Dicentrarchus labrax

  • Scientific name
  • Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • European sea-bass

  • Family
  • Moronidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 94%
Total data206
References41
Image of Dicentrarchus labrax

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Not sticky Non-Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 2.3 [17°C], 4.7 [13°C] 2.3 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 2.9-3.6 [Hatching takes 87 hours at 15°C and 69 hours at 17°C], and in all other studies carried out on sea bass egg 93 hours at 13 and 115 at 13°C for 100% hatching 3.25 days Saka, 2001
5 Incubation time Meadian hatch at 72 hours at 16°C 72.0 days Katavic, 1989
5 Incubation time [Mean of 115 ± 5 hours [At 13°C], 81 ± 3 hours [15°C] and 72 ± 2 [17°C]] 115.0 days Dechauvelle and Coves, 1988
5 Incubation time 112 hours at 15°C, but vary from 70-120 hours dpeending on temperature 95.0 days Barnabé, 1980
5 Incubation time 48-72 hours at 16-17°C 60.0 days Cerda, 1994
7 Degree-days for incubation 40-50 45.0 °C * day Fishbase, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation 48-54 [Hatching takes 87 hours at 15°C and 69 hours at 17°C] 51.0 °C * day Saka, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 62 [13°C], 50 [15°C] and 51 [17°C] 62.0 °C * day Dechauvelle and Coves, 1988
7 Degree-days for incubation 70 DD [112 hour at 15°C] 70.0 °C * day Barnabé, 1980
6 Temperature for incubation 13-17 15.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 13.3 ± 1.7 13.3 °C Saillant, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation At 15 or 17°C 15.0 °C Saka, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 16°C 16.0 °C Katavic, 1989
6 Temperature for incubation 15 ± 0.5°C 15.0 °C Cerda, 1994
6 Temperature for incubation 15°C and 19°C [High temperature during early stages favours the devleopment of anomalies due to its acceleration in development rate] 15.0 °C Abdel, 2004
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs collected at 9.5-16.5°C, mostly 13-15°C 13.0 °C Dechauvelle and Coves, 1988
6 Temperature for incubation Eggs were incubated at 16 ± 0.3°C 16.0 °C Johnson and Katavic, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation Rearing temperature 15°C 15.0 °C Barnabé, 1980
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 15°C 15.0 °C Fornies, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Nowadays,the application of a low temperature (15°C vs 20°C) during the embryonic, yolk-sac larval and/or larval phase in Mediterranean hatcheries has been proven to be efficient not only in decreasing the ratio of female sea bass and the growth potential of reared populations,but also in decreasing the occurrence of hemal lordosis that develops during the subsequent juvenile phase. 15.0 °C Georgakopoulou, 2007
6 Temperature for incubation Hatching occurs in fullsea water (34°/oo) at a temperature of 15°C 15.0 °C Giffard-Mena,2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean of 1.162 ±0.0004, min 1.088, Max 1.214 1.162 mm Saka, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.2 1.2 mm Mayer, 1990
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.26-1.31 1.285 mm Pawson, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.19-1.29 1.24 mm Barahona-Fernandes, 1977
2 Egg size after water-hardening A perivitelline space appears, 15 to 60 minutes post oviposition, whether or not the eggs are fertilized. The mean diameter of egg was 1.2 mm with 1.07 and 1.32 mm at minimum and maximum values [Egg diameters described in other places as 1.07-1.32 in Brittany, 1.02-1.296 in the Mediterranean coast, 1.386 for the North Sea] 1.195 mm Dechauvelle and Coves, 1988
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean of 1.115, range 1.12-1.19. In different studies vary from 1.15-1.20 in Mediterranean Sea and 1.08-1.51 in Atlantic Ocean [Fertilized eggs] 1.155 mm Barnabé, 1980
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.17963 ± 0.0047 [Fertilized eggs] 1.17963 mm Carillo, 1989
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.18 ± 0.01 [Fertilized eggs] 1.18 mm Cerda, 1994
3 Egg Buoyancy Buoyant Pelagic Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Pelagic Pelagic Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
