Morone americana

  • Scientific name
  • Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789)

  • Common name
  • White perch

  • Family
  • Moronidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 86%
Total data129
References18
Image of Morone americana

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Become attached to vegetation, rocks, and other bottom objects] Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs attach immediatly to substrate Non-Adhesive Stanley and Danie, 1983
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Everly and Boreman, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are demersal and attached, or can be pelagic Non-Adhesive Rue, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness White perch spawn eggs that adhere to the bottom Adhesive North and Houde, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Laboratory studies showed that upon being exuded and fertilized the ova sink to the bottom and stick firmly to the first object with which contact is made. [Almost all egs collected in plankton samples were found adhering to debris] Adhesive Mansuetti, 1961
5 Incubation time 4-4.5 at 15°C 4.25 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 2-4 [30 hr at 20°C, 44 to 50 hr at 18°C, 60-72 hr at 15°C] 3.0 days Stanley and Danie, 1983
5 Incubation time 1.5-2.0 1.75 days Everly and Boreman, 1999
5 Incubation time 1-6 3.5 days Rue, 2001
5 Incubation time In about 2 days 2.0 days North and Houde, 2001
5 Incubation time 24 hours at 15.6-20°C to 144 hours at 11.1-15.6°C 17.8 days Morgan II and Jasin, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-70 65.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 24-50 [30 hr at 20°C, 44 to 50 hr at 18°C, 60-72 hr at 15°C] 37.0 °C * day Stanley and Danie, 1983
7 Degree-days for incubation [24 hours at 15.6-20°C to 144 hours at 11.1-15.6°C] 17.8 °C * day Morgan II and Jasin, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation 15 15.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 15-20 [Lethal temperature below 7°C, and extensive mortality at 10°C] 17.5 °C Stanley and Danie, 1983
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal temperature for hatch was 14.1°C and for larva length 17.6°C [Eggs incubated at 8°C did not hatch within 8 days, early embryo development appeared to be normal although slower than at 10 and 12°C. Eggs icubated at higher temperatures (20-26°c) developed rapidly ar first, but most died at the early gastrula to early-embryo stage] 23.0 °C Morgan II and Jasin, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation Optimal temperatures: 14.1°C for survival at hatch and 17.6°C for larval body length at hatch 14.1 °C Kamler and Kato, 1983
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.92 [After fertlization] 0.92 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.65-1.09 [Fertilized egg], water hardening is complete within 15 to 20 min at 18°C 0.87 mm Stanley and Danie, 1983
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.80-0.86 [Swollen eggs] 0.83 mm Morgan II and Jasin, 1982
3 Egg Buoyancy When laid, eggs are demersal No category Stanley and Danie, 1983
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Everly and Boreman, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs are demersal and attached, or can be pelagic No category Rue, 2001
3 Egg Buoyancy Laboratory studies showed that upon being exuded and fertilized the ova sink to the bottom Semi-Pelagic Mansuetti, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 0.79 [Before fertilization], range of 0.55-0.70 for egg removed from ovaries 0.625 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 0.6-0.8 [Not specied, but seems unswollen] 0.7 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 0.7-0.89 [Unfertilized egg] 0.795 mm Stanley and Danie, 1983
1 Oocyte diameter Mature ova : 0.75-080 0.775 mm Mansuetti, 1961

