Tinca tinca

  • Scientific name
  • Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Tench

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 96%
Total data301
References54
Image of Tinca tinca

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Linhart, 2000
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to plants Adhesive Feunteun, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Fixed on plant or stone Non-Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Egg stickiness was removed by milk and clay mixture] Adhesive Hamackova, 1995
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Linhart, 2003
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of the tench are considerably sticky [The stickiness of the eggs was removed by a talcum suspension] Adhesive Penaz, 1981
4 Egg adhesiveness The stikiness of eggs was removed using a milk solution for 40 minutes and than by means of a clay suspension for 10 minutes, both procedures at 20°C Non-Adhesive Penaz, 1989
4 Egg adhesiveness The methods tested have shown its fesibility to reduce or almost eliminate egg stickiness. In the tannic acid treatments, few eggs stuck together and some were adhered to the incubator walls. However, in alcalse treatments, eggs neither stick together nor adhered to the incubator walls. Adhesive Carral, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness In the control experiment the eggs stuck to the inner surface of the jar Adhesive Gela, 2003
4 Egg adhesiveness One problem related to tench egg stickiness, which must be reduced before eggs can be incubated sucessfully in the hatchery water Adhesive Linhart, 2003b
5 Incubation time 3 [At optimum incubation temperature] 3.0 days Horvath, 1992
5 Incubation time 6-8 [Depending on the temperature] 7.0 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 2-5 3.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 2 [25°C] or 3 [20°C] 2.0 days Laurila, 1987
5 Incubation time 2.5 [2 days and 13 hours at 24°C] 2.5 days Geldhauser, 1995
5 Incubation time 2.5-3 [2.73 days at 22°C] 2.75 days Kamler, 1995
5 Incubation time 3.1 [The development in egg-shells, i.e. the embryonic phase or the icubation period up to peak hatching, lasted 76 hours at the mean temperature of 19.6°C] 3.1 days Penaz, 1981
5 Incubation time 71.2 hours [20°C], 48.5 h [22.5°C], 36.3 [25°C], 30 [27.5°C] 71.2 days Penaz, 1989
5 Incubation time At 20°C, first larvae hatch at the age of 72 hours post activation, maximum hatching occurs at the age of 76 hours 20.0 days Kubu and Kouril, 1985
5 Incubation time Hatching begins 36 hours after fertilization at 24.5°C 36.0 days Carral, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-70 [Optimum incubation temperature] 65.0 °C * day Horvath, 1992
7 Degree-days for incubation 36-43 39.5 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-70 65.0 °C * day Linhart, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-100 80.0 °C * day Feunteun, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-60 [2 days at 25°C, 3 at 20°C] 55.0 °C * day Laurila, 1987
7 Degree-days for incubation 50 50.0 °C * day Geldhauser, 1995
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-60 55.0 °C * day Kamler, 1995
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-120, and 63.5 at 19-22 [From 90 at 18°C, 80 at 20°C and 35 at 25°C] 85.0 °C * day Linhart and Billard, 1995
7 Degree-days for incubation 62.1 day degrees at 19.6°C [Also described at 100-120 DD at 20°C, 90 DD at 18°C, 80 DD at 20°C, 35 DD at 25°C, 63.5 DD at 19-22°C, 70-90 DD below 20°C] 110.0 °C * day Penaz, 1981
7 Degree-days for incubation 29 [Effective day-degrees] 29.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation The number of DD used by embryos until mass hatching for series A in 1965: 129.3 [At 14.5°C], 93.7 [At 15°C], 83.2 [At 21.5°C], in 1966: 48.6 [At 16.2°C], 63.6 [At 21.8°C], 55.7 [At 24.7°C], in 1967: 83.4 [At 17.1°C], 72.4 [At 21.7°C], 55.6 [At 23.4°C], 53.6 [At 28°C] 129.3 °C * day Kokurewicz, 1970
7 Degree-days for incubation Duration of incubation until hatching was recorded in degree-days (D° = ∑ of °C recorded every day) until 80% of larvae had hatched : 57.5 (for control) and between 58.6 and 65.0 for other treatments 80.0 °C * day Gela, 2003
7 Degree-days for incubation Duration of egg incubation until hatching (degree-days) x ± S.D. (at 20°C) : 71.0 ± 1.7 (no enzyme), 62.3 ± 2.5 (5 enzyme per litre of hatchery water, ml), 61.7 ± 2.9 (10), 60.0 ± 2.0 (15), 58.3 ± 1.5 (20) 71.0 °C * day Linhart, 2003b
6 Temperature for incubation 25-28 26.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 18-23 20.5 °C Linhart, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation 19-24 21.5 °C Laurila, 1987
