Blicca bjoerkna

  • Scientific name
  • Blicca bjoerkna (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • White bream

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 70%
Total data118
References27
Image of Blicca bjoerkna

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (71%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to plants Adhesive Rinchard, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to plants Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Stick to plants] Adhesive Kestemont, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
5 Incubation time 10-15 12.5 days Rinchard, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Embryos from female bream (both fertilized with males of bream and white bream) were kept at 10-15°C, and embryos from female wite bream (both fertilized with males of bream and white bream) at 15-17°C, which corresponded to the water temperature at their natural spawning grounds 12.5 °C Vetemaa, 2008
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Attached to dense vegetation in shallow water] Demersal Fishbase, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Rinchard, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Kestemont, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter In 70-80% of the females two distinct generations of egg cells were observed before spawing: oocyte diamters in the range 0.822-0.946 and 0.316-0.550 mm, respectively 0.884 mm Luksiene, 2000

Larvae (43%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 16°C [Reared conditions] 16.0 °C Mooij, 1989
10 Reaction to light Larvae are not photophobic Photopositive Mann, 1996
8 Initial larval size 5 5.0 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001

Female (75%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value 14.5 [Mid-June, prior to spawning] 14.5 percent Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 8, but up to 12% [Mid-May] 8.0 percent Hansen, 1980
24 Maximum GSI value 7.07 ± 1.00 [In April] 7.07 percent Lefler, 2006
24 Maximum GSI value Ovary weight gradually increases during the spring months and peaks at the beginning of May (15.56%) 15.56 percent Lefler, 2008
19 Relative fecundity 70-140 105.0 thousand eggs/kg Kestemont, 2001
19 Relative fecundity 256-773 514.5 thousand eggs/kg Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex not specified] 3.0 years Rinchard, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex not specified] 3.0 years Kestemont, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male in Finland] 3.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Male] 3.5 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity Females and some males reach maturity at an age of 4 years, but most males mature one year earlier 4.0 years Hansen, 1980
26 Resting period Relatively long period No data Rinchard, 1996
26 Resting period About 5 [July until the next spring] 5.0 months Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
26 Resting period The ovary of the white bream enters a period of tranquillity between November and March No data Lefler, 2008
22 Onset of oogenesis August-September ['August', 'September'] Hansen, 1980
22 Onset of oogenesis The intensity of ovogenesis began to increase in August and September. […] Based on our investigations the GSI value is about 4.5% at the end of September, which can clearly be explained by oocytes entering the stage of cortical alveoli ['August', 'September'] Lefler, 2008
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity April and May ['April', 'May'] Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity April ['April'] Hansen, 1980
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Most stages of gonad maturation take place in spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Fredrich, 2003
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity 6.79 ± 1.22 [October] to 7.07 ± 1.00 [In April] ['April', 'October'] Lefler, 2006
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity The long period of tranquillity is followed in early spring by a rapid gain in ovary weight which is a result of increasing day length, temperature, and improving food supply. By April, the intensity of ovogenesis in the ovaries increased again. The GSI value increased one and a half times in a short period of time (from 5.67% to 8.67%) [...] Thus, in the one - one and a half months prior to spawning vert intensive qualitative and quatitative processes can be observed in the ovary. This is the most intensive period of the ovarian cycle which is shown by quantifiable reproductive indicators. ['April', 'May', 'June'] Lefler, 2008
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Kestemont, 2001
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous development Asynchronous Luksiene, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 11-82 46.5 thousand eggs Rinchard, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 100-200 150.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity Mean of 53 144, range 37 753-116 720 Others studies described it as: 6 700-197 700] 58.0 thousand eggs Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
20 Absolute fecundity Categorized as between 2000 and 100000 eggs per reproductive cycle 2000.0 thousand eggs Cattanéo, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 13-15 [Sex not specified, in Finland] 14.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 14.4 14.4 cm Hansen, 1980
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 20.61, range 18.4-33.1 for females studied 25.75 cm Banbura and Koszalinski, 1991
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex not specified] 3.0 year Rinchard, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Sex not specified] 3.0 year Kestemont, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 [Female in Finland] 4.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Female] 4.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity Females and some males reach maturity at an age of 4 years 4.0 year Hansen, 1980

