Ictalurus punctatus

  • Scientific name
  • Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818)

  • Common name
  • Channel catfish

  • Family
  • Ictaluridae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 82%
Total data204
References30
Image of Ictalurus punctatus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Very adhesive Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Highly viscous and they stick together Adhesive Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
4 Egg adhesiveness Fertilized egg are adhesive and form an egg mass Adhesive Grizzle, 1985
4 Egg adhesiveness Whitin a minute they become sticky and adhere to each other and the aquarium bottom Adhesive Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
4 Egg adhesiveness Mass of adhesive eggs Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs of channel catfish are demersal and adhesive. They adhere to each other in large masses, usually forming a single mass per spawn Adhesive Riggs, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere together Adhesive Legendre, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Formed a cohesive mass following activation Non-Adhesive Lang and Tiersch, 2007
5 Incubation time 7-10 [At 24-26°C], 6 [At 24°C] 8.5 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 4.5 [At 28-29°C], 5 [26-28°C] 28.5 days Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
5 Incubation time 5-10 days [15.6-27.8] 7.5 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 5-10 days 7.5 days Grizzle, 1985
5 Incubation time 6-7 [27°C], 9-10 [15.6-18.4°C], 5-10 [15.6-27.8°], eggs will not develop below 15.5°C and develop best at 27°C 6.5 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 5-10 7.5 days Rue, 2001
5 Incubation time Hatch in 5 days at 72-82°F and in 10 days at 60°F 77.0 days Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time 7-10 8.5 days Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
5 Incubation time 6.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 6.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time 5-8 at 25-28°C 6.5 days Legendre, 1997
5 Incubation time 5 5.0 days Hecht, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation About 150 150.0 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation 130-140 135.0 °C * day Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
7 Degree-days for incubation 140-150 145.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 24-26 25.0 °C Internet, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 15.6-27.8 21.7 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation At 30°C or higher, water temperature can adversely affect egg developmet and fry survival 30.0 °C Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 24.7-26.8°C 25.75 °C Riggs, 1961
6 Temperature for incubation 25-28 [Water temperatures of 30°C or higher can adversely affect egg development and fry survival 26.5 °C Legendre, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation The eggs collected on June 19 were held in 17°C water to slow egg development […] The mean water temperature was 28°C (ranged from 26 to 29°C) 19.0 °C Rach, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation Well water (24.4-25.5°C) was supplied to the incubator at approximately 12 L min-1 24.95 °C Sink and Lochman, 2008
6 Temperature for incubation Water at a temperature of 23-24°C 23.5 °C Brzuska and Adamek, 1999
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.9 [The diameter of the egg membrane after activation] 3.9 mm Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
2 Egg size after water-hardening The fertilized egg are about 3.5 but range up to 5.1 3.5 mm Grizzle, 1985
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.5 [Fertilized swollen egg] 3.5 mm Legendre, 1997
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.5 [Egg size] 3.5 mm Hecht, 1996
2 Egg size after water-hardening Egg production by individual females was considered successful if eggs appeared normal ( yellow and ~ 5 mm in diameter) 5.0 mm Lang and Tiersch, 2007
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Settle to the bottom Demersal Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal eggs lay in the nest Demersal Rue, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Incubates on bottom of nest Demersal Goodyear, 1982
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Riggs, 1961
3 Egg Buoyancy Most catfish possess demersal eggs Demersal Legendre, 1997
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-4 3.75 mm Mellinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 3.3-4 3.65 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-4.0 [Before they are laid] 3.75 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 3.5-4.0 [Not specified, but seems unswollen] 3.75 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 3-4 3.5 mm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
1 Oocyte diameter 3.8 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 3.8 mm Olden, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter The diameter of the eggs fixed just after spawning, with the chorion removed, averaged 3.2 mm 3.2 mm Riggs, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 3 [Ovocyte] 3.0 mm Legendre, 1997
1 Oocyte diameter Mean of 2.356 ± 0.049 [Oocyte diameter in May] 2.356 mm Pacoli, 1990
1 Oocyte diameter Egg diameter (frozen) => 2.2 ± 01. (4FO control), 2.4 ± 0.2 (4PF), 2.2 ± 0.1 (10FO), 2.3 ± 0.1 (10PF) 2.2 mm Sink and Lochman, 2008

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 27-28 27.5 °C Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperatures of 30°C or higher can adversely affect egg development and fry survival 30.0 °C Legendre, 1997
11 Temperature during larval development For most Siluroidei species it would appear that a temperature range between 26 and 30°C is optimal for larval and early juvenile rearing 26.0 °C Hecht, 1996
