Silurus glanis

  • Scientific name
  • Silurus glanis (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Wels catfish

  • Family
  • Siluridae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 94%
Total data181
References32
Image of Silurus glanis

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness After fertilization eggs were tansferred to hatching glasses where they stick to the wall and slightly to each other Adhesive Horvath, 1977
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [This adhesive membrane ensures the development of the released eggs attached to substrate] Adhesive Zholdasova and Guseva, 1987
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhere to the substrate via a thich mucous coating [adhere to the nest] Adhesive Legendre, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to the roots of trees Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Linhart, 2002
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Linhart, 2003
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs are laid in a large sticky pile Adhesive Alp, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness The adhesive chorion that occurs in these fish species allows the eggs to attach to various substrate types Adhesive Demsla-Zakes, 2005
5 Incubation time 2.5-3 2.75 days Hovarth, 1992
5 Incubation time 2-3 days at 22-25°C 2.5 days Legendre, 1997
5 Incubation time 2.5 days at 23-25°C 24.0 days Stevic, 1997
5 Incubation time 2.5-3 [22°C] 2.75 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 2.5-3 [At 22-23°C] 2.75 days Linhart, 2002
5 Incubation time About 2.5 days [at 18-20°C] 19.0 days Linhart, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation Hatching takes place after 60-70 day°C 65.0 °C * day Horvath, 1977
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-60 55.0 °C * day Hovarth, 1992
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-70 60.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 60 60.0 °C * day Linhart, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 50 [Hatch about 2.5 days at 18-20°C] 19.0 °C * day Linhart, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation Approximately 2.5 days after fertlization at 23°C 2.5 °C * day Linhart, 2005b
6 Temperature for incubation 22 22.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 22-23 22.5 °C Linhart, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation 22-25 23.5 °C Linhart, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation Tap water at 23°C 23.0 °C Linhart, 2005b
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3-4 3.5 mm Hovarth, 1992
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.5 [Fertilized swollen egg] 3.5 mm Legendre, 1997
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3.0 [Not specified, but seems unswollen] 3.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
2 Egg size after water-hardening 3 [Not specified] 3.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Most catfish possess demersal eggs Demersal Legendre, 1997
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.65-2.3 [Diameter of ovulated egg cells] 1.975 mm Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
1 Oocyte diameter Oocytes attain final size of 2-3 2.5 mm Wisniewolski, 1988
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-2 [Dry] 1.75 mm Hovarth, 1992
1 Oocyte diameter 2.5-2.9 [Ovocyte] 2.7 mm Legendre, 1997
1 Oocyte diameter Mean size of oocytes range from 1.842 [Range 1.00-2.67] for female of 4 years old to 2.323 [Range 1.45-3.73, for females of age 10] 1.835 mm Alp, 2004