6 Temperature for incubation Normal conditions are 24.1 [All embryos died at 13.8, whereas thet developped at 15.8 till the hatching, but died without delay afterwars. The temperature 29.7°C did not damage the embryos or had no other negative influence. But 31.0 and 31.5°C caused a remarkable increase in mortality of embryos] 24.1 °C Geldhauser, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation 22 22.0 °C Kamler, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation Highest development rate was at 22.9, range 18.3-28.6°C tested 23.45 °C Linhart and Billard, 1995
6 Temperature for incubation 19-24 for embryonic development, 16.7-30 range in which normal development occurs, 14-15 lower and 33-35 upper lethal T°C for embryonic development 21.5 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation Mean temperature of incubation 19.6°C, best conditions at 20-22°C 21.0 °C Penaz, 1981
6 Temperature for incubation "Normal cleavage of blastodisc occurs at temperatures rangin 16.5-31.2°C. The mean duration of one mitotic cycle was stated within this temperature and graphically analyzed the optimal temperatures were 20-25°C, the ""zero-development' was 14°C" 23.85 °C Penaz, 1989
6 Temperature for incubation Several authors have used Weiss jars or Zug bottles of 2-10 L in volume at different temperatures ranging from 19 to 25°C. Eggs were incubated at 24.5°C 6.0 °C Carral, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation Of 2 cultures incubated at 14.5°C (containing about 300 eggs each) only a few larvas were hatched. In one culture incubated at 15°C only 5 teratogenic larvas were hatched. The highest temperature at which incubation was conducted amounted to 30.2°C. At this temperature the per cent of hatched out larva amounted to 40%. Cultures incubated at temperatures ranging within 21°C-24°C gave a highest per cent of hatched out larvas with a lowest per cent of abnormalities, the asynchronicity of their development was also minimal 2.0 °C Kokurewicz, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation 21.77 ± 1.6 21.77 °C Gela, 2003
6 Temperature for incubation 20°C 20.0 °C Linhart, 2003b
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1-1.4 [Not specified] 1.2 mm Feunteun, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.3-1.4 [Not specified] 1.35 mm Fishbase, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.9 [Seems to be fertilized eggs] 1.9 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening The mean size of the eggs has increased 1.44 times, to 1.14 mm 1.44 mm Penaz, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.14 for swollen eggs 1.14 mm Kubu and Kouril, 1985
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Female lay their eggs] Demersal Feunteun, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 0.4-0.5 0.45 mm Horvath, 1992
1 Oocyte diameter <1 1.0 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter <1 1.0 mm Breton, 1980
1 Oocyte diameter 0.5-0.8 0.65 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 0.4-0.5 or 0.79 [Ova before hydration] 0.45 mm Linhart and Billard, 1995
1 Oocyte diameter Mean of 1.078 ± 0.014 [Ripening ovum] 1.078 mm Alas and Solak, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter The eggs are yellow-green in colour and their mean size before activation and water intake was 0.79 ± 0.1 mm (N=30) [Also described in the literrature as 1.0-1.3 mm, 1.3-1.4 and as much as 1.9 for non-swollen eggs] 0.79 mm Penaz, 1981
1 Oocyte diameter According to different authors: unswollen diameter of eggs vary from : 0.79, 1.0-1.3, 1.3-1.4 and 1.9 1.15 mm Kubu and Kouril, 1985

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Normal conditions are about 22 22.0 °C Geldhauser, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development 22 22.0 °C Kamler, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development 20.1-24.9 is the optimum [Survival was strongly decrease to 16 and 14°C] 22.5 °C Hamackova, 1995
11 Temperature during larval development The lower limit of the tolerated temperature for growth is c. 18-19°C, the orpimal temperature range for length growth is 22-26°C, and probably even higher for the growth of body weight 18.5 °C Penaz, 1989
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at about 20°C 20.0 °C Penaz, 1982
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 28 and 31°C 28.0 °C Wolnicki and KorwinKossakowski, 1993
11 Temperature during larval development Optimum temperatures for larval growth (expressed as Relative growth rate: RGR, %d): 22-27°C 24.5 °C Wolnicki, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development Total duration of endogenous feeding period (from egg activation to the beginning of external feeding) is 10 days at a mean temperature of 20.2, that is 202 D°. Development within an egg takes 62°D, i.e. a shorter part of endogenous feeding period. During remaining 140°C larva is fixed to submerged plants 10.0 °C Kubu and Kouril, 1985
