Oncorhynchus keta

  • Scientific name
  • Oncorhynchus keta (Wlabaum, 1792)

  • Common name
  • Chum salmon

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 78%
Total data196
References33
Image of Oncorhynchus keta

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 180 [3-4°C in natural conditions], 240 [1-8°C in natural conditions] 3.5 days Leman, 1993
5 Incubation time 117-122 in natural conditions 119.5 days Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
5 Incubation time 99.6 [5°C], 72.3 [7.5°C], 54.4 [10°C] and 42.7 [12.5°C] for 50% hatch 99.6 days Jensen, 1997
5 Incubation time 46 [7-15°], 62-63 [11-11.5°C], 122-128 [3.4°C] 11.0 days Bakkala, 1970
5 Incubation time 150 [3°C], 88 [6°C], 55 [10°C] and 48 [12°C] deduced from graph 150.0 days Beacham and Murray, 1990
5 Incubation time 44.3 [12.1°C], 49.2 [10.6°C], 65.9 [8.1°C], 88.6 [5.6°C], 113.6 [4.2°C] 44.3 days Murray and Beacham, 1987
5 Incubation time 46.2 [14°C], 52.4 [11°C], 66.6 [8°C], 96.6 [5°C] 46.2 days Murray and McPhail, 1988
5 Incubation time In Central coast: time to 50% hatching 186.8 [At 2.2°C], 124.5 [4.1°C] and 69.3 [8.1°C] 50.0 days Beacham and Murray, 1987
5 Incubation time Egg development from fertilization to 50% hatch at various constant temperatures: 130.2 days [At 3.0°C], 80.8 days [At 6°C], 65.5 days [At 8.2°C], 57.5 days [At 10°C], 34 days [At 15.1°C] 50.0 days Velsen,1987
7 Degree-days for incubation 400-600 500.0 °C * day Groot, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 611 611.0 °C * day Barton, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 540-600 [60 days at 8-10°C] 570.0 °C * day Fishbase, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation 498.2-544.5 [Between 5-12.5°C] 521.35 °C * day Jensen, 1980
7 Degree-days for incubation 560 560.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation 408-420 [3.4°C], 510-589 [9.7-9.9°C] 414.0 °C * day Bakkala, 1970
7 Degree-days for incubation 450 [3°C], 528 [6°C], 550 [10°C] and 576 [12°C] 450.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
7 Degree-days for incubation 526 [Effective day-degrees] 526.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation >4.5 4.5 °C Barton, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Mortality increases significantly when temperatures are lower than 1.5°C during early development 1.5 °C Groot, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation Groundwater has a temperature of 4-5°C and varies little over the course of the year, whereas the subsurface river water is warmer in the summer (9-10°C) and colder in the winter (0.2-0.3C) than the groundwater 4.5 °C Leman, 1993
6 Temperature for incubation 1-4 2.5 °C Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1980
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperature of yolk conversion is about 8°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1993
6 Temperature for incubation Tested from 0-15°C 7.5 °C Bakkala, 1970
6 Temperature for incubation Highest embryo survival rates for most stocks were recorded at an incubation temperature of 8°C, while the lowest were at 2°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1987
6 Temperature for incubation Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 10.5% [At 3.0°C], 3.2% [At 6°C], 1.8% [At 10°C], 14.5% [At 16°C] 10.0 °C Velsen,1987
2 Egg size after water-hardening 6-7 up to 8.0-9.5 [Fertilized eggs] 6.5 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
2 Egg size after water-hardening 6-9.5 7.75 mm Mellinger, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening Can reach 7.1-9.5 8.3 mm Groot, 1996
2 Egg size after water-hardening Up to 7.8 (perhaps 9.6 when fertilized) 7.8 mm Coad, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening Fertilized eggs are about 6.0-9.5 7.75 mm Bakkala, 1970
2 Egg size after water-hardening Water hardened diameter means range between different populations from 7.89 to 8.59 7.89 mm Beacham and Murray, 1987
2 Egg size after water-hardening About 6.7 6.7 mm Fishbase, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 7.3-7.5 [Not specified] 7.4 mm Penaz and Prihoda, 1981
2 Egg size after water-hardening 7.0-7.3 [Fully hardened eggs] 7.15 mm Penaz, 1981
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Fall into the crevices] Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 5.1-5.9 5.5 mm Barton, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 5.1-5.9 [Diameter in the ovary] 5.5 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973

Larvae (71%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Chum salmon fry prefer tempratures of 12 to 14°C and avoid temperatures above 15°C 12.0 °C Pauley, 1988