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules all over the body and first rays of pectoral fins Present Rinchard, 1996
30 Male sexual dimorphism When the white bream reach maturity, females grow faster than males Absent Hansen, 1980
28 Length at sexual maturity 13-15 [Sex not specified, in Finland] 14.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean of 11.1-13.3 12.2 cm Hansen, 1980

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Exhibits polyandry, with courting tactics developped by males Polyandry Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Non-guarder No care Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil : plants Phytophils Rinchard, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil : plants Phytophils Kestemont, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Plant substratum Phytophils Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils: eggs adhere to submerged macrophytes, <20 cm in diameter Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytophils Phytophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Phytophil Phytophils Cattanéo, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Spawn amongst dense beds of submerged macrophytes No category Smith, 2004
44 Spawning substrate Among roots of reed and rush No category Vetemaa, 2008
45 Spawning site preparation No, open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 16-17 16.5 °C Rinchard, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 16-25 20.5 °C Kestemont, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 16-25 20.5 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 16-25 20.5 °C Environment agency, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 16-18°C 17.0 °C Vetemaa, 2008
40 Spawning period duration 4 4.0 weeks Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
40 Spawning period duration Several weeks No data Molls, 1999
40 Spawning period duration 3-4 [In 1974, the white bream spawned from 10 June to 1 July and in 1975 sapwning started at the end of May and lasted about 20 June] 3.5 weeks Hansen, 1980
42 Spawning water type Oxbows, rich in vegetation but return to the river after spawning No category Molls, 1999
42 Spawning water type Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
42 Spawning water type Spawning grounds of white bream in Estonia are usually shallow water areas among roots of reed and rush, lifted by the ice. No category Vetemaa, 2008
43 Spawning depth Shallow water No data Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth 0.5-1 m deep 0.75 m Environment agency, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow water areas No data Vetemaa, 2008
36 Spawning migration distance Limited home range, localised spawning No data Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Holobiotique migration No data Agence de l'eau,
37 Spawning migration period In the spring, when water temperatue is about 10-14°C ['April', 'May', 'June'] Ciolac, 2004
37 Spawning migration period Every season a run of ripe white bream was observed migrating to the tributary to spawn about 2 weeks after the main migration runs of dominant cyrpinids (14-16°C). The period of multiple migration of multiple spawners, mainly bleak and bream (but also white bream and ruud). Early May-early June. Females of these species release eggs during periods of warm weather, each of which triggers a new wave. Transient period when the local movmeents takes over the spawning migration of multiple spawners. early June until mid July. The proportion of ripe individuals decreases as well as the migration rate ['May', 'July', 'June'] Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
37 Spawning migration period During the upstream migration (March-June), mature roach, silver bream and common bream females were collected from natural populations in a fish pass at the Lixhe dam (Belgian River Meuse, 50°45', 5°40'E) ['March', 'June'] Nzau Matondo, 2007
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season June ['June'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Rinchard, 1996
39 Spawning season May-June-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season Starts in May-June and ends up to July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Kestemont, 2001
39 Spawning season May-June [Sometime July] ['May', 'July', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season June ['June'] Molls, 1999
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season In 1974, the white bream spawned from 10 June to 1 July and in 1975 sapwning started at the end of May and lasted about 20 June ['May', 'July', 'June'] Hansen, 1980
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Cattanéo, 2001
39 Spawning season The experiments with female bream eggs were started on 24 May (three females) and 29 May (three females) and with female white bream eggs on 5 June (four females) due to the earlier spawning of bream in Estonia […] White bream starts spawning 2-3 weeks later than bream, usually at water temperature of 16-18°C, and spawning can last until the middle of July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Vetemaa, 2008
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner Mutliple Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
48 Spawning release Multiple, fractional spawner Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner: Batches of 8000-15000 eggs Mutliple Kestemont, 2001
48 Spawning release Three to four batches of eggs in few days Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release The batch-spawing white bream also spawned twice within several weeks Mutliple Molls, 1999
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
48 Spawning release Intermittent spawning Fractional Luksiene, 2000
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner, but in several years and different water bodies it spawn only once per breeding season Mutliple Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning Mutliple Aho and Holopainen, 2000
48 Spawning release Fractional Fractional Cattanéo, 2001
48 Spawning release Mutiple spawners No category Lefler, 2006
48 Spawning release Multiple spawners Mutliple Lefler, 2008
49 Parity Return to the river after spawning Iteroparous Molls, 1999
49 Parity Older fish with resting gonads were not found, indicating that spawning takes place each year after maturity is reached No category Hansen, 1980