11 Temperature during larval development The average temperature during the experiment was 21.6 ± 1.0°C 21.6 °C El-Saidy, 2000
11 Temperature during larval development Ranges for water temperatures during trial 1 were: 23-32°C 27.5 °C Weirich, 2001
10 Reaction to light The prelarvae avoid bright light and are indifferent to diffuse light [The larvae are strongly negatively phototaxic and remain in a group in the darkest places or hide under stones] Photophobic Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 448 448.0 °C * day Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 5-16 days after hatching, young have exhausted the yolk 10.5 °C * day Grizzle, 1985
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 5-10 days 7.5 °C * day Hecht, 1996
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 700 700.0 °C * day Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding "Yolk absorption, feeding activity, and swimming of fry at the surface normally occurs at 4-5 d after hatching (fry at this stage are commonly referred to as ""swim-up"" fry [23-33°C]" 4.5 °C * day Weirich, 2001
8 Initial larval size 6.4 6.4 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 7-7.5 7.25 mm Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
8 Initial larval size 6 6.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 6.4 6.4 mm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
8 Initial larval size 8.4 8.4 mm Olden, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour Stay at or near the nest for several days then disperse into shallow water Demersal Internet, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour All prelarvae are in contact with one another Demersal Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched fish have large yolks and remain on the bottom for 2-5 days and then swim to the surface adn begin to feed Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larvae fish remain on bottom for 2-5 days then swim to surface and begin to feed Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the nest up to 8 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982
9 Larvae behaviour Remain near the nest for a few days than disperse to shallow water Demersal Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Female retain the general appereance of juveniles except for the larger abdomen related to the increase of ovarian size Present Grizzle, 1985
24 Maximum GSI value 10.9 [June, July] 10.9 percent Mackenzie, 1989
24 Maximum GSI value 15.2 [June] 15.2 percent Banks, 1999
24 Maximum GSI value 15.6 for prespawning females 15.6 percent Grizzle, 1985
24 Maximum GSI value 15 [GSI usually found in female broodstock] 15.0 percent Legendre, 1997
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 13.8, range 11.0-19.35 [1 July] 15.175 percent Brauhn and McCraren, 1975
24 Maximum GSI value 5% [In May] 5.0 percent June, 1977
19 Relative fecundity Most 6.6-8.0, range 3-12 7.3 thousand eggs/kg Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
19 Relative fecundity 0.7-12 6.35 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 8 [Usual fecundity of female broodfish] 8.0 thousand eggs/kg Legendre, 1997
19 Relative fecundity 5 5.0 thousand eggs/kg Hecht, 1996
19 Relative fecundity Fecundity => 3,149.8 ± 860.9 (diet 4FO, control), 3967,7 ± 1,229.7 (4PF), 7,676.9 ± 418.8 (10FO), 6,289.3 ± 1,314.9 (10 PF) 149.8 thousand eggs/kg Sink and Lochman, 2008
27 Age at sexual maturity 5-8 [Not specified] 6.5 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 5-8 [Not specified] 6.5 years Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Both sex] 2.0 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Can mature as early as 2 years, but broodfish of at 3 years are preferred [ex not specified] 2.0 years Legendre, 1997
26 Resting period About 2 [GSI was low during the summer months: July and August] 2.0 months Mackenzie, 1989
26 Resting period About 4 [From July until November] 4.0 months Banks, 1999
26 Resting period An apparent low point in the annual ovarian cycle was reached immediatly after spawning No data Brauhn and McCraren, 1975
22 Onset of oogenesis GSI Increase sugnificantly from September to October and November to January ['October', 'November', 'January', 'September'] Mackenzie, 1989
22 Onset of oogenesis A slight increase from November until March ['November', 'March'] Banks, 1999
22 Onset of oogenesis The average GSI increases in midwinter, in November ['February', 'November', 'March', 'January'] Brauhn and McCraren, 1975
22 Onset of oogenesis Sharp increase in oocyte size in October ['October'] Pacoli, 1990
22 Onset of oogenesis August (In South and North Dakota) ['August'] June, 1977
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity April ['April'] Mackenzie, 1989
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity A siginificant increase (148%) in April ['April'] Banks, 1999
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity June ['June'] Brauhn and McCraren, 1975
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Second sharp increase of oocyte size from mid-February to May ['February', 'May'] Pacoli, 1990
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Beginning of May (In South and North Dakota) ['May'] June, 1977
20 Absolute fecundity 1-1.6 [70 ?] 1.3 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity 4-34.5 19.25 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity 4-35 19.5 thousand eggs Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
17 Weight at sexual maturity Can mature as early as 0.34 kg, but broodfish of at least 1.5 kg are preferred sex not specified] 0.34 kg Legendre, 1997
16 Length at sexual maturity 36 [Unsexed] 36.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 26.7-40.6 [Both sex] 33.65 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
