Spillmann, 1961



Citation


Spillmann, C.J. (1961) Faune de France : Poissons d'eau douce., pp. 303

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Mating system By pair, or by small groups of 1 female and 2-3 males Ambiguous
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Mating system Several female may mate in the same nest No category
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Mating system By pair Monogamy
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the night Night
Alosa fallax Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night : between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. Night
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night
Gobio gobio Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Early in the morning Day
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Parental care None No category
Alosa fallax Spawning conditions Parental care None No category
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Parental care Spawn is guarded by male Male parental care
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Parental care The spawning is guarded by the male and larvae are also guarded during 3 to 4 weeks after the hatching. Male parental care
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Parental care The spawning is guarded No category
Cottus gobio Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards the nest Male parental care
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravels and pebbles Lithophils
Barbatula barbatula Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravels or aquatic plants Ambiguous
Cobitis taenia Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Plants and stones Ambiguous
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning substrate On plants but also pebbles Ambiguous
Alburnus alburnus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Submerged plants and gravels Ambiguous
Barbus barbus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophilous spawner, which lays eggs onto gravelly bottom Lithophils
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Plants Phytophils
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravels Lithophils
Gobio gobio Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Plants or gravels Ambiguous
Leuciscus idus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Plants or sandy grounds Ambiguous
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Pebbles and gravels Lithophils
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils
Tinca tinca Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Clear gravels Lithophils
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sand Psammophils
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sand or gravel Ambiguous
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male construct a nest Nest built by male
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 22-24 [Optimum, but could start when the temperature reaches 14°C] 23.0 °C
Alburnus alburnus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature From 15 15.0 °C
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 20-25 [In fish farm] 22.5 °C
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Above 11 11.0 °C
Chondrostoma toxostoma Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 13 13.0 °C
Rutilus rutilus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Above 15 15.0 °C
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 18-27 22.5 °C
Tinca tinca Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 18-26 22.0 °C
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 7-10 8.5 °C
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 5-10 7.5 °C
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 16-18 17.0 °C
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 13-14 13.5 °C
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning temperature About 15 15.0 °C
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 4-5 [Southern populations from 10 February to 24 March] 4.5 weeks
Rutilus rutilus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Short period, all individuals spawn together No data
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Quite long period No data
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Spawning water type Rapid current Flowing or turbulent water
Alosa fallax Spawning conditions Spawning water type With constant current Flowing or turbulent water
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning water type Near the shoreline Stagnant water
Alburnus alburnus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Near the shoreline Stagnant water
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water
Gobio gobio Spawning conditions Spawning water type Water with some current Flowing or turbulent water
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning water type Calm waters near the shoreline Stagnant water
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning water type Calm waters No category
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Spawning depth Near the surface No data
Alosa fallax Spawning conditions Spawning depth Deep water [Depth not precised] No data
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning depth Near the surface No data
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Shallow waters No data
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning depth Sometimes quite deep in lakes No data
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning depth Nest are constructed mainly in shallow waters (45-80cm) 62.5 m
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning depth Quite deep No data
Alburnoides bipunctatus Female Female sexual dimorphism Some females display nuptial tubercules Present
Chondrostoma nasus Female Female sexual dimorphism Pigmentation is more pronounced Present
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Female sexual dimorphism Bright colors Absent
Tinca tinca Female Female sexual dimorphism No Absent
Sander lucioperca Female Female sexual dimorphism During the spawning season, female display a white belly compared to male Present
Alosa alosa Male Male sexual dimorphism None Absent
Barbatula barbatula Male Male sexual dimorphism The second ray of pectoral fin is enlarged and longer, the second and eigth rays are recovered by sharp tubercules Absent
Cobitis taenia Male Male sexual dimorphism The second ray of the pectoral fin is enlarged, and at the base of the fin (Internal face) there is a bony process with a scale-spahe calle the Canestrini organ. Pectoral fin are relatively longer Absent
Abramis brama Male Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on head, fins, and sides. Colors become brighter Present
Alburnoides bipunctatus Male Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules, and longer paired fin Present