3 Egg Buoyancy Floating eggs [Sinking eggs were all non-fertilized] Ambiguous Saillant, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy During incubation studies, the eggs demonstrated pelagic properties in salinities over 35%o and demersal properties in salinities below 34 %o No category Saka, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Small pelagic eggs No category Mayer, 1990
3 Egg Buoyancy Buoyant Pelagic Fornies, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Pelagic Pelagic Secor, 2002
3 Egg Buoyancy The fecund egg is pelagic, spherical and translucent No category Dechauvelle and Coves, 1988
3 Egg Buoyancy Pelagic Pelagic Barnabé, 1980
3 Egg Buoyancy The percentage which were of good quality was detemirned by mesuaring the proportion of floating (good quality) to sinking (ppor quality) Ambiguous Carillo, 1989
3 Egg Buoyancy Buoyant eggs Pelagic Cerda, 1994
3 Egg Buoyancy Egg quality was assessed according to the volume of the floating (viable) eggs Pelagic Zanuy, 1995
1 Oocyte diameter 1.15 1.15 mm Zohar, 1984
1 Oocyte diameter Mode 1.3, 1.1-1.51 [Not specified] 1.305 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 1.1 1.1 mm Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter The postvitellogenic oocytes rapidly increasing volume by about 250% until they reach the hyaline stage 1.0-1.1 mm 1.05 mm Mayer, 1990
1 Oocyte diameter On completion of maturation (ripe egg stage), prior to ovulation, the oocyte (now an egg) mesures about 1.2 mm 1.2 mm Mayer, 1988
1 Oocyte diameter Mean of 1.15 1.15 mm Cerda, 1994

Larvae (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 16.5 16.5 °C Fishbase, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development For the first 20 days of larval culture the water temperature was maintained at 16-18°C. Thereafter the temperature was increased at 19°C 17.0 °C Katavic, 1989
11 Temperature during larval development 17.7-18.9°C [Rearing conditions] 18.3 °C Barahona-Fernandes, 1977
11 Temperature during larval development 19 [Rearing conditions] 19.0 °C Cahu, 1998
11 Temperature during larval development From 16 to 23°C [For larval rearing] and 23°C ±2 [For post-larval rearing] 16.0 °C Hatziathanasiou, 2002
11 Temperature during larval development 16.5°C 16.5 °C Secor, 2002
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 19 ±1°C 19.0 °C Barahona-Fernandes, 1979
11 Temperature during larval development 15 ± 0.5°C 15.0 °C Cerda, 1994
11 Temperature during larval development The percentage of anomalies observed in individuals reared at high temperature (19 for incubation/ and 19°C for cultivation) was 66.44% 19.0 °C Abdel, 2004
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 15, 18 and 21°C 15.0 °C Johnson and Katavic, 1986
11 Temperature during larval development The water temperature in the tank ranged from 18.7 to 19.3°C 18.7 °C Barahona-Fernandes and Girin, 1976
11 Temperature during larval development Rearing temperature vary between 15-20, mostly at 18-19°C 17.5 °C Barnabé, 1980
10 Reaction to light It is well known that marine fish larvae are positively phototropic and that feeding is greatly facilitated by a high light intensity Photopositive Barahona-Fernandes, 1979
10 Reaction to light Positively phototropic Photopositive Barnabé, 1980
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism NO INFORMATIONS Absent Barnabé, 1980
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Sea bass fingerlings, if not fed early in the morning, showed increased cannibalistic activities, 37% of the larger fish filled their stomachs with smaller siblings. The predator must be twice the length of the victim for ingestion. The extent of cannibalism is found to depend on feeding frequency Present Katavic, 1989
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism described Present Bry, 1992
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Present Present Hecht and Pienaar, 1993
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Cannibalism was the main cause of death in post-larvae. Two types of cannibalism was detected: type I, attack from tail (observed at the beginning of the stage) and type II, attack from head (observed at the end of the stage) Present Hatziathanasiou, 2002