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature during sotcking was 22°C, then gradually increased immediatly after stocking, reaching 28°C within 48 h 22.0 °C Wolnicki,2003
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature was maintained at 22.5 ± 1°C 22.5 °C Celada, 2007
11 Temperature during larval development Water temperature was maintained at 24 ± 0.5°C 24.0 °C Celada, 2008
10 Reaction to light Sensible to light Photopositive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
10 Reaction to light In the first stage - from 12 h to 3 days - larave that attained 4 mm were photophilous, non motile lying at the bottom or hanged on the aquarium wall Photopositive San Juan, 1995
10 Reaction to light Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light Newly hatched embryos are photophilous Photopositive Penaz, 1981
10 Reaction to light Newly hatched embryos are photopositive Photopositive Kubu and Kouril, 1985
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Unlike typical predatory fish such as northern pike Esox lucius that require, in order to avoid cannibalism, almost continuous intensive feeding throughout the rearing period, 24 h feeding or larval cyrpinids is generally not necessary Present Wolnicki,2003
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 110 [7 days and 20 hours after fertilization at 22, i.e. 5 days after hatching] 110.0 °C * day Geldhauser, 1995
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 120 [Full resorption of yolk at 8.17 at 22°C, i.e. 5.44 after hatcing] 120.0 °C * day Kamler, 1995
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 110-120 [5-10 days at 22°C] 115.0 °C * day San Juan, 1995
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Exclusively exogeneous nutrition, the last remains of the yolk sac disappered definitively: L=5.8-7.4 mm 6.6 °C * day Penaz, 1982
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 110 [5 days at 22] 110.0 °C * day Hamackova, 1995
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 95 [Initiation of external feeding at 7.04 at 22°C, i.e. 4.31 after hatcing] 95.0 °C * day Kamler, 1995
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 140 at 20.2 °C [At the mean temperature of 20.2°C, the embryonic period of development, starting with the moment of fertilization and ending with the passage of the embryos to exogeneous food, lasted 10 days (202 DD), while the incubation period lasted 62.1 DD] 140.0 °C * day Penaz, 1981
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding [Duration of development from activation to onset of exogeneous feeding, in parenthesis time for incubation: 224.6 (71.2) at 20°C, 159.2 (48.5) at 22.5°C, 131.5 (36.3) at 25°C, 125.4 (30) at 27.5°C] 224.6 °C * day Penaz, 1989
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Mixed endogeneous and exogeneous nutrition 7 days after hatching at a size of L=5.5-5.8 mm 5.65 °C * day Penaz, 1982
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Commencement of exogeneous feeding 5 days post-hatching at an initial total length of 5.10 ± 0.18 mm 5.1 °C * day Wolnicki and KorwinKossakowski, 1993
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Total duration of endogenous feeding period (from egg activation to the beginning of external feeding) is 10 days at a mean temperature of 20.2, that is 202 D°. Development within an egg takes 62°D, i.e. a shorter part of endogenous feeding period. During remaining 140°C larva is fixed to submerged plants 10.0 °C * day Kubu and Kouril, 1985
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding The feeding was begun on day 6 after hatching when larval total length (TL +/-SD) averaged 4.53 +/- 0.16 mm 4.53 °C * day Wolnicki,2003
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Experiments started on day 5 post-hatch 5.0 °C * day Celada, 2008
8 Initial larval size 3.5-3.6 3.55 mm Horvath, 1992
8 Initial larval size 4-5 [not specified] 4.5 mm Feunteun, 2001
8 Initial larval size On average 3.8 3.8 mm Geldhauser, 1995
8 Initial larval size 4 [Size between 12 h and 3 days after hatcing] 4.0 mm San Juan, 1995
8 Initial larval size Maximum hatching was observed at 3.82 mm of mean total length [Also described at 4.27, 4.0-4.2, 3.1-3.2] 4.1 mm Penaz, 1981
8 Initial larval size Newly hatched larvae have been described at 4.0-4.2 (When incubated at 18°C), 4-5 (not indicated the temperature), 3.1-3.2 (at 19-22°C), 3.82 (at 19.6°C) 4.1 mm Kubu and Kouril, 1985
8 Initial larval size Larvae at 5-days post-hatch have a total length (TL) of 4.82 mm and a weight (W) of 0.47 mg 5.0 mm Carral, 2006
8 Initial larval size Five days after hatching, larvae had a mean weight of 0.36 mg and length of 5.08 mm. 0.36 mm Celada, 2008