11 Temperature during larval development As with the embryo, the highest alevin survival rates were recorded at an incubation temperature of 8°C, while the lowest were recorded at 2°C 8.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1987
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 3°C to 12°C 3.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1990
11 Temperature during larval development Emergence vary between Mid-february to Mid-April for groudnwaters incubation, 60 days at 3-4°C, and for subsurface waters from 30-40 days at 2-6°C 3.5 °C Leman, 1993
11 Temperature during larval development Reared at 5-14°C 9.5 °C Murray and McPhail, 1988
10 Reaction to light Photonegative from day 6 to 25 after hatching, then photopositive Photopositive Groot, 1996
10 Reaction to light The fry move down the first night after emergence, where the migration is longer they hide during the day and move by night Photophobic Scott and Crossman, 1973
10 Reaction to light The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
10 Reaction to light After hatching, the larvae with yolk sacs attached (alevins) remain in the gravel Photopositive Pauley, 1988
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 700-1000 [from egg fertilization ?] 850.0 °C * day Groot, 1996
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The yolk sac are fully absorbed 30 to 50 days after hatching 30.0 °C * day Pauley, 1988
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 400 [Swim-up from fertilization: 960 degree-days, from hatching 960 less 560] 400.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The alelvins phase is completed in 30 to 60 days 30.0 °C * day Bakkala, 1970
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Emergence 300 DD [3°C], 294 [6°C], 370 [10°C] and 408 [12°C] at an average of 34.5 mm, range 31.5-38.5 mm 35.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Emergence 30 days [12.1°C], 43.2 [9.5°C], 37.6 [8.1°C], 63.7 [4.9°C], 66.9 [4.1°C] 30.0 °C * day Murray and Beacham, 1987
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 50% emergence at: 39.8 [14°C], 45.6 [11°C], 57.6 [8°C], 64.1 [5.0°C], Mean SL vary at 50% emergence vary with temperature: 30 [14°C], 31 [11°C], 31.4 [8°C], 32.6 [5°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and McPhail, 1988
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Emergence vary between Mid-february to Mid-April for groundwaters incubation, 60 days at 3-4°C, and for subsurface waters from 30-40 days at 2-6°C 3.5 °C * day Leman, 1993
13 Full yolk-sac resorption In Central coast: time to 50% emergence 327.6-186.8 [At 2.2°C], 204.1-124.5 [4.1°C] and 132.3-69.3 [8.1°C] 257.2 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1987
8 Initial larval size 25-30 [Emerging fry !] 27.5 mm Groot, 1996
8 Initial larval size 20.5 mm long when hatched 20.5 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size Larval size is around 16 mm 16.0 mm Fishbase, 2006
8 Initial larval size 20.5 at haching 20.5 mm Bakkala, 1970
8 Initial larval size Average of 22.5, range 20.5-25 22.75 mm Beacham and Murray, 1990
8 Initial larval size Means of fork length according to temperature range from 21.4 to 22.5 21.4 mm Murray and Beacham, 1987
8 Initial larval size Mean SL vary at 50% hatching vary with temperature: 17.2 [14°C], 17.9 [11°C], 19.9 [8°C], 19.5 [5°C] 17.2 mm Murray and McPhail, 1988
8 Initial larval size Alevins hatchings at 8°C were the longest 22.9 mm, those at 4°C slightly shorter (22.5), and those at 12°C (22.2), and 2°C (20.6) 8.0 mm Beacham and Murray, 1987
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the gravel until conditions. During the waiting period they live on the yolk Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour After hatching, the prolarvae stay in the ground for 1-1.5 month Demersal Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
9 Larvae behaviour Swim-up from fertilization: 960 degree-days [From hatching 960 less 560] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
9 Larvae behaviour Alevins remain in the gravel until their yolk sacs are completety or almost completely absorbed. Demersal Bakkala, 1970

Female (58%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 14.3, range 14.0 to 16.6 14.3 percent Bakkala, 1970
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 17.4 for different populations 17.4 percent Fleming, 1998
19 Relative fecundity Different absolute fecundity means found in different rivers: 2658 ±22.3 [Weight: 3.50 ±0.036 kg, in Gizhiga], 2693 ±22.8 [Weight 3.86 ± 0.043 kg in Yama], 2450 ± 32.9 [Weight 3.42 ± 0.048 kg in Arman], 2300 ± 24.1 [Weight 3.31 ±0.065 in Taui], 2597 ± 19.4 [Weight 3.87 ± 0.032 in Khukhtiu], 2683 ±0.040 [Weight 3.65 ±0.040 in Ulya] 2658.0 thousand eggs/kg Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