Alburnus alburnus Male Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on back and sides, and inferior fins are colored in orange at their base Present
Barbus barbus Male Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercles on head on on three lines on the back Present
Carassius carassius Male Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on head and first rays of fins Present
Chondrostoma nasus Male Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercles, the first ray of pectorals becomes thicker, pigmentation is more pronounced Present
Chondrostoma toxostoma Male Male sexual dimorphism Do not seem to display any bright color Present
Gobio gobio Male Male sexual dimorphism During the spawning season, male bears nuptial tubercules Present
Leuciscus leuciscus Male Male sexual dimorphism Bears whitish nuptial tubercules on snout, head, cheeks, opercules, sides and belly. Pectoral fin are longer in male than female Present
Phoxinus phoxinus Male Male sexual dimorphism Bear nuptial tubercules on head, and bright colours Present
Rutilus rutilus Male Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on head, snout, sides of the head, fins Present
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Male Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on head and back Present
Tinca tinca Male Male sexual dimorphism Two lateral thickning sysmetric of the muscle wall, located just behind and above the insertion of the pelvic fin Absent
Salvelinus alpinus Male Male sexual dimorphism Bright colors on sides and pair and impair fins Present
Barbus barbus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Carassius auratus Egg Egg adhesiveness Highly adhesive Adhesive
Chondrostoma nasus Egg Egg adhesiveness Stick to gravel Adhesive
Gobio gobio Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Leuciscus leuciscus Egg Egg adhesiveness Stick to gravel Adhesive
Phoxinus phoxinus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Tinca tinca Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Esox lucius Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive
Lota lota Egg Egg adhesiveness Not sticky, free on the ground Non-Adhesive
Lepomis gibbosus Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Stick to the substrate] Adhesive
Micropterus salmoides Egg Egg adhesiveness Eggs are adhesive Adhesive
Gymnocephalus cernuus Egg Egg adhesiveness Sticky Adhesive
Alosa alosa Egg Incubation time 4-8 6.0 days
Alosa fallax Egg Incubation time 4-5 4.5 days
Alburnoides bipunctatus Egg Incubation time About 10 10.0 days
Alburnus alburnus Egg Incubation time 14-21 17.5 days
Barbus barbus Egg Incubation time 7-14 10.5 days
Carassius auratus Egg Incubation time About 7 7.0 days
Chondrostoma nasus Egg Incubation time 14 14.0 days
Chondrostoma toxostoma Egg Incubation time 12-15 13.5 days
Gobio gobio Egg Incubation time 14-28 21.0 days
Leuciscus leuciscus Egg Incubation time 25 25.0 days
Phoxinus phoxinus Egg Incubation time NO INFORMATION No data
Rutilus rutilus Egg Incubation time 8-15 11.5 days
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Egg Incubation time 8-15 11.5 days
Tinca tinca Egg Incubation time 6-8 [Depending on the temperature] 7.0 days
Esox lucius Egg Incubation time 10-12 11.0 days
Micropterus salmoides Egg Incubation time 5-6 at 17°C 5.5 days
Gymnocephalus cernuus Egg Incubation time About 10 10.0 days
Perca fluviatilis Egg Incubation time 8 at 13°C 8.0 days
Sander lucioperca Egg Incubation time 10-16 13.0 days
Cottus gobio Egg Incubation time 30 30.0 days
Alosa alosa Female Relative fecundity About 50 50.0 thousand eggs/kg
Abramis brama Female Relative fecundity 30-40 35.0 thousand eggs/kg
Esox lucius Female Relative fecundity 30 30.0 thousand eggs/kg
Lota lota Female Relative fecundity 1000 1000.0 thousand eggs/kg
Sander lucioperca Female Relative fecundity About 200 200.0 thousand eggs/kg
Salvelinus alpinus Female Relative fecundity About 1 1.0 thousand eggs/kg
Anguilla anguilla Female Age at sexual maturity 8-15 11.5 years
Carassius auratus Female Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years
Alosa alosa Egg Degree-days for incubation 60-80 at 24°C 70.0 °C * day
Leuciscus leuciscus Egg Degree-days for incubation 325 [25 days at 13°C] 325.0 °C * day
Lota lota Egg Degree-days for incubation 200 200.0 °C * day
Micropterus salmoides Egg Degree-days for incubation 85-105 95.0 °C * day
Perca fluviatilis Egg Degree-days for incubation 104 104.0 °C * day
Sander lucioperca Egg Degree-days for incubation About 120-150 [i.e. 10-16 days at 12-15°C] 135.0 °C * day
Cottus gobio Egg Degree-days for incubation About 300 [i.e. 30 days at 11°C] 300.0 °C * day
Leuciscus leuciscus Egg Temperature for incubation 13 13.0 °C
Esox lucius Egg Temperature for incubation 10 10.0 °C
Sander lucioperca Egg Temperature for incubation 12-15 13.5 °C
Cottus gobio Egg Temperature for incubation 11 11.0 °C
Barbus barbus Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Migration is present: sometimes 303 km in 37 days 303.0 km
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Short migration No data
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Short migrations No data
Leuciscus idus Egg Egg size after water-hardening 2.5 2.5 mm
Alosa alosa Egg Egg Buoyancy Floats during a moment and then sinks to the bottom Ambiguous
Alosa fallax Egg Egg Buoyancy Sink to the bottom Semi-Pelagic
Chondrostoma nasus Egg Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Sink to the bottom] Ambiguous
Leuciscus leuciscus Egg Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal
Alosa alosa Egg Oocyte diameter 1.5-2 1.75 mm
Alosa fallax Egg Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.5 1.35 mm
Barbatula barbatula Egg Oocyte diameter About 1 1.0 mm
Cobitis taenia Egg Oocyte diameter About 1 1.0 mm
Blicca bjoerkna Egg Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm
Alburnus alburnus Egg Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm
Barbus barbus Egg Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm
Chondrostoma nasus Egg Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm
Gobio gobio Egg Oocyte diameter 2 [Not specified] 2.0 mm
Leuciscus leuciscus Egg Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm
Phoxinus phoxinus Egg Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm
Rutilus rutilus Egg Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Egg Oocyte diameter 1 1.0 mm
Tinca tinca Egg Oocyte diameter <1 1.0 mm
Esox lucius Egg Oocyte diameter 2-2.5 [Not specified] 2.25 mm
Lota lota Egg Oocyte diameter Slightly above 1 1.0 mm
Lepomis gibbosus Egg Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm
Micropterus salmoides Egg Oocyte diameter 1.45-1.5 1.475 mm
Gymnocephalus cernuus Egg Oocyte diameter 1 1.0 mm
Perca fluviatilis Egg Oocyte diameter 1.5-2.0 [Not precised] 1.75 mm
Sander lucioperca Egg Oocyte diameter 1.5 [Not specified] 1.5 mm
Salvelinus alpinus Egg Oocyte diameter 4-4.5 4.25 mm
Cottus gobio Egg Oocyte diameter