Larvae (71%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 26.9-30.3 [Temperature range corresponding to 90% of maximum growth] 28.6 °C Kellog and Gift, 1983
10 Reaction to light Exhibit positive phototaxis upon hatching in the laboratory Photopositive North and Houde, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Larvae absorb the yolk-sac and develop a swimbladder within 3-5 days post-hatch at a length of about 3.8 mm 4.0 °C * day North and Houde, 2001
8 Initial larval size 2.3 2.3 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size 3.5 3.5 mm Harrell, 1997
8 Initial larval size 2.3 2.3 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 1.7-3.0 2.35 mm Stanley and Danie, 1983
8 Initial larval size Depending upon temperature, yolk-sac larvae hatch at a length of about 2.6 mm 2.6 mm North and Houde, 2001
8 Initial larval size From mean of 2.13 to 2.86 [Depending on different salinities and temperatures] 2.13 mm Morgan II and Jasin, 1982
9 Larvae behaviour White perch larvae are one of the major species in ichthyoplankton in upper Chesapeake Bay during spring months [Larvae are trasnported down-stream after hatching] Demersal Shoji, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched prolarvae remain in the general spawning area during the first 4 to 13 days [Prolarvae have limited mobility] Demersal Stanley and Danie, 1983
9 Larvae behaviour Both stripped bass and white perch yolksac larvae may have the ability to swim actively toward surface waters during the day Demersal North and Houde, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Eggs and larvae were discovered in plankton collections Demersal Mansuetti, 1961

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism No external characteristics have been found that help to differentiate between the two sexes, except during the spawning season. At that time, females are recognized, if gravid, by their widely distended abdomens, by the loss of eggs, if ripe, when light pressure is exerted Present Mansuetti, 1961
24 Maximum GSI value 7,67 ± 0,36 [April] 67.0 percent Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
19 Relative fecundity Fecundity ranged from 5210 at weight 36.3 g to 221,003 at weight 308.4 g. Means of the number of eggs per gram of fish range from 279 [Weight 74.3 g], 420 [Weight 129.6 g], 786 [Weight 251.7 g], full range 186-975 580.5 thousand eggs/kg Sheri and Power, 1968
19 Relative fecundity Released of 56,200 eggs/kg of fish during one spawning 56.0 thousand eggs/kg Stanley and Danie, 1983
27 Age at sexual maturity All males 2+ are mature, some at I 2.0 years Sheri and Power, 1968
27 Age at sexual maturity Most males mature at 2 2.0 years Stanley and Danie, 1983
27 Age at sexual maturity 4 in males 4.0 years Everly and Boreman, 1999
27 Age at sexual maturity Males mature at an earlier age than females, all those examined in age group and older were sexually mature. None of age group I, however, were sexually mature No data Mansuetti, 1961
26 Resting period June to end of October [From May to September, atretic oocytes were found within their ovaries] No data Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
26 Resting period Mature-spent. Ovaries flacid, few translucent eggs left. Ovarian membrane very vascuar, sac-like, or bloodshot (May-June). Mature-Resting. Ovaries becoming firm, and characterized by a relatively thich doameter. No eggs discernible to the naked eye, color pinkish, texture gelatinous (June-july). No data Mansuetti, 1961
22 Onset of oogenesis Mature-Developing. Ovaries enlarging, becoming yellowish in color and granular in consistency, full of developing eggs that can be distinguished by direct observations. Diameters range from 0.30-0.70 mm: from July to February ['February', 'July'] Mansuetti, 1961
22 Onset of oogenesis The first significant rise from basal summer occur in November then regularly increase until March ['March', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'November'] Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity March ['March'] Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Mature-Gravid. Ovaries very full of yellowish granular eggs that are partly translucent. Ova can be extruded from the oviduct by exerting considerable pressure. Diameter range from 0.65-0.75 mm. February to April ['February', 'April'] Mansuetti, 1961
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous developpement Group-synchronous Berlinsky, 1995
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous, multiple clutch [Simultaneously recruit several batches of oocytes for repeated spawing events during a brief annual spawning season] Ambiguous Sullivan, 1997
20 Absolute fecundity The total number of eggs have been shown to vary from 20,000 to over 300000 depending, in part ar least, on the size of the female, this is a large number of eggs for such a relatively small fish. Described as means of 21,180 [Size 151-160 mm], 36,687 [Size 171-180 mm], 97,572 [Size 201-210], 234,342 [Size 241-250 mm] 155.5 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity 5-247 126.0 thousand eggs Sheri and Power, 1968
20 Absolute fecundity 5.2-321 with a mean of 40 163.1 thousand eggs Stanley and Danie, 1983
20 Absolute fecundity Produces huge numbers of eggs per individual 50000 to 150000 eggs 50000.0 thousand eggs Mansuetti, 1961
16 Length at sexual maturity > 17.2 Fork length are mature 17.2 cm Sheri and Power, 1968
16 Length at sexual maturity 9.0-9.8 length at first maturity 9.4 cm Stanley and Danie, 1983
16 Length at sexual maturity 15.5-19.0 [Adult size, sex not specified] 17.25 cm Rue, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity In general females mature after males, beginning at 9 cm. The length at which 50 per cent of the females are sexually mature is 10.33 cm 9.0 cm Mansuetti, 1961
15 Age at sexual maturity 76% mature at 2, and 100% at 3 3.0 year Sheri and Power, 1968
15 Age at sexual maturity Most females mature at 2, some at 3 and all at 4 2.0 year Stanley and Danie, 1983
15 Age at sexual maturity 5 in females 5.0 year Everly and Boreman, 1999
15 Age at sexual maturity Among the females, all were sexually mature from age group IV and older, but immature fish were found among the first three age groups. None, of course, were sexually mature in age group I. Within age groups II and III sexual maturity seemed to be related to size rather than ag. the bulk of the mature sample, nevertheless, is concentrated in age group III in these two groups. No data Mansuetti, 1961

