Alburnus alburnus

  • Scientific name
  • Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Bleak

  • Family
  • Cyprinidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 66%
Total data146
References27
Image of Alburnus alburnus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Rinchard, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Carrell and Olivier, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Mann, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs adhere to stones, branches or vegetation Adhesive Coad, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs instantly adhere strongly Adhesive Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Agence de l'eau,
4 Egg adhesiveness The current study demonstrated that eggs of common carp (and of vimba, bleak and chub in unpublished data) became sticky within seconds after mixing with water and already 30 s after water contact was enough to develop the egg stickiness mechanism Adhesive Mansour, 2008
5 Incubation time 14-21 17.5 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 15-20 17.5 days Rinchard, 1996
5 Incubation time 14-21 17.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time About one week No data Coad, 2006
5 Incubation time 2.3-2.7 days [55-65 hours at 22.9] 2.5 days Baros, 1979
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-60 [55-65 hours at 22.9°C] 55.0 °C * day Baros, 1979
7 Degree-days for incubation 58 DD or 1410 DH at 20-23°C 21.5 °C * day Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 250 DD 250.0 °C * day Agence de l'eau,
6 Temperature for incubation Incubation at 22.9°C 22.9 °C Baros, 1979
6 Temperature for incubation 20-23°C 21.5 °C Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
6 Temperature for incubation Viable range 14-31 22.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.48 ± 0.06, n=40 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 1.48 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening Egg size: the horizontal diameter is from 1.52 to 1.88 mm (1.59 mm in average), vertical diameter is from 1.40 to 1.60 (1.50 mm in average) 1.52 mm Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.5 [Not specified] 1.5 mm Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Rinchard, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.5 1.35 mm Carrell and Olivier, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.1-1.4 [Not specified] 1.25 mm Coad, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 1.2-1.5 [Not specified] 1.35 mm Agence de l'eau,

Larvae (43%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Incubation at 22.9°C 22.9 °C Baros, 1979
11 Temperature during larval development 19-22 20.5 °C Keckeis and Schiemer, 1992
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20-25°C 22.5 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 20-25°C 22.5 °C Wolnicki, 2005
10 Reaction to light Initially photophobic, then go to the surface at 6-6.5 mm Photophobic Carrell and Olivier, 2001
10 Reaction to light Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Mann, 1996
10 Reaction to light The larvae react to light Photopositive Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
10 Reaction to light Larvae are intially photophobic Photophobic Agence de l'eau,
8 Initial larval size 2-4 3.0 mm Spillmann, 1961
8 Initial larval size 2-4 3.0 mm Rinchard, 1996
8 Initial larval size 4-5.5 4.75 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.5-5.5 5.0 mm Carrell and Olivier, 2001
8 Initial larval size Nealy hatched measured in average 4.6 mm 4.6 mm Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
8 Initial larval size 4-5 mm at hatching 4.5 mm Agence de l'eau,

Female (50%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value 17.1 (June, prior to spawning) 17.1 percent Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
19 Relative fecundity 90-150 120.0 thousand eggs/kg Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex not precised] 2.5 years Rinchard, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-4 [Sex not specified] 2.5 years Carrell and Olivier, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2+ [Male] 2.0 years Environment agency, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity It matures in 2 or 3 years of age [Not specified] 2.0 years Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
26 Resting period Relatively long period No data Rinchard, 1996
26 Resting period >2 (August) 2.0 months Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous Asynchronous Papadopol and Weinberger, 1975
21 Oocyte development Appereance of three kinds of eggs in the ovaries No category Mackay and Mann, 1969
20 Absolute fecundity 1-2 1.5 thousand eggs Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity 0.5-5.7 3.1 thousand eggs Rinchard, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 5-7 6.0 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 0.5-11 5.75 thousand eggs Carrell and Olivier, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity Up to 10 10.0 thousand eggs Coad, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity The estimated of a 5-year-old fish was 6356 with 95% condifidence limits at 5987 and 6776 5.0 thousand eggs Mackay and Mann, 1969
20 Absolute fecundity Categorized as between 2000 and 100000 eggs per reproductive cycle 2000.0 thousand eggs Cattanéo, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 5000-7000 (11000) eggs per female 6000.0 thousand eggs Agence de l'eau,
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex not precised] 2.5 year Rinchard, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Sex not precised] 2.0 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-4 [Sex not specified] 2.5 year Carrell and Olivier, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 3+ [females] 3.0 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity It matures in 2 or 3 years of age [Not specified] 2.0 year Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 (4) years [Sex not specified] 1.5 year Agence de l'eau,

Male (44%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on back and sides, and inferior fins are colored in orange at their base Present Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism During reproduction, males bears nuptial tubercules on back and sides. Besides, during that period inferior fins are orange at their bases Present Rinchard, 1996
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nuptial tubercules on the back Present Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
30 Male sexual dimorphism During reproduction, males bears nuptial tubercules on back and sides. Besides, during that period inferior fins are orange at their bases Present Billard, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Tubercles line the edge of each scale and in single file line the rays of all fins. Fine tubercles cover the whole head Absent Coad, 2006

