval development and survival 16.5 °C Sullivan, 1997
11 Temperature during larval development Larvae can tolerate temperatures of 12-23°C, but 18-21 is optimum |Lower limit is 12 and upper limit is 28.9°C] 17.5 °C Rue, 2001
11 Temperature during larval development 18°C 18.0 °C Secor, 2002
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 15, 18, 21 and 24°C 15.0 °C Rogers and Westin, 1981
11 Temperature during larval development Rapid drops in temperature to below 12°C ar elethal to striped bass eggs and larvae 12.0 °C Rutherford and Houde, 1994
11 Temperature during larval development Temperatures were maintained at 18°C 18.0 °C Eldridge, 1982
11 Temperature during larval development The water temperature increased from 15.7 to 18.7°C during the 2-week experiment 15.7 °C Martin-Robichaud and Peterson, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development Rearing temperature was 17°C to 5 dph, 19°C from 6 to 10 dph and 20°C from 10 dph onwards 17.0 °C Macintosh and Duston, 2007
10 Reaction to light Light sensitive and become stressed in bright sunlight Photopositive Harrell, 1997
10 Reaction to light Exhibit positive phototaxis upon hatching in the laboratory Photopositive North and Houde, 2001
10 Reaction to light Photopositive fish larvae of walleye (Sander vitreus) and striped bass are attracted to the sides of the tanks (mirror effect) in light-rearing conditions, which negatively affects prey consumption Photopositive Jentoft, 2006
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism The growth differential among fry of the same age probably accounts for most cannibalistic activities starts about 2-3 weeks after hatching Present Braid, 1981
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism can be a serious problem in intensive culture of striped bass [could start when striped bass larvae were only 6 days Present Katavic, 1989
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism described Present Bry, 1992
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Present Present Hecht and Pienaar, 1993
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The yolk sas larval stage runs 3-6 days 4.5 °C * day Everly and Boreman, 1999
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Absorb their yolk sac until they are >5 d old and > 5 mm in length 5.0 °C * day North and Houde, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Striped bass survive on endogenous yolk for the first 5 days of life 5.0 °C * day Harell and Curry Woods III, 1995
13 Full yolk-sac resorption In stripped bass, inflated swibladders are first detected at 5-7 days post-hatching (dph) at 18°C, which coincides with the completion of yolk absorption, initiation of first feeding and peak larval specific gravities 6.0 °C * day Martin-Robichaud and Peterson, 1998
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Larvae in all experiments began active feeding 5 days after hatching at a temperature of 18°C 5.0 °C * day Eldridge, 1982
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Beginning at 5 dph, larvae were provided with a diet that consisted of Artemia nauplii maintained at 100per liter, on days 5,6 and 7, 500-1000 rotifers Brachinonus plicatilis per liter also were provided 750.0 °C * day Monteleone and Houde, 1990
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Larvae were fed Artemia from 6 days post-hatching. Larvae with food in their gut were first observed at 7 dph in the black tanks and one day later in white tanks 6.0 °C * day Martin-Robichaud and Peterson, 1998
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding At 16-19°C, striped bass larvae make the transition to exogenous feeding by 5 d posthatch 17.5 °C * day Harrell, 2002
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The larvae grow quickly from 6 mm total length (Lt) at first feeding (6 days post-hatch, dph) […] Swimbladder inflation and first feeding occurred between 5 and 7 dph (at 19°C) 6.0 °C * day Macintosh and Duston, 2007
8 Initial larval size 2.9-5.0 3.95 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 5.2-6.0 5.6 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size 5.0 5.0 mm Harrell, 1997
8 Initial larval size 3.3 3.3 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size About 3.1 3.1 mm North and Houde, 2001
8 Initial larval size 3.9 ±0.6 mm, standard length at hatching 3.9 mm Eldridge, 1982
8 Initial larval size At 5 dph, the mean length of larvae from the large females was 5.7 mm 5.0 mm Monteleone and Houde, 1990