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae remains fixed on plants by a ceplalic cemant, then becoming free Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae remains fixed on plants until full resorption of the yolk sac [4-6 days] Demersal Feunteun, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour In the first stage - from 12 h to 3 days - larave that attained 4 mm were photophilous, non motile lying at the bottom or hanged on the aquarium wall Demersal San Juan, 1995
9 Larvae behaviour "By means of their adhesive glands, they ""hang"" themselves on the walls of the jars as well on submerged objects, remaining 'hung' in a vertical position psssively througout this step" Demersal Penaz, 1981
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae attach themselves with cement glands to submerged plants on which they spend all the yolk-feeding period. However, in larvae hatched prematurely cement glands are under-developed and larvae fail to attach Demersal Kubu and Kouril, 1985

Female (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism No Absent Spillmann, 1961
18 Female sexual dimorphism Diploid females have soft pelvic fins, not reaching the anus Absent Linhart and Billard, 1995
24 Maximum GSI value 7.95 ± 1.12 [July during spawning season] 7.95 percent Pinillos, 2003
24 Maximum GSI value 8.3-10.5 [End of May] 9.4 percent Breton, 1980
24 Maximum GSI value 17% [In June] 17.0 percent Yilmaz, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value Most 7-10, but up to 17% [June] 8.5 percent Linhart and Billard, 1995
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 10.19 ± 0.66 [In June] 10.19 percent Alas and Solak, 2004
24 Maximum GSI value Around 17% (based on graph) 17.0 percent Kubu and Kouril, 1985
25 Oogenesis duration About 3 months (April-July) 3.0 months Breton, 1980
25 Oogenesis duration July-August No data Yilmaz, 2002
25 Oogenesis duration The sum of temperature for the enitree oogenetic cylce calculated by summun day with mean daily temperature above 10°C ranged from 674 to 1047°C, or 1077 ± 24 1077.0 months Linhart and Billard, 1995
25 Oogenesis duration The shortest vitellogenesis for 21-32 days 26.5 months Pimpicka, 1989
19 Relative fecundity 80-120 100.0 thousand eggs/kg Horvath, 1992
19 Relative fecundity 55-300 [Up to 1800] 177.5 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 80-120 100.0 thousand eggs/kg Feunteun, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 63.73-100.24 for age 4 at 7 respectively 81.985 thousand eggs/kg Yilmaz, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 140-230, also 250-400, or 85.7-543.9 185.0 thousand eggs/kg Linhart and Billard, 1995
19 Relative fecundity 300-400 350.0 thousand eggs/kg Environment agency, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 600 600.0 thousand eggs/kg Kunz, 2004
19 Relative fecundity From 85.7 to 543.9 85.7 thousand eggs/kg Alas and Solak, 2004
19 Relative fecundity 97,600 to 467,800 eggs per 1000 g body weight [Values found in other studies: 216.8-466, 120.1-518.4, 139-885, 346-1113, 54.7-1896.7, 97.6-467.8] 341.4 thousand eggs/kg Pimpicka, 1981
19 Relative fecundity Realtive fecundity of tench in the Lipen Dam Reservoir: means of 136245 [Range of weight 601-700 g], 196006 [Range weight 701-800 g], 177953 [Range weight 801-900 g], 165027 [901-1000 g], 167132 [1001-1100 g], 198962 [1101-1200], 228097 [1201-1300 g] 650.5 thousand eggs/kg Kubu and Kouril, 1985
19 Relative fecundity Relative fecundity of tench females collected in 1978 was from 105.0 to 543.9, and in 1979 from 85.7 to 513.8 thousand eggs per 1000 g of body weight. On the average, in both reproductive seasons, about 211.0-259.0 eggs were layed per 1000 g of tench weight 235.0 thousand eggs/kg Pimpicka, 1991
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 2.5 years Horvath, 1992
27 Age at sexual maturity From 3 [Sex not specified] 3.0 years Feunteun, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity Mostly at 4, few at 2-3 2.5 years Yilmaz, 2002
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-7 [Minimal age of male for optimal reproduction] 5.0 years Linhart and Billard, 1995
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 Not specified] 4.0 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity Male attainred sexual maturity at 3 3.0 years Alas and Solak, 2004
27 Age at sexual maturity Attain sexual maturity at 3-4 years of age Sex not specified] 3.5 years Morawska, 1984
27 Age at sexual maturity In climatic conditions of Czech Republic tench mature in the second-fourth year of life. Males usually mature in the second year (third) year of life. Females mature a year later than males. Tench reared in fish ponds mature earlier than tench from rivers or dam reservoirs situated at the same altitude. No data Kubu and Kouril, 1985