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 22-26 24.0 °C Horvath, 1977
11 Temperature during larval development 25-30 27.5 °C Wolnicki, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development 26-28 27.0 °C Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
11 Temperature during larval development 22-25 for the first 2-3 days, 25-28 for the other 2-3 days 23.5 °C Linhart, 2002
11 Temperature during larval development Both systems were supplied with the same treated wter from a water-pipe network with temperature ranging from 23 to 26°C 23.0 °C Brzuska and Adamek, 1999
10 Reaction to light Light caused aggressive bahavior of fish, they crowded at the bottom, near the walls, and in tank corers. The fish reared in darkness were evenly dispersed in the entire water volume and did not crowd Photopositive Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
10 Reaction to light Photophobic Photophobic Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Fish loss to cannibalims was equal to 2% and 17 % of overall mortality in these groups respectively Absent Wolnicki, 1998
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism In the course of the trial, the fish manifested neither sibling cannibalism nor any indications of an aggressive behavior Absent Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism was 7% lower in case of fish reared in darkness than in group [The level of cannibalism was directly related to stocking density in that experiment]. Cannibalism may be reduced by fish rearing in darkness, at stocking densities under 25 ind. dm-3 Present Kozlowski and Poczyczynski, 1999
13 Full yolk-sac resorption A yolk sac was present during the first 5 days (1-5 DPH) 3.0 °C * day Kozaric, 2008
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding After their first feeding (5-7 days old) at temperature of 22-26°C 6.0 °C * day Horvath, 1977
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 125 [5 days at 25°C] 125.0 °C * day Wolnicki, 1998
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 130 [5 days at 28°C] 130.0 °C * day Wolnicki and Myszkowski, 1998
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 150 150.0 °C * day Linhart, 2002
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Exogenous feeding started at DPH 4 and there was a 2-day mixed endogenous-exogenous feeding period 4.0 °C * day Kozaric, 2008
8 Initial larval size 6.4-6.6 6.5 mm Hovarth, 1992
8 Initial larval size 7 7.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 6.4-6.6 6.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size By DPH 3 : average TL is 7.4 ± 0.894 mm ranging from 6 to 8 mm 7.4 mm Kozaric, 2008
9 Larvae behaviour To start with the yellow and helpless larvae lay at the bottom of the boxes. On the 2nd and 3rd day, as they became greyish, they gathered in the darker corner Demersal Horvath, 1977
9 Larvae behaviour Remains fixed to roots of the nest by a ceplalic cement glands Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Remain motionless on the bottom, 5-6 days after they swim well Demersal Linhart, 2002

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value 7.5% [Maturation coefficient, measured prior to spawning] 7.5 percent Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
24 Maximum GSI value 3-15 [GSI usually found in female broodstock] 9.0 percent Legendre, 1997
24 Maximum GSI value 4.5% [May] 4.5 percent Alp, 2004
25 Oogenesis duration 7-8 months 7.5 months Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
25 Oogenesis duration From December to May No data Alp, 2004
19 Relative fecundity About 30 [A female of 2 kg release 60000 eggs] 30.0 thousand eggs/kg Maitland, 1977
19 Relative fecundity 10-48 29.0 thousand eggs/kg Hovarth, 1992
19 Relative fecundity 10-25 [Usual fecundity of female broodfish] 17.5 thousand eggs/kg Legendre, 1997
19 Relative fecundity 7-42 24.5 thousand eggs/kg Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 20-30 25.0 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 20-30 25.0 thousand eggs/kg Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 8.443 +/ 1.114 [12,7 in other studies] 8.443 thousand eggs/kg Alp, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Mass maturation at 4-5] 4.5 years Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
27 Age at sexual maturity Mas maturation occurs in the 3-4 th year of life. However the maturation rate may be accelerated to 2 year [Sex not specified] 3.5 years Orlova, 1987
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 years Hovarth, 1992
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 [Sex not specified] 4.0 years Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity Smallest males belonged at 3 years old [2-3 in other studies] 2.5 years Alp, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Male] 2.5 years Fishbase, 2006
26 Resting period July, August: 0.42-0.81% 0.615 months Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
26 Resting period September-October: >0.05% 0.05 months Alp, 2004
22 Onset of oogenesis Yolk accumulation in the oocytes of the old generation begins in autumn, and continues for 7-8 months ['October', 'November', 'December'] Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
22 Onset of oogenesis The peak of vitellogenesis was observed in summer (July-August), and females passed winter with the ovaries in the IV th stage of development ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February'] Wisniewolski, 1988
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Supplementary vitellogenesis took place in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Wisniewolski, 1988
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous development of sex cells Asynchronous Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
21 Oocyte development Two groups of the oocytes were present in all samples [Also described as: asynchronic development of the oocytes was observed in catfish as late as 10 days before spawning] Asynchronous Wisniewolski, 1988
20 Absolute fecundity Number of the yellow oocytes in particular females amounted to from 34.7 thousand in a female weghting 5.3 kg to 788.0 thousand in a female weighting 36.0 kg [Described in other study : 38592-306240, 11810-1380000, 27400-384500, 42822-391411, 356400, 14600-285000, 61400-249300] 172416.0 thousand eggs Wisniewolski, 1988
20 Absolute fecundity 50-200 125.0 thousand eggs Hovarth, 1992
20 Absolute fecundity Mean fecundity 87,108 +/ 20,992 [Range 9,033 to 340,461 for females ranging from 86.0 to 151.0 cm] 87.0 thousand eggs Alp, 2004
17 Weight at sexual maturity Mass maturation occurs at 1.3-2.3 kg, however the maturation rate may be 1.22 kg [Sex not specified] 1.8 kg Orlova, 1987
17 Weight at sexual maturity 2.6 2.6 kg Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
17 Weight at sexual maturity 4-12 8.0 kg Hovarth, 1992
17 Weight at sexual maturity 2 [Sex not specified] 2.0 kg Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
17 Weight at sexual maturity The smallest mature female was 4.434 [1-2, 1.43 for both sex in other studies] 1.5 kg Alp, 2004
16 Length at sexual maturity Mass maturation occurs at 57-66 cm, however the maturation rate may be 50.7 [Sex not specified] 61.5 cm Orlova, 1987
16 Length at sexual maturity 63.5 63.5 cm Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
16 Length at sexual maturity 50-70 60.0 cm Hovarth, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity 50-60 [Sex not specified] 55.0 cm Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity The smallest mature female was 86.0 cm [85.0-90.0 cm], also [58-60 for both sex in other studies] 87.5 cm Alp, 2004
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 [Mass maturation in 5-6 years] 5.5 year Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
15 Age at sexual maturity Mass maturation occurs in the 3-4 th year of life. However the maturation rate may be accelerated to 2 year [Sex not specified] 3.5 year Orlova, 1987
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 year Hovarth, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 4.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 [Sex not specified] 4.0 year Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity The smallest mature female was 4 years old [3-4 for females in other sutides] 3.5 year Alp, 2004
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 year Fishbase, 2006