9 Larvae behaviour Planktonic Demersal Will, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour Both stripped bass and white perch yolksac larvae may have the ability to swim actively toward surface waters during the day Demersal North and Houde, 2001

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value Vary according to the age of female from: 10.77 ±3.28 [Age 3], 12.10 ± 4.65 [Age 4], 13.58 ± 4.30 [Age 5], 18.19 ± 4.09 [Age 6] in May 10.77 percent Olsen and Rulifson, 1992
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 4% in April, for maturing captive females 4.0 percent Holland, 2000
19 Relative fecundity 50-70 60.0 thousand eggs/kg Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
19 Relative fecundity Fecundity of domesticated fish is similar to that of wild fish, approximatively 200 000 eggs/kg 200.0 thousand eggs/kg Harell and Curry Woods III, 1995
19 Relative fecundity Fecundity of two females of the control group : 137.644 and 167.718 for females Three-year-old, with an average weight of 1.01 kg 137.644 thousand eggs/kg Clark, 2005
19 Relative fecundity 46-86 [Fecundity measured are 201 000 [Mass 4300 g], 417 000 [Mass 5300 g], 704 000 [Mass 8500 g], 1390 [Mass 15 500 g]] 66.0 thousand eggs/kg Will, 2002
27 Age at sexual maturity 5 [Male] 5.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male] 3.0 years Sullivan, 1997
27 Age at sexual maturity 5.5 [Both sex] 5.5 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Spawn for the first time at 3 to 6 years of age [Not specified] 3.0 years Burdick and Hightower, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity In 1976: male were mature at age III (48%), age IV (67%), age V (87%), age VI (78%) and age VII (100%) 4.0 years McLaren, 1981
27 Age at sexual maturity In the mid-Atlantic region, males reach sexual maturity during their second and third year No data Holland, 2000
26 Resting period In summer, females had nothing more than primaryt growth oocytes No data Woods III and Sullivan, 1993
26 Resting period During the post spawning season (July, Aufgust, and September), when oocyte and ovarian diameters were smallest, sex detemrination was less accurate No data Blythe, 1994
22 Onset of oogenesis Vitellogenesis may be initiated as early as late-September, but this could vary ['September'] Sullivan, 1997
22 Onset of oogenesis Vitellogenic from late October. E2 and T levels covaried in females and were low in summer, increased by late October to intermediate levels maintained until January, and increased again to maximum values observed just prior to the spawning season. ['January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'October'] Woods III and Sullivan, 1993
22 Onset of oogenesis Differentiation of females was more accurate from October to May, when maximum ovarian diameters exceeded 16 mm ['October', 'May'] Blythe, 1994
22 Onset of oogenesis In October and November of the third year, SG-I oocytes became more numerous. By December, 50% of the fish contained two populations of oocytes in captive maturing females ['October', 'November', 'December'] Holland, 2000
22 Onset of oogenesis Significant oocyte (follicle) growth was detected in females from all treatment groups around the time of the autumnal equinox, on or between experimental days 106-139 ['October', 'November', 'December'] Clark, 2005
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity There is a surge in oocyte growth and circulating levels of sex steroids around the vernal equinox No data Sullivan, 1997
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity In early March 1989, the GSI of age-3 fish was 1.95. The Gsi had increased to only 2.11 by mid-April but jumped to 10.77 in May ['April', 'March', 'May'] Olsen and Rulifson, 1992
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Final oocyte maturation in late April and May ['April', 'May'] Woods III and Sullivan, 1993
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Significant egg growth from September to March ['March', 'September'] Blythe, 1994
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity January and February in maturing captive females ['February', 'January'] Holland, 2000
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous type, single clutch [One clutch of oocytes is recruited through development, maturation, and ovulation for the single annual spawning] Group-synchronous Sullivan, 1997