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 8 days 8.0 °C * day Saillant, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Feeding depends upon the yolk vesicle which persists beyond the mouth opening (day 5 post-hatching) until the end of endotrophy (day 7) at 15°C 5.0 °C * day Giffard-Mena,2006
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The differences between the mortality rates of the different temperature treatments were expressed at the end of yolk-sac larval stage (4-7 days post-hatching) 5.5 °C * day Georgakopoulou, 2007
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 115 [6 days at 19°C] 115.0 °C * day Cahu, 1998
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding 160-230 [After day 10, larval development was based only on exogeneous food, at 16-23°C] 195.0 °C * day Hatziathanasiou, 2002
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Time of first feeding (8-9 days from hatching at 15°C) at a length of 4.78 mm 8.5 °C * day Cerda, 1994
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Feeding of cultured sea bass larvae has commonly begun at initiation of mouth opening (4 days after hatching). Initial feeding can be delayed 2-4 days without adversely affecting survival or growth of sea bass larvae if they are held at ambient temperature in dilute sea water 3.0 °C * day Johnson and Katavic, 1986
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding First feeding about 6-7 days 6.5 °C * day Barnabé, 1980
14 Onset of exogeneous feeding Feeding depends upon the yolk vesicle which persists beyong the mouth opening (day 5 post-hatching) until the end of endotrophy (day 7) at 15°C 5.0 °C * day Giffard-Mena,2006
8 Initial larval size Mode 3.83, range 3.61-4.05 3.83 mm Fishbase, 2006
8 Initial larval size 4.73-5.26 length at 8-day-old 4.995 mm Saillant, 2001
8 Initial larval size 5.12 [Not specified if at hatching] 5.12 mm Hatziathanasiou, 2002
8 Initial larval size Mean of 3.73 and 3.85 for two different treatments 3.73 mm Cerda, 1994
8 Initial larval size 3.5-4, data based on a graph 3.75 mm Barnabé, 1980
8 Initial larval size 3.5 mm at hatching 3.5 mm Giffard-Mena,2006
9 Larvae behaviour Planktonic Demersal Fishbase, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae are transported into embayments and estuarine nursery habitats Demersal Secor, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour Pelagic Pelagic Barnabé, 1980
9 Larvae behaviour Eggs and pre-larvae drift passively towards coastal zones Demersal Giffard-Mena,2006

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Normally, males are smaller than females at the time of firts maturity, although there is no clear sexual dimorphism Absent Rodriguez, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value About 7.5 [In April, at Arcachon] 7.5 percent Zohar, 1984
24 Maximum GSI value About 7.5, in March [In Arcachon, France], 8% in January[In Sète, France], 7.5 in December [Tunisia] 7.5 percent Barnabé, 1980
19 Relative fecundity 200 (mean) 200.0 thousand eggs/kg Prat, 1990
19 Relative fecundity About 200 [Extreme values range from 293-358 for Irlande's populations to 492-955 for Tunisian populations] 325.5 thousand eggs/kg Zohar, 1984
19 Relative fecundity 273-538 [Also 293-358, or 492-955] 405.5 thousand eggs/kg Mayer, 1990
19 Relative fecundity 188-244 216.0 thousand eggs/kg Cerda, 1994
19 Relative fecundity 293-358 eggs/g for females 32.2-42.4 cm, also 492-955 eggs/g 325.5 thousand eggs/kg Barnabé, 1980
19 Relative fecundity Relative fecundity of control fish 279 279.0 thousand eggs/kg Carillo, 1989
19 Relative fecundity 230 230.0 thousand eggs/kg Zanuy, 1995
19 Relative fecundity Mean range 292.7, 319 and 434.6 292.7 thousand eggs/kg Dechauvelle and Coves, 1998
19 Relative fecundity Relative fecundity in all GnRHa groups was high, being 542000 ± 79000, 420000 ± 50000 and 410000 ± 37000 542000.0 thousand eggs/kg Fornies, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 years Papadaki, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Female in Meditterranean Sea] and 4-7 [Off Irlande] 2.5 years Zohar, 1984