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism is not very pronounced. Females have a comparatively more oval, convex and blunt genital papilla, while male present a more conical papilla and a brush part on the first spin ray of the pectoral fin, but difficulty on distinguishing differences may lead to erros in sexing Absent Legendre, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males grew 2 to 15% faster than females Absent Alp, 2004
31 Onset of spermatogenesis End of July-August ['August', 'July'] Zholdasova and Guseva, 1987
31 Onset of spermatogenesis December ['December'] Alp, 2004
33 Maximum GSI value May reach 0.94%, but mean is 0.38% 0.94 percent Zholdasova and Guseva, 1987
33 Maximum GSI value In captivity GSI reaches 1-1.5% 1.25 percent Legendre, 1997
33 Maximum GSI value 0.2 [May] 0.2 percent Alp, 2004
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September ['September'] Zholdasova and Guseva, 1987
32 Main spermatogenesis activity March-April and May ['April', 'March', 'May'] Alp, 2004
35 Resting period 0.12-0.25% at the end of July [June-July] 0.185 months Zholdasova and Guseva, 1987
35 Resting period Low between August and November No data Alp, 2004
34 Spermatogenesis duration 2 months [July to September] 2.0 months Zholdasova and Guseva, 1987
28 Length at sexual maturity Mass maturation occurs at 57-66 cm, however the maturation rate may be 50.7 [Sex not specified] 61.5 cm Orlova, 1987
28 Length at sexual maturity 70.5 70.5 cm Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
28 Length at sexual maturity 50-70 60.0 cm Hovarth, 1992
28 Length at sexual maturity 50-60 [Sex not specified] 55.0 cm Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity Smallest males belonged to the 80-85 cm length class [the smallest male was 83.0 cm], also [58-60 both sex, other studies] 82.5 cm Alp, 2004
29 Weight at sexual maturity Mass maturation occurs at 1.3-2.3 kg, however the maturation rate may be 1.22 kg [Sex not specified] 1.8 kg Orlova, 1987
29 Weight at sexual maturity 2.2 2.2 kg Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
29 Weight at sexual maturity 3-7 5.0 kg Hovarth, 1992
29 Weight at sexual maturity 2 [Sex not specified] 2.0 kg Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
29 Weight at sexual maturity The smallest male was 3.744 [12, 1.43 for both sex in other studies] 3.744 kg Alp, 2004