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous development Group-synchronous Will, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 11-5300 2655.5 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 14-3220 [Most fish yield about 180-700] 1617.0 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity Mean fecundity for striped bass were 349.095 ± 157.343 [Size class I] and 463.130 ± 192.302 [Size class II] 349.095 thousand eggs Will, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Average 181,000 [Age 3] to 5,000,000 [Age 16] 181.0 thousand eggs Burdick and Hightower, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 8,000 [Maximum fecundity] 8.0 thousand eggs Secor, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Very prolific, a female of only 12 pounds has been known to yield 1280000 eggs, while a 75 pound fish would produce as many as 10000000. 12.0 thousand eggs Merriman, 1937
20 Absolute fecundity Age-3 females produced approximatively 200,000 eggs, one age 16-female produced approximatively 5,000,000 eggs. Fecundity of female stripped bass increased about 100,000-200000 eggs with year of growth 100000.0 thousand eggs Olsen and Rulifson, 1992
17 Weight at sexual maturity >2 2.0 kg Berlinsky, 1995
16 Length at sexual maturity 45 [Both sex] 45.0 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity In 1976: female were mature at size 57.7 (47%), 69.0 (87%), 73.7 (90%), 90.6 (100%) 1976.0 cm McLaren, 1981
16 Length at sexual maturity Size of females sampled in Albemarle Sound in spring 1989-1990: mean 50.4, range 45.7-55 [Age 3], mean 56.8, range 49.2-62.8 [Age 4], mean 58.9, range 53.4-65.4 Age 5], mean 62.7, range 57.5-69.6 (Age 6 1989.5 cm Olsen and Rulifson, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity Size of mature females in spring : 47.8 ±3.18 [Age 4], 51.6 ± 0.87 [Age 5], 58.2 ± 0.84 [Age 6] and 66.9 ± 1.2 [Age 7 47.8 cm Berlinsky, 1995b
15 Age at sexual maturity Most of the studies indicate that females do not mature until at least 4 years, and, in most cases, not until 5 years of age 4.0 year Will, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-7 [Female] 5.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity >4 4.0 year Berlinsky, 1995
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 4.0 year Sullivan, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity Spawn for the first time at 3 to 6 years of age [Not specified] 3.0 year Burdick and Hightower, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 5.5 [Both sex] 5.5 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 5-8 [Female specified] 6.5 year Secor, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity A few of the female striped bass become mature by the end of their 3rd year, while the majority attain maturity at the end of their 4th year 3.0 year Merriman, 1937
15 Age at sexual maturity In 1976: female were mature at age VI (47%), VII (87%), VIII (90%), IX (100) 7.0 year McLaren, 1981
15 Age at sexual maturity About 44% of age-3 females were sexually mature and that all females examined were mature by age 6 [Female stripped bass from the Atlantic coast of the USA mature mainly at age 5-6, yet some mature at 3-4] 5.5 year Olsen and Rulifson, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity All females whose age at next potential spawning was and older were mature. Our empirical observations indicated that 12% of fish in age-class 4, 34% of fish in age-class 5, and 77% of fish in age-class 6 were mature 12.0 year Berlinsky, 1995b
15 Age at sexual maturity In the mid-Atlantic region, females mature between 3 to 7 years 3.0 year Holland, 2000

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Males initiated spermiogenesis by late september and spermiation by late February or early March ['February', 'March'] Woods III and Sullivan, 1993
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Ultrasonic sex detemrination was accurate from october to May, even tough all males were spermiating only during April ['April', 'May'] Blythe, 1994
31 Onset of spermatogenesis In October-November, spermatogenesis began in all males in reared conditions ['October', 'November'] Holland, 2000
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 9.5, up to 10.5 [Mid-April] in reared conditions 9.5 percent Holland, 2000
32 Main spermatogenesis activity GSI increased rapidly from December to April, mainly December to February in reared conditions ['February', 'April', 'December'] Holland, 2000
35 Resting period Male sex determination was lowest in September when testicular diameter was minimal No data Blythe, 1994
35 Resting period In June, after the second reproductive season, testes from mature fish strated to regress and spermatozoa were resorbed. In September (the beginning of the third reproductive cycle) only spermatogonia were present in the testes. No data Holland, 2000
