Scardinius erythrophthalmus

  • Scientific name
  • Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Rudd

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 84%
Total data163
References27
Image of Scardinius erythrophthalmus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, stick to plants Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Highly adhesive Adhesive Lafaille, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, fixed on plants Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs were glued Non-Adhesive Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
5 Incubation time 8-15 11.5 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 7-8 [at 14-15°C] 7.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 5 [19.5-22.5] 21.0 days Breteler, 1979
5 Incubation time 5 days [19°C], 3 says [24°C], 3 [20-22°C] 21.0 days Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
7 Degree-days for incubation About 100-110 105.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 150 150.0 °C * day Lafaille, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 100 100.0 °C * day Breteler, 1979
7 Degree-days for incubation 74 [At 21±2°C] 21.0 °C * day Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
7 Degree-days for incubation 57 [Effective day-degrees] 57.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation 14-15 14.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 19.5-22.5 21.0 °C Breteler, 1979
6 Temperature for incubation < 10 for lower lethal temperature and >30 for upper lethal temperature 10.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 19-21 20.0 °C Kucharczyk, 1997
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.33 ± 0.07, n=30 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 1.33 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mean of 1.38, range 1.2-1.5 [Egg diameter after water absorption] 1.35 mm Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 1 1.0 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.7 1.6 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.4-1.9 1.65 mm Lafaille, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0-1.7 1.35 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 0.54-0.88 [Vitellogenic egg] 0.71 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
1 Oocyte diameter 1.30 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 1.3 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.12 ± 0.2 and 1. 20 ± 0.3 [Mean high egg diameter] 1.12 mm Tarkan, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 Not specified] 1.25 mm Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 1 [Not specified] 1.0 mm Hicks, 2003

Larvae (57%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 15 15.0 °C Breteler, 1979
11 Temperature during larval development 21 ±2 21.0 °C Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
10 Reaction to light Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5.4 4.95 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5 4.75 mm Lafaille, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Stick to aquatic plants with a cement cephalic gland Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Remain fixed on plants until full resorption of the yolk sac Demersal Lafaille, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour The newly larva glues its head to the substrate and remains restive until the yolk sac is completely resorbed Demersal Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value Average 9.3 9.3 percent Shikhshabekov, 1979
24 Maximum GSI value About 12.5 in 2001 and 14.5% in 2002 [May] 12.5 percent Tarkan, 2006
19 Relative fecundity 300 300.0 thousand eggs/kg Lafaille, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 100-200 150.0 thousand eggs/kg Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 years Shikhshabekov, 1979
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Age not precised] 2.5 years Lafaille, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 5 [Unsexed] 5.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity The sizes at 50% maturity correponds to 1 year of age for both sexes of roach [review from other populations: 1, 1-2, 2, 2, 3-4, 1 and 3] 1.5 years Tarkan, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Male generally mature at age 1 1.0 years Hicks, 2003
26 Resting period >1 (August) 1.0 months Shikhshabekov, 1979
26 Resting period From June to September No data Tarkan, 2006
22 Onset of oogenesis September (Ovaries are in the state III from October toApril) ['April', 'October', 'September'] Shikhshabekov, 1979
22 Onset of oogenesis September-October, slight increase (from graph) ['October', 'September'] Tarkan, 2006
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Increase regularly until April at 6%, then rise sharply until max value ['April'] Tarkan, 2006
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Synchronous ovogenesis but in other areas asynchronous ovogenesis Ambiguous Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 100 100.0 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 100-200 150.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 15-54 for this study 34.5 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 5-69 37.0 thousand eggs Breteler, 1979
20 Absolute fecundity 36.940 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 36.94 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity Varied from 1.807 to 35.629 eggs between ages 1 and 7 [Review from other populations: 1.807-35.629, 4.38758.895, 0.563-12.284, 23.019-59.248, 96-232] 18.718 thousand eggs Tarkan, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity Varied according to different authors: 20-60, 100, 232 40.0 thousand eggs Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
20 Absolute fecundity 1-100 [In Auckland ponds, rudd ranging in weight from about 5 g to 90 g had means of between 1000 to 40 000 eggs per female] 50.5 thousand eggs Hicks, 2003
20 Absolute fecundity > 100 00 eggs per reproductive cycle 100.0 thousand eggs Cattanéo, 2001
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.08-0.53 (0.01-0.023 : stunted form due to degraded environmental conditions) 0.305 kg Shikhshabekov, 1979
17 Weight at sexual maturity Females as small as 3.4 g mm contained mature eggs 3.4 kg Hicks, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity 17-29 (7.5-11.0 : stunted form due to degraded environmental conditions) 23.0 cm Shikhshabekov, 1979
16 Length at sexual maturity 8.10 for LT50 [Review for other populations: 17-29 (TL)] 23.0 cm Tarkan, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Females as small as 69 mm contained mature eggs 69.0 cm Hicks, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 year Shikhshabekov, 1979
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Age not precised] 2.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Age not precised] 2.5 year Lafaille, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 5 [Unsexed] 5.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [24 months, age at maturation] 2.0 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Not specified] 3.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity The sizes at 50% maturity correponds to 1 year of age for both sexes of roach [review from other populations: 1, 1-2, 3, 2, 3-4, 2, 3] 1.5 year Tarkan, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Females generally mature at age 2 2.0 year Hicks, 2003