27 Age at sexual maturity Most 3-4 [Both sex] 3.5 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Both sex] 3.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Range from 2 to 6 yr, with 3 and 4 yr being the dominant ages of maturity [Both sex] 2.0 years Beacham and Murray, 1987
21 Oocyte development Synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity Synchronous Fishbase, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 0.909-7.779 [average means 1.8-4.297 in Asia], 2.018-3.977 [average means 2.017-3.629 in North Amrica] 4.344 thousand eggs Groot, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 1.7 - 3.175 with n = 1457 [Between 2.285-2.914 with n = 813] 5.0875 thousand eggs Kaev and Kaeva, 1986
20 Absolute fecundity 2.4-3.1 2.75 thousand eggs Barton, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 2.4-3.1, rarely up to 4 2.75 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity Range mostly between 2-4, most are 2-3, wider range 0.9-8 3.0 thousand eggs Bakkala, 1970
20 Absolute fecundity 2.739 for female of 3+ 2.739 thousand eggs Coad, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 2.4-3.2 2.8 thousand eggs Beacham and Murray, 1993
20 Absolute fecundity Average 2-3, range 0.9-8.0 2.5 thousand eggs Pauley, 1988
17 Weight at sexual maturity The average individual returning to spawn in British Columbia1952-1960, weighted 11.0-12.8 pounds [Sex not specified] 1956.0 kg Scott and Crossman, 1973
16 Length at sexual maturity 63.5 63.5 cm Barton, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity 69.6-73.2 [Both sex] 71.4 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
16 Length at sexual maturity 70 70.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity In Central coast, for females, mean size of 49-53.5 [Age 3], 53.1-59 [Age 4] and 63.2 [Age 5] 51.25 cm Beacham and Murray, 1987
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 year Barton, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity Most 3-4 [Both sex] 3.5 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-4 [Both sex] 3.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Range from 2 to 6 yr, with 3 and 4 yr being the dominant ages of maturity [Both sex] 2.0 year Beacham and Murray, 1987

Male (56%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism The mature male is distinguished from the mature female by a hooked snout and more fanglike teeth Absent Bakkala, 1970
30 Male sexual dimorphism Breeding males develop hooked jaws and large teeth and a slight hump in front of the dorsal fin Absent Coad, 2006
30 Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present Willson, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males had larger heads, thicker caudal peduncles, and larger dorsal fins than females, but females had larger anal fins than males Absent Beacham and Murray, 1987
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males bigger than females Absent Fleming, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 3.7 (range 3.2-4.1%) 3.65 percent Fleming, 1998
28 Length at sexual maturity 69.6-73.2 [Both sex] 71.4 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
28 Length at sexual maturity 81 [Male] 81.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity In Central coast, for males, mean size of 49.2-56.7 [Age 3], 53.8-61.3 [Age 4] and 66.8 [Age 5] 52.95 cm Beacham and Murray, 1987
29 Weight at sexual maturity 9.6 lb [Bot sex] 9.6 kg Scott and Crossman, 1973

Spawning conditions (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One male and one female, female mate with several male. Males remain sexually active for 10-14 d Ambiguous Groot, 1996
47 Mating system A single female is often attended by more than one male, and may build and spawn in more than one nest. A single male may spawn with more than one female No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Males are very aggressive and may spawn with different females, females likewise may spawn with other males and therefore builds different nests No category Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Promiscuous, male frequently attend more than one female Promiscuity Bakkala, 1970
47 Mating system Since a male will spawn with several females, early male arrival on the spawning grounds may promote successful fertilisation No category Coad, 2006
47 Mating system After the depression is complete, the female and dominant male enter the redd and simultaneously extrude eggs and milt. Not all eggs are deposited at one time, as multiple egg pockets are made No category Pauley, 1988
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Chum salmon seem capable of spanwing at any time during the day or night. Activty seems to be associated more closely with time to next spawning than with the light cycle, i.e. there is a repeated sequence of events leading to oviposition, and initiation of each sequences seems independent of the light cycle. Ambiguous Tautz and Groot, 1975