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Unsexed] 3.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 4-7 [Great Brittany], 4 [Arcachon, France], 2 [Sète, France] and 2-3 [Tunisia] 5.5 years Barnabé, 1980
27 Age at sexual maturity Bass in British waters mature for the first time at 4-7 years (about 35 cm total length), with males generally maturing before females 5.5 years Mayer, 1988
26 Resting period April to May (High percentage of atretic female) No data Prat, 1990
26 Resting period < 0,5 [Between June to October, at Arcachon] 0.0 months Zohar, 1984
26 Resting period June-October [In Arcachon, France], May-October [In Sète, France], April-July [Tunisia] No data Barnabé, 1980
26 Resting period From June to early August, oocyte development is minimal No data Mayer, 1990
22 Onset of oogenesis October-November ['October', 'November'] Prat, 1990
22 Onset of oogenesis December [At Arcachon, France] ['December'] Zohar, 1984
22 Onset of oogenesis October-November [In Arcachon, France], September [In Sète, France], October [Tunisia] ['October', 'November', 'September'] Barnabé, 1980
22 Onset of oogenesis In control fish group exogeneous vitellogenesis began in early November ['November'] Carillo, 1989
22 Onset of oogenesis Recruitment of primary oocytes into secondary (vitellogenic) growth, continues through August and September, by the end of which time the ovaries have reacehd maturity stage III. From mid-October, oocyte development starts to accelerate. ['October', 'August', 'September'] Mayer, 1990
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity February-March [At Arcachon, France] ['February', 'March'] Zohar, 1984
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity February [In Arcachon, France], October-November [In Sète, France], October-November [Tunisia] ['February', 'October', 'November'] Barnabé, 1980
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Prat, 1990
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
21 Oocyte development Bass shows group-synchronous oocyte development, at least two populations ('clutches') of oocytes can be distinguished in the ovary Group-synchronous Mayer, 1990
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous type Group-synchronous Mananos, 1997
20 Absolute fecundity 290-2000.043 1145.0215 thousand eggs Mayer, 1990
20 Absolute fecundity 2.500 [Maximum fecundidy] 2.5 thousand eggs Secor, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Vary between 135 and 210 135.0 thousand eggs Cerda, 1994
17 Weight at sexual maturity NO INFORMATIONS No data Zohar, in Barnabé et Billard ed. L'aquaculture du Bar et des Sparidés, INRA Publ., Paris, 1984, 3-24
16 Length at sexual maturity 25-40 32.5 cm Zohar, in Barnabé et Billard ed. L'aquaculture du Bar et des Sparidés, INRA Publ., Paris, 1984, 3-24
16 Length at sexual maturity 36-46 [Female] 41.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 37.7 [Great Brittany], 42.5 [Arcachon, France], 37.1-40 [Sète, France] and 31.4-32.6 [Tunisia] 38.55 cm Barnabé, 1980
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 3.0 year Papadaki, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Female in Meditterranean Sea] and 5-8 [Off Irlande] 4.5 year Zohar, 1984
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Unsexed] 3.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Female specified] 2.5 year Secor, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 5-8 [Great Brittany], 6 [Arcachon, France], 3 [Sète, France] and 4-5 [Tunisia] 6.5 year Barnabé, 1980
15 Age at sexual maturity Bass in British waters mature for the first time at 4-7 years (about 35 cm total length), with males generally maturing before females 5.5 year Mayer, 1988

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
31 Onset of spermatogenesis October-November ['October', 'November'] Prat, 1990
31 Onset of spermatogenesis December-January ['January', 'December'] Zohar, 1984
31 Onset of spermatogenesis December [In Arcachon, France], October [In Sète, France], September [Tunisia] ['October', 'December', 'September'] Barnabé, 1980
31 Onset of spermatogenesis October ['October'] Gonzalez and Piferrer, 2003
31 Onset of spermatogenesis October ['October'] Rodriguez, 2004
31 Onset of spermatogenesis November ['November'] Rodriguez, 2005