28 Length at sexual maturity About 50 or more 50.0 cm Rue, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 45 [Both sex] 45.0 cm Olden, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity In 1976: male were mature at size 38.5 (48%), 43.9 (67%), 52.1 (87%), 56.5 (78%) and 64.0 (100%) 43.9 cm McLaren, 1981

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Spawning can involve multiple males and more than one female, but it is characterized by one female and many males releasing gametes at the water surface [Once a group of males has spawned, they will continue to chase the spent female or court the next available one] Ambiguous Sullivan, 1997
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition It remains unclear whether spawning occurs predominantly during the day or the night Ambiguous Sullivan, 1997
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Over their entire range, accounts of stripped bass spawning span all times of the day. However, in North Carolina, striped bass have been reported to broadcast their eggs late in the afternoon and early in the evening Day Burdick and Hightower, 2005
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate No substrate No category Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Over bottoms of sand or mud Psammophils Rue, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Litho-pelagophil Pelagophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Egg survival is increased when spawning takes place over large substrates or conditons cause them to stay suspended. In a controlled experiment, it was showed that egg survival was 22.6% higher for eggs deposited over coarse sand than those deposited over a mix of silt and clay. Eggs deposited over a mix of organic matter, sand, silt and clay showed no survival. Psammophils Burdick and Hightower, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
41 Spawning temperature Starts at 14-15, bulk of spawn 16-18°C 14.5 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature About 18 18.0 °C Carmichael, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Around 16-17 16.5 °C Sullivan, 1997
41 Spawning temperature Between 14.4-21.2, with peak spawning between 17.8-20.0 17.8 °C Rue, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 14 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 14.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Spawning activity start not until water temperatures reached 18°C, with 70 percent of spawning occuring between 20.0 and 23.9°C [Also start at 14.4, and peak at 15.6-19.4°C] 17.5 °C Burdick and Hightower, 2005
41 Spawning temperature In the Chesapeeke Bay, females undergoing FOM can be found at temperatures as low as 13°C, whereas spawning takes place at water temperatures of 16-20°C 18.0 °C Mylonas, 1997
40 Spawning period duration Males remain on the spawning grounds for as long as 30 days while females spend about 7-10 days there 8.5 weeks Sullivan, 1997
40 Spawning period duration Males remained on the spawning grounds for averages of 22 and 21 days, females for 8 and 11 days 22.0 weeks Carmichael, 1998
40 Spawning period duration From 5 to 9 weeks 5.0 weeks Rue, 2001
42 Spawning water type Move into fresh or brackish water to spawn No category Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Areas with good flow and/or tidal action which provides increased agitation and aeration to the eggs and help keeps tehm in suspension No category Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Deltaic channels No category Will, 2002
42 Spawning water type With some current Flowing or turbulent water Rue, 2001
42 Spawning water type Current velocities averaging 0.49-0.55 m/s [Areas with rapids, boulders and strounfg currents, typically associated with the fall line] Flowing or turbulent water Burdick and Hightower, 2005
42 Spawning water type In the headwaters of Chesapaekae Bay and its tributaries No category North and Houde, 2001
42 Spawning water type In these rapids, where the muddy current is exceedingly strong and rendered very erratic by islands, boulders and rocks, the fish spaws. Spawn in low-lying flooded delta country adjacent to Suisun Bay, where the borders between brackish and purely fresh Flowing or turbulent water Merriman, 1937
42 Spawning water type Anadromous, spawning in tidal rivers and migrating to estuarine and marine coastal waters to feed and mature No category McLaren, 1981
43 Spawning depth Release gametes at the water surface No data Sullivan, 1997