50 Parental care The female guards the nest as long as she is able Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care The female covers the nest Female parental care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Phase 2 post-spawning which lasted less than 1 to as much as 5 days- spawning ceased even though males wre still in attendance and females guarded the redds against intruding females, phase 3, extirpation which lasted 1 to 6 days, females were no longer attended by males and passively guarded the redds Male parental care Bakkala, 1970
50 Parental care Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care Willson, 1997
50 Parental care The female defends the nests from other females until her death days to weeks later. Male pacific salmon take no part in parental care. Rather they remain sexually active throughout their breeding life span and move amongst breeding females Ambiguous Hamon, 1999
50 Parental care Female defence after Female parental care Fleming, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Gravel : 0.5 to more than 3.1 Lithophils Groot, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Spawning takes place over substrates ranging from medium gravel to bedrock strewn with boulders Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Over sand and pebbles Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Gravel bottom Lithophils Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Gravel substrate Lithophils Pauley, 1988
44 Spawning substrate Gravel sizes which averaged 25% less than 0.5 cm, 45% from 0.6 to 3.0 cm and 30 percent greater than 3.1 cm [In tributaries of the Columbia rivers, redds were found to consist of gravel greater than 15 cm (13%), 15 cm or less (81%) Lithophils Bakkala, 1970
45 Spawning site preparation Female dig nest Susbtrate chooser Groot, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation The female prepares the redd by facing upstream [The male are aggressive on the spawning grounds] Susbtrate chooser Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation The female excavates a hole of around 1 meter diameter and 50 cm depth before spawning occur No category Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Females excavate a redd by lying on their sides and lashing the tail [in some cases no redd is excavated and eggs are shed over and between boulders] Susbtrate chooser Coad, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation The female chum salmon excavates the redd in gravel by turning to one side and rapidly flexing her body, creating water current and removing gravel with the caudal fin Susbtrate chooser Pauley, 1988
45 Spawning site preparation Females passed through three spawning phases: Phase 1, spawning lasted 2 to 4 days and consisted of preparation of the redd, deposition of eggs, guarding the redd, and association with one or more males Susbtrate chooser Bakkala, 1970
45 Spawning site preparation Upon establishing a territory, the female constructs, spawns in, and covers a series of nests (three to eight), and then defends these from other females until her death days to weeks later Nest built by male Hamon, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Spawning behavior in both chum salmon and rainbow trout consists of a combination of nest building by the female and courtship display by the male, leading to deposition of fertilized eggs in the nest [more details provided in the article] No category Tautz and Groot, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Nest built by female No category Fleming, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 7.2-12.8 10.0 °C Barton, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 8-10°C 9.0 °C Leman, 1993
41 Spawning temperature 4-11°C 7.5 °C Fishbase, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 9.8-14.0°C for early spawners and 4-9°C for late spawner 11.9 °C Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
41 Spawning temperature Generally select areas with upwelling springs where winter temperatures exceed 4°C, thus protecting the eggs from freezing 4.0 °C Bakkala, 1970
40 Spawning period duration Spawn over a long seasonal period No data Groot, 1996
40 Spawning period duration Total adult life in fresh water may not exceed one week [Female stays over the nest 2-10 days protecting it from other female] 6.0 weeks Scott and Crossman, 1973
40 Spawning period duration The time spent by adults in freshwater (time of stream entry to death) to be 11 to 18 days 11.0 weeks Pauley, 1988