33 Maximum GSI value 2.5 [March in Arcachon] to 5 [February, Sète] 2.5 percent Zohar, 1984
33 Maximum GSI value 2.5 in March [In Arcachon, France], 5% In January [In Sète, France], 5.2 in December [Tunisia] 2.5 percent Barnabé, 1980
33 Maximum GSI value During the second reprodcutive period (third annual cycle), the control group showed higher GSI values (January Ferbaury 2.5-3.0%) than at the first reproductive period 2.75 percent Rodriguez, 2001
33 Maximum GSI value January No data Gonzalez and Piferrer, 2003
33 Maximum GSI value 2.5 [In January] 2.5 percent Rodriguez, 2004
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 1.5, up to 1.8% [In beginning of February] 1.5 percent Rodriguez, 2005
32 Main spermatogenesis activity October-November [In Arcachon] ['October', 'November'] Prat, 1990
32 Main spermatogenesis activity January-February [in Arcachon] ['February', 'January'] Zohar, 1984
32 Main spermatogenesis activity January-February [In Arcachon, France], October-November [In Sète, France], October-November [Tunisia] ['February', 'October', 'November', 'January'] Barnabé, 1980
32 Main spermatogenesis activity December ['December'] Gonzalez and Piferrer, 2003
32 Main spermatogenesis activity December ['December'] Rodriguez, 2004
32 Main spermatogenesis activity December-January ['January', 'December'] Rodriguez, 2005
35 Resting period < 0,5 [March to September] 0.0 months Zohar, 1984
35 Resting period May-November [In Arcachon, France], May-October [In Sète, France], February-September [Tunisia] No data Barnabé, 1980
35 Resting period From April to October No data Gonzalez and Piferrer, 2003
34 Spermatogenesis duration One month (Spematozoa present in November) No data Prat, 1990
34 Spermatogenesis duration All males were spermiating from December to March No data Prat, 1999
34 Spermatogenesis duration With both diets, males were running (mitting sperm on gentle hand pressure) from early November to late April No data Cerda, 1994
28 Length at sexual maturity 19-35 27.0 cm Zohar, in Barnabé et Billard ed. L'aquaculture du Bar et des Sparidés, INRA Publ., Paris, 1984, 3-24
28 Length at sexual maturity 31-41 [Male] 36.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 33.7 [Great Brittany], 31.9-37.2 [Arcachon, France], 28-30 [Sète, France] and 23.1-25.5 [Tunisia] 34.55 cm Barnabé, 1980

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Spawns in group Promiscuity Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system 1 or 2 males, always smaller than a female, with a female No category Barnabé, 1980
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition It does not seem that there is a specific hour, spawn all day long [in reared conditions, seem to spawn mostly during the morning] Day Zohar, 1984
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition It does not seem that there is a specific hour, spawn all day long [in reared conditions, seem to spawn mostly during the morning] but in the wild, fish were observed spawing during the day Day Barnabé, 1980
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Not any parental care is provided to eggs No category Barnabé, 1980
44 Spawning substrate Pelagophilous Pelagophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Above rocks Lithophils Barnabé, 1980
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/susbtratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
41 Spawning temperature 9-12 10.5 °C Zohar, in Barnabé et Billard ed. L'aquaculture du Bar et des Sparidés, INRA Publ., Paris, 1984, 3-24
41 Spawning temperature At about 14.6°C 14.6 °C Abdel, 2004
41 Spawning temperature Vary between 10.6-12.6 11.6 °C Barnabé, 1980
41 Spawning temperature Spawning occured for control fish between 11.9-13.8 12.85 °C Carillo, 1989
41 Spawning temperature The spawning begun at the time of the lowest water temperature of the year (12-13°C) and a short but inreasing daylength 12.5 °C Mananos, 1997
41 Spawning temperature On the south-east coast of Spain, under natural conditions, spawning occurs during winter months, under low temperatures (12-14°C) and short and/or increasing daylengths 13.0 °C Rodriguez, 2001
40 Spawning period duration About 4 weeks for the female, much longer for males, seems to be 2-3 months 2.5 weeks Prat, 1999