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism No external characteristics have been found that help to differentiate between the two sexes, except during the spawning season. At that time, the sex of mature white perch is determined by applying pressure to the abdomen and noting the sexual products forced from the urogenital aperture Absent Mansuetti, 1961
31 Onset of spermatogenesis It first rose significantly above basal summer values in November ['August', 'November', 'July', 'September'] Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Mature-latent. Testes white, firm in texture, enlarging but milt not running (July-October) ['October', 'July'] Mansuetti, 1961
33 Maximum GSI value 4.60 ± 0.31 (April) 4.6 percent Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Two different months: November then March ['November', 'March'] Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Mature-spawning ripe. Testes white, enlarged, less firm in texture, and if compressed the white milt generally coms through the urogenital pore (October to May) ['October', 'May'] Mansuetti, 1961
35 Resting period About 0,2 (Basal summer value: June, July, September) 0.0 months Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
35 Resting period Spent. Testes brownish white, flaccid and convoluted, with no flow or white milt upon compresison. April-early June No data Mansuetti, 1961
28 Length at sexual maturity > 14 Fork length 14.0 cm Sheri and Power, 1968
28 Length at sexual maturity 7.2-8.0 [Length at first maturity] 7.6 cm Stanley and Danie, 1983
28 Length at sexual maturity 15.5-19.0 [Adult size, sex not specified] 17.25 cm Rue, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity In general males mature earlier than females, beginning at 8 cm. The length at which 50 per cent of the males are sexually mature is 10.03 cm 8.0 cm Mansuetti, 1961