16 Length at sexual maturity 27.5 [Both sex] 27.5 cm Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 5-8 [Not specified] 6.5 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 5-8 [Not specified] 6.5 year Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
15 Age at sexual maturity 2.0 [Both sex] 2.0 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Can mature as early as 2 years, but broodfish of at least 3 years are preferred 2.0 year Legendre, 1997

Male (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male assumes a darker body coloration with thick lips Present Internet, 2005
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males at bredding time often brighter blue than otherwise Present Scott and Crossman, 1973
30 Male sexual dimorphism Changes in the external features of sexually active channel catfish occur primarily in males: these changes include widening of the head, increased subcutaneous tissue on dorsal head, and darker skin color. Present Grizzle, 1985
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males were 18 to 43% heavier than females Absent Alp, 2004
30 Male sexual dimorphism Secondary sexual characteristics are strongly pronounced. Mature males display a broad, muscular head wider than the body and thickened lips, while head of females remains slender Absent Legendre, 1997
33 Maximum GSI value 0.3 0.3 percent Suquet, 1994
33 Maximum GSI value Averages 0.88 during July and 0.69 during November 0.88 percent Grizzle, 1985
33 Maximum GSI value In captivity GSI reaches 0.25 0.25 percent Legendre, 1997
28 Length at sexual maturity 36 [Unsexed] 36.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 26.7-40.6 [Both sex] 33.65 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
28 Length at sexual maturity 27.5 [Both sex] 27.5 cm Olden, 2006
29 Weight at sexual maturity Can mature as early as 0.34 kg, but broodfish of at least 1.5 kg are preferred sex not specified] 0.34 kg Legendre, 1997

Spawning conditions (80%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system By pair Monogamy Internet, 2005
47 Mating system "By pair, females spawn only once a year but males, at least in the southern USA, ""may spawn several times""" Monogamy Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system By pair Monogamy Grizzle, 1985
47 Mating system It takes 4 to 12 hours for a brood fish pair to complete an egg mass with eggs being release five times per gour No category Legendre, 1997
47 Mating system Each female was paired with an adult male in a spawning pen No category Pacoli, 1990
47 Mating system Females and males are placed in ponds containing spawning containers that stimulate natural nesting sites, and are allowed to form spawning pairs No category Lang and Tiersch, 2007
50 Parental care After the spawning, males drive females away from the nest and guard eggs from predators and aerate the eggs until larvae disperse [During incubarion males may eat some eggs] No category Internet, 2005
50 Parental care The males guarding their own egg masses express aggressive behavior Male parental care Makeeva and Emel'yanova, 1993
50 Parental care Nest is guarded by the male Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Males protect the nest after egg laying, aerate and clean the eggs by fanning with the paired fins, and press and pack the eggs with body and fins No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care After spawning is complete, the male protects the eggs by driving away other fish including the female, the male fans his eggs with his fins [The male continue to guard the young fish for a few days after they hatch] Male parental care Grizzle, 1985
50 Parental care After the male has mated with a female he drives her away and cares for the eggs and fry after hatching No category Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
50 Parental care Males guards nests and young fry Male parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care One or both adults guard nest and fry until they are about 1 inche long Biparental care Goodyear, 1982
50 Parental care After spawning, the male guards the nest for several days Male parental care Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
50 Parental care The males assume care of the egg mass after oviposition No category Legendre, 1997
50 Parental care Paternal guarder Male parental care Hecht, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Undercut banks, under rock ledges, weedy areas, log jams, muskrat burrows Ambiguous Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Undercut, log jams, or rocks Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Hollow logs or cavities in tha bank No category Grizzle, 1985
44 Spawning substrate Spawn under ledges, around or in submerged logs, stumps, or roots and in cavities in the bank No category Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
44 Spawning substrate Cavities, burrows, under rocks near shore, undercut banks, under logs Lithophils Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Hollow logs, undercut banks, or stumps, on bottom of rock, rubble, gravel, mud, sand, clay, or vegetation, also on rock breakwalls Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Spawning occurs in natural nests such as undercut banks, muskrat burrows, containers, or submerged logs No category Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
44 Spawning substrate In nature, it spawns under edges, around or in submerged logs, stupms or roots and in cavities in the bank No category Legendre, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Spawned over rock, rubble, and gravel bottoms of the main river, upstream of the reservoir proper, and in the upper reaches of several of its major tributaries Lithophils June, 1977