43 Spawning depth Spawn near the surface No data Burdick and Hightower, 2005
36 Spawning migration distance Prespawning may travel long distances upriver, in fresh water No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
36 Spawning migration distance The 165-km upriver migration took about a week 165.0 km Carmichael, 1998
36 Spawning migration distance Spawning occurs in several deltaic channels c. 16-50 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean in the freshwater portion 33.0 km Will, 2002
36 Spawning migration distance Can migrate as far inland as 320 km to find suitable spawning habitat 320.0 km Burdick and Hightower, 2005
36 Spawning migration distance Local fishermen catch adult striped bass more than 300 km upstream in the Savannah River from May to September and catch fish in the extreme dowstream tidal reaches of the river during the winter. The major spawning area for striped bass in the Savannah River is in the tidally influenced area 30 to 40 km upstream from the river mouth 300.0 km Dudley, 1977
36 Spawning migration distance Following spawning, most striped bass leave the Hudson River and move generally northeast-ward in Long island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean, but the majority are restricted to within 50 km of the river mouth 50.0 km McLaren, 1981
37 Spawning migration period There is a fall migration upriver, the potential spawners spend the winter in the river, then swim up to their spaning grounds in the spring ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'June', 'February'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
37 Spawning migration period Migration began in mid- to late April when water temperature in the lower river reached 17-18°C ['April'] Carmichael, 1998
37 Spawning migration period Anadromous, coming in from the sea to spawn in brackish or fresh water No data Merriman, 1937
37 Spawning migration period Ascend rivers to spawn in fresh or brackosh water in March to June when water temperature reach 15 to 19°C ['March', 'June'] Dudley, 1977
39 Spawning season April-June, can extend to mid-summer ['April', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season Mainly May, but April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Usually in June ['June'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season About mid-April to mid-June, peaking in mid-May ['April', 'May', 'June'] Carmichael, 1998
39 Spawning season Occurs primarily in April and May ['April', 'May'] Sullivan, 1997
39 Spawning season Early May to June ['May', 'June'] Everly and Boreman, 1999
39 Spawning season Genreally from April to June ['April', 'June'] Rue, 2001
39 Spawning season Peaks in April and May ['April', 'May'] North and Houde, 2001
39 Spawning season Spawn in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to Hune ['April'] Rutherford and Houde, 1994
39 Spawning season April through June, the excat time depending on the latirude and temperature ['April', 'June'] Merriman, 1937
39 Spawning season Most fish observed left the spanwing area between 16 April and 1 May ['April', 'May'] Dudley, 1977
39 Spawning season April ['April'] Vuthiphandchai, 2002
39 Spawning season Normally spawn at Chesapeake latitude (April-May) ['April', 'May'] Clark, 2005
39 Spawning season Striped bass spawn in spring in numerous estuaries on the east coast of North America ['April', 'May', 'June'] Macintosh and Duston, 2007
38 Homing Return to their natal river in the spring to spawn Present Burdick and Hightower, 2005
38 Homing These fish return to wintering areas prior to entering home streams to spawn Present Dudley, 1977
48 Spawning release Once, single clutch. Females releases one long continuous cloud of eggs for less than ten seconds, sometimes another (minor) synchronous gamete release can be observed No category Sullivan, 1997
48 Spawning release Females spawn more than once in a season [One clear seasonal peak per year] Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Sullivan . Reproduction in Harrel Editor 1997
49 Parity Females don't necessarily spawn every year No category Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity Although females spawn more than once, they do not necesseraliy spawn every year Iteroparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Burdick and Hightower, 2005
49 Parity After spawning, followed perhaps by a short stay in fresh waters, most adult striped bass return to marine waters Iteroparous Dudley, 1977
49 Parity Spawn once a year during a relatively short period in the psring No category Vuthiphandchai, 2002