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on head and back Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male bears nuptial tubercles on head and back Present Lafaille, 2001
31 Onset of spermatogenesis November (overwinter in stage III) ['February', 'November', 'March', 'January'] Shikhshabekov, 1979
31 Onset of spermatogenesis October ['October'] Tarkan, 2006
33 Maximum GSI value About 7% in 2001 and 9% in 2002 [In May] 7.0 percent Tarkan, 2006
32 Main spermatogenesis activity April ['April'] Shikhshabekov, 1979
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Increase regularly during tyhe winter until 4% in April, then rise sharply in April ['February', 'April', 'March', 'January'] Tarkan, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 17-29 (7.5-11.0 : stunted form due to degraded environmental conditions) 23.0 cm Shikhshabekov, 1979
28 Length at sexual maturity 7.12 for LT50 [Review from other populations: 17-29 (SL)] 23.0 cm Tarkan, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity > 60 mm fork length for males 60.0 cm Hicks, 2003
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.08-0.53 (0.01-0.023 : stunted form due to degraded environmental conditions) 0.305 kg Shikhshabekov, 1979

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Group spawning. Female frequently followed by 2 males Promiscuity Ah-King, 2004
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Mann, 1996
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic plants Phytophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil: aquatic plants Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Submerged plants Phytophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Typical phytophil: plants Phytophils Lafaille, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Vegetation Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Deposit their eggs on plants Phytophils Kennedy, 1969
44 Spawning substrate Weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Deposit their eggs amonst vegetation Phytophils Hicks, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Cattanéo, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Deposit their eggs No category Hicks, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 18-27 22.5 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature Not less than 18-20 19.0 °C Shikhshabekov, 1979
41 Spawning temperature 18-27 22.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 14-20 17.0 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature About 15 15.0 °C Kennedy, 1969
41 Spawning temperature 14-20 17.0 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 14-20 17.0 °C Herzig and Winkler, 1986
41 Spawning temperature From early May (17.5°C) to late June (23.5°C) [review from other populations: 17.5-23.5, 21.9-24.4, 10, 18-20 and 18-25] 20.5 °C Tarkan, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Depending on the place of occurrence, the species begin to spawn when the water temperature reaches 14°C 14.0 °C Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Water exceeds 18 18.0 °C Hicks, 2003
40 Spawning period duration Quite long period No data Spillmann, 1961
40 Spawning period duration 7-11 (June-July) 9.0 weeks Shikhshabekov, 1979
40 Spawning period duration 2 but in other areas much longer several months 2.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
40 Spawning period duration 4 [1.00 months, length of breeding season] 4.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration From 1 to 3 months, but all three populations 4 weeks and among them one few days] 1.0 weeks Tarkan, 2006
40 Spawning period duration 6-8 [From April until June or from June from Mid-July] 7.0 weeks Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
42 Spawning water type River, reservoir, lakes Stagnant water Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
42 Spawning water type Current velocity: < 5 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
42 Spawning water type Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). Generalists: fish spawning in suitable places both inthe tributary and the reservoir: bream, roach, perh, pike and ruffe No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters : 0.1 to 1 m 0.1 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Lafaille, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth 0.1-0.9 m deep 0.5 m Environment agency, 1996
43 Spawning depth Move inshore No data Hicks, 2003
36 Spawning migration distance Limited home range, move to deeper water in autumn No data Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Spawning adults move inshore No data Hicks, 2003
37 Spawning migration period A few ripe individuals of rudd were also caught in the same period as white bream (14-16°C) No data Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season June ['June'] Shikhshabekov, 1979
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April-May to July ['April', 'May', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season May-June, but also from March to July ['March', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season First two weeks of May ['May'] Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
39 Spawning season April-July ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season April-May/June (July) ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Herzig and Winkler, 1986
39 Spawning season The spawning extends from early May to late June ['May', 'June'] Tarkan, 2006
39 Spawning season Depending on the place of occurrence, the species begin to spawn when the water temperature reaches 14°C in April, the spawning going on until June. In colder areas, the spawning takes place from June until mid-July ['April', 'June', 'July'] Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
39 Spawning season Spawn in pring and summer ['August', 'July', 'September'] Hicks, 2003
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Cattanéo, 2001
48 Spawning release Multiple Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release One clear seasonal peak per year Total Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Monospawner fish but in other areas where female shed the eggs over several months Mutliple Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
48 Spawning release Fractionnal spawner No category Spillmann, 1961
48 Spawning release Spawns no less than 2 batches of eggs (the first is the main one), seem to spawn only twice Mutliple Shikhshabekov, 1979
48 Spawning release Fractional spawner : several batches of eggs Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Single spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
48 Spawning release Synchronous type of spawning has been reported [Yet in some areas, rudd has asynchronous ovogenesis and shed the eggs over several months, spawn two batches of eggs int he absence of suitable conditions (particularly temperature) for spawning, the female remain throughout the spawning period with unspawned sexual products] Mutliple Tarkan, 2006
48 Spawning release The eggs are laid in two portions, the first portion consisting of 80% of all the eggs No category Korzelecka and Winnicki, 1998
48 Spawning release Fractional Fractional Cattanéo, 2001
48 Spawning release S. erythrophthalmus spawned four times,the embryos hatching between June 19 and August 1st No category Rheinberger, 1987
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000