26 Resting period Between the last reproduction and the following spring (Period when water temperature is under 10°C) 10.0 months Breton, 1980
26 Resting period Between October and March No data Linhart and Billard, 1995
26 Resting period Period of restoration (August) and rest (since September till the end of April) lasted in tench from Lake Drweckie for 9 months. In this period all ovaries were in stage VI/II-III or VI/III, and then in stage III of maturity. Oocyte resorption was observed throughout the year. it was most intensive during fish production, especially in 1979 when water temperature showed considerable variations. 9.0 months Pimpicka, 1989
26 Resting period August-September No data Alas and Solak, 2004
26 Resting period 2.25 ± 0.1 (November) 2.25 months Pinillos, 2003
26 Resting period Nearly 0 in July 0.0 months Yilmaz, 2002
26 Resting period After spawning ovaries are in second stage. In that state they are the smallest during the yearly sexual cycle, are bloodshot, and remaining (non-spawned) oocytes are being resorbed. That state lasts 1 month. Later (from Ocotber until the beginning of April) ovaries are in the third stage of maturity. During that time growth of oocytes occurs. At the end of April/beginning of May ovaries are in the fourth maturity stage. Oocytes are being filled with yolk. At that time asynchronous development of oocytes occurs, which is typical for tench. During the next, five th maturity stage asynchrony becomes more deep. The size of ovaries reaches maximum. Four groups of different developmental advancement co-occur in the ovaries. The most mature oocytes continue yolk accumulation, the second group is at the final steps of vacuolisation, oocytes of the third group (=the last group that is going to be spawned during the spawning season) begin vacuolisation. The fourth group, which is the leats developped, will be spawned the next year. The VI-th maturity stage is ovulation (liberation of oocytes from the Graff follicles). Before ovulation nucleus moves from the centre to periphery of oocytes. 1.0 months Kubu and Kouril, 1985
22 Onset of oogenesis The onset of pre-spawning in April [Until February 25. all the fish were in previtellogenensis] ['February', 'April'] Breton, 1980
22 Onset of oogenesis August already at 2% ['August'] Yilmaz, 2002
22 Onset of oogenesis March [Vittellogenesis is slowly stimulated from mid-february to the end of April, by increasing temperature, but not exceeding 16-17°C] ['April', 'March'] Linhart and Billard, 1995
22 Onset of oogenesis September-October ['October', 'September'] Alas and Solak, 2004
22 Onset of oogenesis Vitellogenesis begins at the end of winter ['February', 'March', 'January'] Gillet and Quétin, 2006
22 Onset of oogenesis Vitellogenesis commenced in May. Its beginning was determined by water temperature (>10°C) ['May'] Pimpicka, 1989
22 Onset of oogenesis After spawning, in Ocotber slight increase from 3 to 5% No data Kubu and Kouril, 1985
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity May-June (Regular increase up to the spawning) ['May', 'June'] Breton, 1980
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity From March to June, but quite regular increase from August until June ['August', 'March', 'June'] Yilmaz, 2002
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity April-May [From 5 to 17%] ['April', 'May'] Linhart and Billard, 1995
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity October to December and April-May ['April', 'October', 'December', 'May'] Alas and Solak, 2004
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity April-May ['April', 'May'] Kubu and Kouril, 1985
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous ovarian development Asynchronous Breton, 1980
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous type, ovary contains oocytes at all stages of development Asynchronous Linhart and Billard, 1995
21 Oocyte development Asynchronic continuous growth of oocytes during the spawning season Asynchronous Pimpicka, 1989
20 Absolute fecundity 40-100 70.0 thousand eggs Horvath, 1992
20 Absolute fecundity 300 (Female of one pound) 300.0 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 30-68 [First spawning, depending on the temperature] 49.0 thousand eggs Breton . 1980
20 Absolute fecundity 200-400 300.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 13-43 28.0 thousand eggs Yilmaz, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 30-700 for females of 15-40 cm 365.0 thousand eggs Linhart and Billard, 1995
20 Absolute fecundity 27.46 ±1.486 to 74.724 ± 5.658 27.46 thousand eggs Alas and Solak, 2004
20 Absolute fecundity Ranged within 29,200 to 292,500 [values found in other studies: 276-821, 16.7-291.8, 22.2-357.1, 37.7-286.9, 42.3-594, 25.8-351.2, 144.836, 38.3-182, 41.6-710.4, 8.3-1241.2, 29.2-292.5] 548.5 thousand eggs Pimpicka, 1981
