Wiegand, 1988



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Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Carassius auratus Egg Egg adhesiveness The goldfish eggs adhered to the Petri dish and were not dislodged by this procedure Adhesive
Carassius auratus Egg Incubation time The mean time to 50% hatch at 27°C was 2.0 days in all four experiments, involving that temperature. At 22°C, the mean time to 50% hatch was 3.8 ±0.4 days and at 17°C it was 7.1 ± 0.4 days. At 12°C, the mean time to 50% hatch was more variable at 14.1 ±2.5 days. 3.8 days
Carassius auratus Egg Temperature for incubation The optimum temperature for rearing eggs and larvae was 22°C [At 27°C and 17°C, there was a higher indidence of abnormal larvae at hatching and reduced viability compared to 22°C in some, but not all, experiments. Eggs incubated at 12°C produced inviable larvae. High proportions of 12°C larvae were abnormal at hatching and fish raised at 12°C failed to feed] 22.0 °C
Ctenopharyngodon idella Egg Temperature for incubation The embryonic grass carp appears to be even more sensitive to cool conditions than the goldfish. High rates of deformity and poor survival at temperatures of 18.4°C or less using egg fertilized at 20°C. When fertilization was performed at 24.4°C, 5% survival of normal fry to 72 h occurred with incubation at 23.9°C but the few surviving fry at 20.9°C or less were all deformed. 18.4 °C
Carassius auratus Larvae Temperature during larval development The optimum temperature for rearing eggs and larvae was 22°C [At 27°C and 17°C, there was a higher indidence of abnormal larvae at hatching and reduced viability compared to 22°C in some, but not all, experiments. Eggs incubated at 12°C produced inviable larvae. High proportions of 12°C larvae were abnormal at hatching and fish raised at 12°C failed to feed] 22.0 °C
Carassius auratus Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption Yolk was absorbed to be absent or present as a thin ribbon only by day 2 at 27°C, day 4 at 22°C, and day 6 at 17°C 2.0 °C * day