40 Spawning period duration 2-3 months 2.5 weeks Secor, 2002
40 Spawning period duration Female fish fed D1 showed a spawning period of 93 days, with the first spawning occuring in early January and the last in the first half of April. The second dietary treatment slightly extended the spawning spread to 104 days 1.0 weeks Cerda, 1994
40 Spawning period duration Spawning spread in control fish : 46 days 46.0 weeks Carillo, 1989
40 Spawning period duration Natural spawning time of the control group : first spawning February 2 and last one March 20, mean spawning time 24 ± 5 February 24.0 weeks Zanuy, 1995
42 Spawning water type Coastal zones, at sea No category Billard, 1997
42 Spawning water type Sea margin No category Secor, 2002
43 Spawning depth Mostly at depth < 10 m, yet spawners ready to spawn were found at 40-50 m deep 45.0 m Barnabé, 1980
36 Spawning migration distance Not true migrations but rather small movements between feeding and spawning areas No data Barnabé, 1980
37 Spawning migration period In England: In October, towards south (Cornouailles coast) then a back migration in spring following the spawning ['April', 'October', 'May', 'June'] Barnabé, 1980
37 Spawning migration period Control fish spawn between2 February and 20 March ['February', 'March'] Carillo, 1989
39 Spawning season December ['December'] Prat, 1990,
39 Spawning season December to January with an optimum in January [Mediterranean Sea] and April-May [Britany] and June [Irlande] ['April', 'January', 'May', 'December', 'June'] Zohar, 1984
39 Spawning season December-April ['April', 'March', 'January', 'December', 'February'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season January till April, and March to June in nothern regions ['April', 'March', 'January', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season April-May [Nothern Bristol Channel] ['April', 'May'] Mayer, 1990
39 Spawning season Spawning occured from 09 February 2001 to 12 May 2001, in natural photoperiod and tempertaure conditions ['February', 'May'] Abdel, 2004
39 Spawning season According to the lattitudes, spawns in winter, December to March with an optimum in January in Mediterranean Sea, April-May in Brittany (France), and up to June (Irland) ['April', 'March', 'January', 'May', 'December', 'June', 'February'] Barnabé, 1980
39 Spawning season In the control fish, maintained under a simulated natural photoperiod cycle and natural temperature, spawning occured from February through March. ['February', 'March'] Mananos, 1997
39 Spawning season On the south-east coast of Spain, under natural conditions, spawning occurs during winter months ['February', 'March', 'January'] Rodriguez, 2001
39 Spawning season December to March in the Mediterranean Sea ['March', 'December'] Gonzalez and Piferrer, 2003
39 Spawning season Reproduction in sea bass takes place in winter, when water temperature is between 11 to 15°C ['February', 'March', 'January'] Georgakopoulou, 2007
48 Spawning release Once a year (but several times in captivity) Ambiguous Prat, 1990
48 Spawning release Once a year [One batch per female released during few hours] Ambiguous Zohar, 1984
48 Spawning release Batch spawner [Once clear seasonal peak per year] Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Batch spawner Mutliple Berlinsky, 1995
48 Spawning release Batch Mutliple Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
48 Spawning release Multi-batch spawner Mutliple Secor, 2002
48 Spawning release Fractional spawner [Once spawning has started, successive clutches appear to be recruited in quick succession from the large hetegogeneous population of smaller secondary oocytes. The first cluth contained 30-50% of the total number of seconday oocytes and that successive clutches contained relatively fewer oocytes. Spawn three or four seperate clutches in quick succession, successive clutches containing fewer oocytes. No secondary oocytes are 'held over' for the subsequent reproductive season.] Ambiguous Mayer, 1990
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Zohar, 1984
49 Parity Could live up to 20 years, even 30 years in reared conditions No category Barnabé, 1980