20 Absolute fecundity Mean batch fecundity for control ranged from 38.7 to 54.4 in three different years, and cumulative fecundity from 144.5 to 217.8 38.7 thousand eggs Morawska, 1984
20 Absolute fecundity Absolute fecundity of tench in the Lipen Dam Reservoir: means of 93600 [Range of weight 601-700 g], 142300 [Range weight 701-800 g], 158200 [Range weight 801-900 g], 154300 [901-1000 g], 179500 [1001-1100 g], 230000 [1101-1200], 281700 [1201-1300 g] 650.5 thousand eggs Kubu and Kouril, 1985
20 Absolute fecundity In 1978, it amouted from 30.3 to 318.8 thousand eggs and in 1979 it was from 18.4 to 416.1 thousand eggs 1978.0 thousand eggs Pimpicka, 1991
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.75-3.00 1.875 kg Horvath, 1992
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.216 ± 0.016 for female at age 4 0.216 kg Yilmaz, 2002
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.4 [Minimal body weight of female for optimal reproduction] 0.4 kg Linhart and Billard, 1995
17 Weight at sexual maturity Mean of 0.133 for female of 4 0.133 kg Alas and Solak, 2004
17 Weight at sexual maturity It appears that in both spawning seasons, females taking part in the reproduction weighted from 238.0 to 1126.0 g 238.0 kg Pimpicka, 1991
16 Length at sexual maturity 25-30 27.5 cm Horvath, 1992
16 Length at sexual maturity 23.9±1.4 for female at age 4 23.9 cm Yilmaz, 2002
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 20.5 ±0.15 for female at 4 20.5 cm Alas and Solak, 2004
16 Length at sexual maturity Smallest length class sampled: 22.1-24 cm 23.05 cm Pimpicka, 1981
16 Length at sexual maturity It appears that in both spawning seasons, females taking part in the reproduction were in body length classes 21.2-35.4 cm 28.3 cm Pimpicka, 1991
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-7 5.0 year Horvath, 1992
15 Age at sexual maturity From 3 [Sex not specified] 3.0 year Feunteun, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity Mostly at 4, some at 3 for females 4.0 year Yilmaz, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-7 [Minimal age of female for optimal reproduction] 5.5 year Linhart and Billard, 1995
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-5 [Not specified] 4.0 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity Female attainted maturity in their fourth year No data Alas and Solak, 2004
15 Age at sexual maturity In climatic conditions of Czech Republic tench mature in the second-fourth year of life. Males usually mature in the second year (third) year of life. Females mature a year later than males. Tench reared in fish ponds mature earlier than tench from rivers or dam reservoirs situated at the same altitude. No data Kubu and Kouril, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity They were aged 3 to 7 years 3.0 year Pimpicka, 1991

Male (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Two lateral thickning sysmetric of the muscle wall, located just behind and above the insertion of the pelvic fin Absent Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism Diploid males have longer pelvic fins than diploid females, with bulky first fin rays, and covering the anus in every case Absent Linhart and Billard, 1995
30 Male sexual dimorphism In contrast to females, tench Tinca tinca (L.) males have large pelvic fins with a thickened and bent second ray. Males also produce notable ventral protuberances during breeding, but the function of these male ornaments is not known Absent Vainikka, 2005
31 Onset of spermatogenesis April ['April'] Breton, 1980
31 Onset of spermatogenesis March-April [Secondary spermatogonia are then tranformed during April and May into primary spermatogocytes] ['April', 'March', 'May'] Linhart and Billard, 1995
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Changes in the ovaries take place in the ovaries were initiated in April, i.e. at the time of intensive vitellogenesis ['April'] Pimpicka, 1989
31 Onset of spermatogenesis October slight increase, but could also starts in mid-April ['April', 'October'] Kubu and Kouril, 1985
33 Maximum GSI value 0.66 (July) 0.66 percent Pinillos, 2003
33 Maximum GSI value 1.6 [June] 1.6 percent Linhart and Billard, 1995
33 Maximum GSI value About 1.7 [Beginning og June], based on graph 1.7 percent Kubu and Kouril, 1985
32 Main spermatogenesis activity May-June (Increase regularly) ['May', 'June'] Breton, 1980
32 Main spermatogenesis activity GSI increase from 0.5 to 1.6 in June ['June'] Linhart and Billard, 1995
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Vitellogenesis commenced in May. In Kiev reseroivr vitellogenesis commenced in May in all tench females. In a fish pond in Golyszk, yolk accumulated in the oocytes as early as February and a little later (march) in Lake Dgal Wielki ['February', 'May'] Pimpicka, 1989