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Individual females are surrounded by several males, and eggs and sperm are relased randomly No category Stanley and Danie, 1983
47 Mating system A review of the litterature indicates that the spawing behavior has never been observed. Yet, once: one of the large fish, female, swimming aloong a horizontal path to the bottom left a barely distinc trail, indicating ovulation, and this wa sfollowed by pominent emission of white milt by males No category Mansuetti, 1961
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Egg release peaks at spawn No category Stanley and Danie, 1983
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition On one occassion when the water was relatively clear at dusk in April, 1953, an audible splashing reveleaed the presence of a school of white perch consisting of several large individuals, presumably females, being trailed by more than a dozen smaller fish, presumably males. Dusk Mansuetti, 1961
50 Parental care Non guarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care After ovulating at random, the females leave their eggs to survive as best they may with no parental care No care Mansuetti, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Occur over any and every bottom type with little evidence of preference No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate May be clay, sand, pulverized shells, or gravel Ambiguous Stanley and Danie, 1983
44 Spawning substrate Over fine gravel or sand Ambiguous Rue, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Spawn under banks of streams or under old trees and debris No category Mansuetti, 1961
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
41 Spawning temperature 11-15 13.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 11-15 13.0 °C Sheri and Power, 1968
41 Spawning temperature 11-15 13.0 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature Rising temperature stimulate spawning No data Stanley and Danie, 1983
41 Spawning temperature Peak spawning occur at 10-16°C 13.0 °C Rue, 2001
41 Spawning temperature Spawning temperatures of with perch range falls from 10 to 25.0°C, generally starts at 14.4°C, peaks at 15.6 to 19.4°C, and ends at 21.1 to 22.2°C 10.0 °C Morgan II and Jasin, 1982
41 Spawning temperature Between 10-15 12.5 °C Mansuetti, 1961
40 Spawning period duration Spawning continues for 1-2 weeks and does not take place all at once 1.5 weeks Scott and Crossman, 1973
40 Spawning period duration About 5-6 [From middle of May to end of June] 5.5 weeks Sheri and Power, 1968
40 Spawning period duration Nothern populations begin spawning in late March to early April, whereas southern populations spawn slightly later. Freshwater populations spawn from April through May, astuarine stocks spawn from May through July No data Stanley and Danie, 1983
40 Spawning period duration Described as short (April 1 to 10) whereas others found that the spawning season at the head of Chesapeake Bay reaches its height i lae April and early May 1.0 weeks Mansuetti, 1961
42 Spawning water type Spawn in estuaries, rivers, lakes and marshes. Spawning is usually in freshwater, but may occur in brackish water at salinities up to 4.2 ppt. Preferred spawning habitats are waters that are tidal and nontidal, clear or turbid, fast or slow Stagnant water Stanley and Danie, 1983
42 Spawning water type Tales place mainly in a variety of protected habitats, such as shallow flats, embayments, and tidal creeks No category Everly and Boreman, 1999
42 Spawning water type In the headwaters of Chesapaekae Bay and its tributaries [In tidal fresh and brackish waters] No category North and Houde, 2001
42 Spawning water type Spawn in tidal freshwater or slightly brackish water No category Mansuetti, 1961
43 Spawning depth Shallow: 0-3.7 m 1.85 m Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth Spawning is in water less than 7 m deep, 0.9-6.1 m in estuaries, and 0 to 1.5 m in lakes 3.5 m Stanley and Danie, 1983
43 Spawning depth In less than 6 meters of water 6.0 m Rue, 2001
36 Spawning migration distance Migration up to 90 km were recorded, and also 104 km 90.0 km Stanley and Danie, 1983
36 Spawning migration distance The mean distance in miles traveled by all white perch tagged during spring months was 15.6, with upper ranges of 45 miles or more 15.6 km Mansuetti, 1961
37 Spawning migration period Nonmigratory No data Everly and Boreman, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Upstream movements occured only during the spring months ['April', 'May', 'June'] Mansuetti, 1961
39 Spawning season Commences about mid-May and may extend to the end of June ['May', 'June'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Middle of May to the end of June ['May', 'June'] Sheri and Power, 1968
39 Spawning season From April to June, or July, with peak egg deposition in mid-May to early June ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Everly and Boreman, 1999
39 Spawning season Mid-march and May ['May'] Rue, 2001
39 Spawning season Peaks in April and May ['April', 'May'] North and Houde, 2001
48 Spawning release Batch spawners Mutliple Berlinsky, 1995
48 Spawning release Eggs may be released during two or three spawning acts No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release Two or three seperate spawnings No category Stanley and Danie, 1983
48 Spawning release Spawn once a season, the occurrence of a large proportion of fish with partly psent gondas indicated that a single individual does not expel its full complement of eggs at one time. The various degrees of the partly-spent condition indicated that eggs might be expelled on more than two or three occassions probably depending on biological and environmental stimuli. No category Mansuetti, 1961
49 Parity Females may spawn more than once during an extended spawning season Iteroparous Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
49 Parity Spawn once a year No category Mansuetti, 1961