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system The aggressiveness of both sexes increase during the spanwing season and heavy injuries occur even during the normal spawning process. Such injuries may later be the cause of death No category Horvath, 1977
47 Mating system By pair: one male and one female Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system Spawing in pairs Monogamy Ah-King, 2004
50 Parental care Males guard eggs until hatching Male parental care The Halyn Publishing Group limited, 1976
50 Parental care Guarded by the male Male parental care Legendre, 1997
50 Parental care Male guards eggs Male parental care Billard, 1997
50 Parental care Male guard eggs and discard mud and give oxygen to the eggs Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Male guards eggs Male parental care Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
50 Parental care The eggs are guarded by the males until they hatch Male parental care Alp, 2004
50 Parental care Males guards the nest Male parental care Ah-King, 2004
50 Parental care Male guards a cluster of eggs Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Under vegetation Phytophils Maitland, 1977
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Sand and mud and located near the roots of tree Psammophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Over roots No category Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Substratum choosers No category Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Males buries a nest Nest built by male The Halyn Publishing Group limited, 1976
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in a hole within the ground Susbtrate chooser Billard, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation The male cleans the nest and after a period of courtship spawning takes place Nest built by male Legendre, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation Male clear an area No category Schlumberger and Proteau, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation The male opens out a depression in the bottom No category Alp, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation Male spawing territories No category Ah-King, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation Clutch tenders No category Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Artifical nests installed in spawning grounds No category Brzuska and Adamek, 1999
41 Spawning temperature Reared at 23-24°C 23.5 °C Horvath, 1977
41 Spawning temperature 18-19°C 18.5 °C Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
41 Spawning temperature 22-24 23.0 °C Hovarth, 1992
41 Spawning temperature Spawning can be started as soon as the pond water temperature reaches 20-22°C 21.0 °C Legendre, 1997
41 Spawning temperature 20 20.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 20 [Optimal temperature = 22-25] 23.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Exceed 18 18.0 °C Ulikowski, 2004
40 Spawning period duration 3-4 [Begins at the end of June and ends in Mid-July] 3.5 weeks Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
42 Spawning water type Spawn in Amudar'ya River, its backwaters and lakes adjacent to the river Stagnant water Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
42 Spawning water type Between plants, often near roots of trees No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Fish spawning out of the tributary area: carp, pikeperch, catfish Silurus glanis and eel No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Maitland, 1977
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
37 Spawning migration period Leave their winter shelters from the main channel of danube for entering into the spawning areas when water temperature is about 4-6°C ['February', 'March', 'January'] Ciolac, 2004
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] The Halyn Publishing Group limited, 1976
39 Spawning season Spawning lasted from the beginning of May to the end of the third week in June ['May', 'June'] Horvath, 1977
39 Spawning season Second half of May ['May'] Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
39 Spawning season In Dagestan (USSR) catfish spawn at the end of May, but in Polish conditions in mid-june ['May'] Wisniewolski, 1988
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Hovarth, 1992
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season June, thermophilic species ['June'] Ulikowski, 2004
39 Spawning season June to August ['August', 'June'] Alp, 2004
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Spawns intermittently [Most female spawns two batches of eggs] Ambiguous Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
48 Spawning release After reaching maturity in nature, reproduce only once year Total Legendre, 1997
48 Spawning release One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity Alternate year spawning by some females No category Zholdasova anGuseva, 1987
49 Parity After reaching maturity in nature, reproduce only once year No category Legendre, 1997