32 Main spermatogenesis activity April-May ['April', 'May'] Kubu and Kouril, 1985
35 Resting period 0.21 (November) 0.21 months Pinillos, 2003
34 Spermatogenesis duration About 2 (April-May) 2.0 months Breton, 1980
34 Spermatogenesis duration For spermatogonia divisions 700 degree days are needed and 1000 degree days for spermiogenesis 700.0 months Linhart and Billard, 1995
28 Length at sexual maturity 25-30 27.5 cm Horvath, 1992
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 17.4 ± 0.086 for age 3 17.4 cm Alas and Solak, 2004
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.4-2.5 1.45 kg Horvath, 1992
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.3 [Minimal body weight of male for optimal reproduction] 0.3 kg Linhart and Billard, 1995
29 Weight at sexual maturity Mean of 0.083 for age 3 0.083 kg Alas and Solak, 2004

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Group of 10 to 20 fishes Promiscuity Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system Spawns start in large groups with minimum of 10 individuals Promiscuity Linhart and Billard, 1995
47 Mating system Group, communal spawning: breeding female generally attended by two males Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
47 Mating system Small spawning groups are formed from one female and one, but usually two males. Promiscuity Kubu and Kouril, 1985
47 Mating system Tench usually spawn in groups of three, with two males competing for a female Ambiguous Vainikka, 2005
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Normally during the afternoon, or in the early morning if the temperature is too warm Day Horoszewicz, 1983
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care Care not mentionned No category Ah-King, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil : Spawning ground are rich in aquatic plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Linhart, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils Feunteun, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Vegetation Phytophils Linhart and Billard, 1995
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Deposit their eggs on plants Phytophils Kennedy, 1969
44 Spawning substrate Dense weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Psammophil Psammophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Kamler, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Spawn amongst dense beds of submerged macrophytes No category Smith, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited on submerged plants,rarely on submerged dead plants or grass overhanging from the shore Phytophils Kubu and Kouril, 1985
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Female lay their eggs Susbtrate chooser Feunteun, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open water / substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Not any male spawning territory No category Ah-King, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Kamler, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 22-24 23.0 °C Horvath, 1992
41 Spawning temperature 18-26 22.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 20-22 (Spawning never occured below 20°C) 21.0 °C Breton, 1980
41 Spawning temperature 21-25 [But 18 in England] 23.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature From 18 18.0 °C Feunteun, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Generally spawning starts at 19-20 19.5 °C Linhart and Billard, 1995
41 Spawning temperature 16-26 21.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 20-21 20.5 °C Kennedy, 1969
41 Spawning temperature 20-24 22.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 16-22 19.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
41 Spawning temperature Mean temperaturewas 16.1 ±2°C and 19.2 ± 2°C in June and July, respectively 16.1 °C Alas and Solak, 2004
41 Spawning temperature 21-23 22.0 °C Kamler, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 20-22 21.0 °C Poncin, 1987
41 Spawning temperature >18 18.0 °C Gillet and Quétin, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Begin spawning when the water reaches 19-20. In their study, the lowest temperature releasing spawning was 19°C, and the highest temperature at spawning was 29°C, mean temperature in the controls between the three years ranged from 20.6 to 23.9°C 19.5 °C Morawska, 1984
41 Spawning temperature The temperature of water during spawning in seperate years amounted to 22 and 19 22.0 °C Kokurewicz, 1970
41 Spawning temperature Spawning is initiated at the water temperatures >19°C, optimum spawning temepratures ranges from 21 to 23°C 19.0 °C Kubu and Kouril, 1985
40 Spawning period duration 4-6 5.0 weeks Breton, 1980