40 Spawning period duration Spawning activity for males after they had chosen mates: spawning, which lasted 2 to 5 days, and extirpation, which lasted 1 to 5 days [Females passed through three spawning phases: Phase 1, spawning lasted 2 to 4 days and consisted of preparation of the redd, deposition of eggs, guarding the redd, and association with one or more males, pahse 2 post-spawning which lasted less than 1 to as much as 5 days- spawning ceased even though males wre still in attendance and females guarded the redds against intruding females, phase 3, extirpation which lasted 1 to 6 days, females were no longer attended by males and passively guarded the redds 2.0 weeks Bakkala, 1970
40 Spawning period duration Spawning at these sites extended from Late July to October No data Leman, 1993
42 Spawning water type Prefer to spawn immediatly above turbulent areas, or where there is upwelling Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
42 Spawning water type Summer races prefers sites influenced by intrasubstrate flow and fall races prefer outlets of groundwater No category Vronskii and Leman, 1991
42 Spawning water type Near the head waters, current speeds of about 20 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Spawn in both small and large rivers, in the channel, and its tributaries of the first and second orders, and late O. keta spawn mainly in the middle and upper reaches of rivers No category Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
42 Spawning water type Water velocities seclected by autumn chum salmon in Hokkaido were 10 to 20 cm/s [summer chum salmon in the My River spawned in velocities of 10 to 100 cm/sec] Flowing or turbulent water Bakkala, 1970
42 Spawning water type Streams, intertidal No category Willson, 1997
42 Spawning water type The ability of chum salmon and rainbow trout to detect upwellling currents, and the reduction in digging variability associated with development of the nest, suggest that the current pattern around the nest provides important locative information for the females. Flowing or turbulent water Tautz and Groot, 1975
42 Spawning water type Maximum spawning density is seen at sites with the most intensive input of groundwater No category Leman, 1993
42 Spawning water type Habitat ranging from tidal areas, to small streams only a few kilometres in length, to the mainstreams of large rivers over 200 km from salt water No category Beacham and Murray, 1987
43 Spawning depth Average depth of nests ranges from 21.5 to 42.5 21.5 m Groot, 1996
43 Spawning depth Eggs are deposited mainly at 20-30 cm deep 25.0 m Leman, 1993
43 Spawning depth About 3 m 3.0 m Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth 0.3-2.0 1.15 m Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
43 Spawning depth The average water depth over chum salmon redds in Oregon streams was 30 cm, whilein Washington streams it ranged from 23 to 46 cm 30.0 m Pauley, 1988
43 Spawning depth About 20 to 110 cm 20.0 m Bakkala, 1970
36 Spawning migration distance Migrations are generally short because the main spawning grounds are mostly in coastal streams not far from sea [However, in some systems, spawning has been observed as far as 2000 to 3000 km from the sea] 2000.0 km Groot, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Rarely penetrate rivers more than 100 miles, albeit some ascends over 1200 miles 100.0 km Scott and Crossman, 1973
36 Spawning migration distance Most chum salmon spawn above the saltwater zone but within 200 km of the sea, although some chum salmon have been reported to migrate up to 322 k upstream to spawn 200.0 km Pauley, 1988
36 Spawning migration distance Spawn in streams ranging from short coastal streams, where the adults may spawn within the tidal zone, to large river systems, such as the Amur River in the U.S.S.R. and the Yukon River in Alaska, where adults are known to migrate upstream over 2,500 km 2.0 km Bakkala, 1970
36 Spawning migration distance Habitat ranging from tidal areas, to small streams only a few kilometres in length, to the mainstreams of large rivers over 200 km from salt water 200.0 km Beacham and Murray, 1987
37 Spawning migration period Enter streams when temperatures drop to 15°C and the majority move upstream at temperatures from 10 to 12°C. Arrive on the spawning ground as early as July ['July'] Groot, 1996
37 Spawning migration period Enter as early as July in northern British, in the south they begin to arrive at the mouth of some streams in September ['July', 'September'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
37 Spawning migration period Enter streams when temperature drop to 15°C, most enter at 10-12°C, peaks of migration varied from 7-11°C No data Bakkala, 1970