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition By night Night Carrell and Olivier, 2001
50 Parental care Non-guarders No care Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophil: plants, roots, gravels Ambiguous Rinchard, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil : sand, gravel and submerged aquatic plants Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Submerged plants and gravels Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Submerged plants and gravels Ambiguous Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil, but the substrates could be very variable Lithophils Carrell and Olivier, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Eggs adhere to sumerged plants, bit other substrata are utilised if suitable plants are absent Phytophils Mann, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Over a hard bottom No category Coad, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Fine gravel and adjacent weed Ambiguous Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil Lithophils Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate It deposits its eggs on living plants or on plant debris Phytophils Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phytolithophil Lithophils Cattanéo, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Sandy bottoms, gravels, or plants Ambiguous Agence de l'eau,
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawners Open water/substratum scatter Mann, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
41 Spawning temperature From 15 15.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
41 Spawning temperature 15 15.0 °C Rinchard, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 15 15.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 15-28 21.5 °C Carrell and Olivier, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 17-28 22.5 °C Mann, 1996
41 Spawning temperature About 15-16°C or more 15.5 °C Coad, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 22-25°C 23.5 °C Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
41 Spawning temperature 14-28 21.0 °C Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
40 Spawning period duration 8-10 9.0 weeks Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
40 Spawning period duration Spawning takes place in 3-6 stages at intervals of 9-11 days 4.5 weeks Coad, 2006
40 Spawning period duration 15 or more 15.0 weeks Environment agency, 1996
40 Spawning period duration 10-11 10.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration It therefore appears from the samples that the population shed a batch of eggs in early May, and that there was one, possibly two peaks of spawning activity during June No data Mackay and Mann, 1969
40 Spawning period duration Adult fish may remain in the river for several weeks or months and participate in multiple spawnings No data Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
42 Spawning water type Near the shoreline Stagnant water Spillmann, 1961
42 Spawning water type Current velocity < 20 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Mann, 1996
42 Spawning water type Some species seem to be strickly dependent on the tributary zone as they were never observed reproducing in the reservoir (asp, bleak, chub and white bream), while others are facultative tributary users (roach, bream, pike, perch, rudd). No category Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
42 Spawning water type The roe of the bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.) was collected on evenings from artificial substrate (small branches of juniper placed in spawning areas - between coastal reeds) at the depth of 20-30 cm No category Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Rinchard, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Carrell and Olivier, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Coad, 2006
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Agence de l'eau,
43 Spawning depth The roe of the bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.) was collected on evenings from artificial substrate (small branches of juniper placed in spawning areas - between coastal reeds) at the depth of 20-30 cm 25.0 m Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
36 Spawning migration distance Spawning migration present No data Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
37 Spawning migration period The prespawning migration was rather small, the majority of fish were caught during the first migration run when the water temperature in the river reached 13-14°C. The main spawning run of cyrpinids. Last days of April and early May. Females of the roach, bleak, bream and chub strat to release eggs nearly simultaneously. nearly half of fish biomss migrates during this period. the end of this period can be defined by the absence of females releasing the eggs. prolongation of this period depends very much on weather. The usual extent is 3-7 days, but a drastic cooling can shorten the massive spawning like in 2001. Summer period with highly reduced spawning activity, mid July until august. ripe indiviudals are very rare except for bleak. Most migrating bleack are still ripe for spawning but their numbers are low ['April', 'May', 'July'] Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Rinchard, 1996
39 Spawning season Start only in Mid-May ['May'] Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
39 Spawning season April to August, mainly May and June ['April', 'August', 'May', 'June'] Carrell and Olivier, 2001
39 Spawning season May-July ['May', 'July', 'June'] Mann, 1996
39 Spawning season Spawning in Europe takes place from May to July ['May', 'July'] Coad, 2006
39 Spawning season April-July ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season May to beginning of July ['May', 'July'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season June and July ['June', 'July'] Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
39 Spawning season June-July ['June', 'July'] Kamler and Wolnicki, 2006
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Cattanéo, 2001
39 Spawning season April-June (August) ['April', 'August', 'June'] Agence de l'eau,
39 Spawning season In the Trent, the initial hatching period was between mid-June and mid-July, with successive cohorts appearing at intervals thereafter ['June', 'July'] Nunn, 2007
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner, several spawning during the breeding season Mutliple Rinchard and Kestemont, 1996
48 Spawning release Multiple : 3 spawns during the spawning season Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release From 2-4 batches per year, up to 6 Mutliple Carrell and Olivier, 2001
48 Spawning release Several spawing during the reproduction season Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
48 Spawning release It spawns 2 or 3 times laying a total of 3000 up to 10500 eggs Total Winnicki and Korzelecka, 1997
48 Spawning release Typical multiple spawners Mutliple Fredrich, 2003
48 Spawning release Produced two or three batches Mutliple Mackay and Mann, 1969
48 Spawning release The bleak behaved like multiple spawners in the tributary of Rimov Reservoir. After the main runs, several weaker spawning runs occurred, each with decreasing strength Mutliple Hladik and Kubecka, 2003
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning Mutliple Aho and Holopainen, 2000
48 Spawning release Fractional Fractional Cattanéo, 2001
48 Spawning release Fractional spawning, 3 spawnings Fractional Agence de l'eau,
48 Spawning release Adopt multiple spawning strategies, with up to three batches of eggs produced by individual fish Mutliple Nunn, 2007
49 Parity Maturity is attained at 3 years and life span is up to 9 years No category Coad, 2005
49 Parity Live up to 6-7 years No category Agence de l'eau,