40 Spawning period duration 6-8 [Begins in late April and continues through early July] 7.0 weeks Yilmaz, 2002
40 Spawning period duration 6-9 weeks at 22-25 7.5 weeks Linhart and Billard, 1995
40 Spawning period duration 7-8 [Spawning took place from the beginning of June to the end of July in almost all individuals] 7.5 weeks Alas and Solak, 2004
40 Spawning period duration In Poland, during the season 3-4 batches are depostited at about 2-week intervals between the second half of June and mid-August. In their experiment, the spawning period lasted between 32-66 days in the controls 3.5 weeks Morawska, 1984
42 Spawning water type Deep parts of littoral zone in lake or dam reservoir [Stays at the same place during the spawning season at about 25 m from a spawning place] Stagnant water Linhart and Billard, 1995
42 Spawning water type Low or no flow No category Environment agency, 1996
42 Spawning water type Current velocity: < 5 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow : 0.5-0.8 m 0.65 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Feunteun, 2001
43 Spawning depth At depth of 0.5-3 m 1.75 m Linhart and Billard, 1995
43 Spawning depth Shallow water No data Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Limited home range, localised spawning No data Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Horvath, 1992
39 Spawning season May-July (sometimes in August) ['August', 'May', 'July'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season May-August ['August', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season End of May until July-August ['August', 'May', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season From May to October ['October', 'May'] Feunteun, 2001
39 Spawning season June-July [Sometimes in May and August] ['August', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Begins in late April and continues through early July ['April', 'July'] Yilmaz, 2002
39 Spawning season Begins in May untill end of July ['May', 'July'] Linhart and Billard, 1995
39 Spawning season May-August ['August', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season May-August ['August', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season May-July/August ['August', 'May', 'July'] Herzig and Winkler, 1986
39 Spawning season Spawning took place from the beginning of June to the end of July in almost all individuals ['June', 'July'] Alas and Solak, 2004
39 Spawning season End of June, Begiining of July ['June', 'July'] Penaz, 1989
39 Spawning season May-August. Other authors observed that tench spawned until Jul, other ended in mid-July, tench deased to spawn in the first days of august, also in mid-August ['August', 'May', 'July'] Pimpicka, 1989
39 Spawning season The last batch of eggs is spawned at the end of July/beginning of August. ['August', 'July'] Kubu and Kouril, 1985
39 Spawning season In central Europe, usually the first week in June to the first week in July ['June', 'July'] Linhart, 2003b
48 Spawning release Multispawning, 3 spawnings under natural conditions, intervals of 15-22 days No category Pinillos, 2003
48 Spawning release Intermittent spawner Fractional Breton, 1980
48 Spawning release 9 spawnings under heated conditions No category Horoszewicz, 1983
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning Mutliple Spillmann, 1961
48 Spawning release 3 to 9 spawings during a season No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release 3 if temperature is low and up to 9 during warm summer No category Billard, 1997
48 Spawning release Up to 8 batches Mutliple Feunteun, 2001
48 Spawning release Batch-spawner Mutliple Kamler, 1995
48 Spawning release Multi-batch spawning Mutliple Pimpicka, 1990
48 Spawning release In normal spawning pond, females deposited 3-4 eggs batches [39-54 000 eggs] during the season, and 5-8 batches in heated ponds, interval spawning was 15-22 days and first batch of eggs yielded 33-38% of total fecundity per season Ambiguous Linhart and Billard, 1995
48 Spawning release Several batches during a breeding season Mutliple Poncin, 1987
48 Spawning release Independent of climatic conditions, it depositis different numbers of batches during the spawning period: in Wes siberia 2-3 batches, in Lithuania and in the Kijowski dam reservoir, 3 batches, in the danube estuary 3-4 batches and in the Dniepr basin 4-5 batches Mutliple Morawska, 1984
48 Spawning release The first batch is spawned usually in June, about one-third of total numbers is released at that time. The next batches (usually two) are spawned usually in 20-days intervals Ambiguous Kubu and Kouril, 1985
49 Parity One clear seasonal peak per year No category Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity 7 different age classes No category Alas and Solak, 2004