37 Spawning migration period Spanwing runs in some Soviet streams were recorded from the first half of September to the end of October, the same periods as in the native habitat ['October', 'September'] Coad, 2006
37 Spawning migration period Approaches of the spawners to the coastal spawning rivers were noted in the third ten-day period of May. The spawners entered the rivers in the first ten-day period of July. As a rule, the mass migration occurs in the first-second ten-day periods of August. The spawning migration eds mainly in the late August through the second-third ten -day periods of September ['August', 'May', 'July', 'September'] Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
37 Spawning migration period Chum salmon are the last of the Pacific salmon to return to their natal streams, usually leaving the marine waters in summer and fall to begin their upstream migration ['August', 'July', 'September'] Pauley, 1988
39 Spawning season July [Nothern and central areas], September to January [Southern areas] ['January', 'July', 'September'] Groot, 1996
39 Spawning season There are two main seasonal fomrs of chum salmo, with the chief differences between then being reprodcutive-the summer form spawns in sites with subsurface river flow with seasonal (and dialy) temperature variation and the atum form selects spawning sites influneced by groundwater under relatively constant temperatures ['August', 'July', 'September'] Leman, 1993
39 Spawning season October, but from September to November ['October', 'November', 'September'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Early O. keta spawn in July-August, and late in October-December ['October', 'August', 'December', 'July'] Volobuev and Volobuev, 2000
39 Spawning season Most spawn before the end of August or the beginning of September. Nothern populations have peak periods of spawning in August or early September, southern populations in October to November ['October', 'August', 'November', 'September'] Bakkala, 1970
39 Spawning season Among the species of Oncorhynchus, the salmon are typically late-summer spawners (the exact timing differing among locations and years), although southern chinook populations breed in psring, and some coho populations breed in late winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February'] Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season Pacific salmon spawn in fall (though this may be as early as July or as late as February, depending on species and region) whereas the Pacific trout species (formely in the genus Salmo) spawn in spring. ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'February'] Quinn and Myers, 2004
39 Spawning season In British Columbia, chum salmon spawn in over 880 streams from late July through January ['January', 'July'] Murray and Beacham, 1987
39 Spawning season As early as July in northern and central areas of British Columbia and as late as January in the southern region ['January', 'July'] Beacham and Murray, 1987
38 Homing Return to the home river Present Groot, 1996
38 Homing Considered to exhibit a strong tendency to home to the natal stream but the degree to which they wander is not well know Present Scott and Crossman, 1973
38 Homing They return to spawn in the stream from which they originated [Share the strong homing tendencies of other species] Present Bakkala, 1970
38 Homing Return to the stream in which they hatched Present Pauley, 1988
38 Homing Return to spawn to their natal streams Present Beacham and Murray, 1987
48 Spawning release 35% of eggs are deposited in the first nest and that the last few nests contain only one-half to one-quater of the number of eggsfind in the first [most females (>80%) completed spawning within 30-40 h after starting theri first nest No category Groot, 1996
48 Spawning release A fish spawns 7000-7000 eggs in two or three egg releases No category Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Females may excavate more than one redd and males may spawn with more than one female No category Coad, 2006
49 Parity The adults die in a few days without returning to the sea Semelparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
49 Parity Adults die after a week Semelparous Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity All species of Oncorhynchus die after spawning Semelparous Bakkala, 1970
49 Parity The adult fish die after spawning and may live only a week after first entering fresh water Semelparous Coad, 2006
49 Parity Die after spawning Semelparous Pauley, 1988
49 Parity Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category Willson, 1997
49 Parity All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. Firstn the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Semelparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
49 Parity 0% of repeat spawners No category Fleming, 1998