45 Spawning site preparation Nests are constructed by one or both parents among the crevices and holes in the rocky jetties Nest built by both parents Internet, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation The pair builds a depression in the ground No category Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Nests built by the male Nest built by male Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Male, chooses a spawning, removes silt from the spawning site and defends a territory established around the nest area No category Grizzle, 1985
45 Spawning site preparation The male typically prepares a nest by clearing soft mud and debris from an esaily protected area No category Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
45 Spawning site preparation Male buids nest Nest built by male Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Built nest No category Rue, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in nest or burrow made in crevices Susbtrate chooser Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Male typically prepares a nest by clearing soft mud and debris from an easily protected area No category Legendre, 1997
41 Spawning temperature 21-29 [But optimum around 27-28°C] 25.0 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 23.9-29.5, with 26.7 the apparent optimum 26.7 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature Begin to spawn when the minimu water temperature exceeds 21°C for several days, normal spawning temperature is from 21 to 29 with 26 considered to be optimal 21.0 °C Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
41 Spawning temperature 22-29 25.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 21-23.3 up to 29.5 22.15 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 21-29, with 27 being the optimum 25.0 °C Rue, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 65-85°F 75.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 24-29°C 26.5 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
41 Spawning temperature 21 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 21.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Begin to spawn when the minimum water temperature exceeds 21°C for several days, normal spawning temperature is from 21 to 29 with 26 considered to be optimal 21.0 °C Legendre, 1997
41 Spawning temperature Ambient water temperature in all culture facilities ranged from 23 to 27°C. Warm (30°C) water was added if possible to attempt to maintain water temperatures within the defined spawning range 23.0 °C Lang and Tiersch, 2007
41 Spawning temperature 25-27°C optimal spawning temperature 26.0 °C Sink and Lochman, 2008
40 Spawning period duration 6-8 [From Mid-April or Mid-May until July] 7.0 weeks Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
40 Spawning period duration 3-4 [Late May to Mid-June] 3.5 weeks Kerr and Grant, 1999
40 Spawning period duration 6-8 [From May through July] 7.0 weeks Rue, 2001
40 Spawning period duration All of the adults that were alive in May spawned naturally during the period from the last week of May to the first week of June No data Pacoli, 1990
42 Spawning water type Spawning takes place in seculed, semidark nests, they will not spawn in transparent ponds Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Ponds Stagnant water Grizzle, 1985
42 Spawning water type Nearshore areas, including wetlands, marshes, bays, harbors, and creek mouths, backwaters, pools, and shoals in rivers, especially areas of strong current Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth In shallow waters, 2-4 m deep 3.0 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth To 42 feet, usually less than 12 feet 42.0 m Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period Depending on habitat, the spawners may or may not migrate into rivers or moving water at spawning time ['May'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
37 Spawning migration period Move inshore from deep water, may enter and migrate long distances up tributaries ['May'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season April-June [Sometimes late July-early August] ['April', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season June and July but most spawning activity apperaed to have ended by June ['June', 'July'] Mackenzie, 1989
39 Spawning season Spawn in late spring or summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season From Mid-April or Mid-May until July ['April', 'May', 'July'] Wellborn and Tucker, 1985
39 Spawning season Late May to Mid-June ['May', 'June'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season From May through July ['May', 'July'] Rue, 2001
39 Spawning season Mid-April to August ['April', 'August'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Late spring and early summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
39 Spawning season Mean peak spawning 13 June [Range: 8-30 June] in Lake Oahe, South and North Dakota ['June'] June, 1977
39 Spawning season Fish were allowed to spawn naturally and eggs were collected on June 19 ['June'] Rach, 2004
48 Spawning release This species may spawn more than once a year Ambiguous Internet, 2005
48 Spawning release Batch spawners Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Spawning lasted 4-6 h with about 9 releases of eggs per hour No category Grizzle, 1985
48 Spawning release Two spawning peaks may occur No category Goodyear, 1982
48 Spawning release Sequential spawners. Periodically the female deposits a layer of eggs and the male fertilizes them No category Legendre, 1997
48 Spawning release Cluster Fractional Hecht, 1996
49 Parity Return to lakes in fall Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
49 Parity After reaching maturity in nature, reproduce only once year No category Legendre, 1997
49 Parity Only one cycle of oogenesis normally occurs each year No category Pacoli, 1990