Morone chrysops

  • Scientific name
  • Morone chrysops (Rafinesque, 1820)

  • Common name
  • White bass

  • Family
  • Moronidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 88%
Total data146
References17
Image of Morone chrysops

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Become attached to gravel, boulders, or vegetation on the bottom] Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Stick to gravel or plants] Adhesive Kohler, 1997
4 Egg adhesiveness Egg adhesion was eliminated by a 7-min bath in tannic acid (150 mg/L water) Non-Adhesive Smith, 1996
4 Egg adhesiveness Many of its semibuoyant eggs and early-life stage larvae were carried downstream of the actual spawning sites by current Non-Adhesive June, 1977
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs incubate on rocks or vegetation, in flowing water, eggs may be carried out a short distance from spawning site Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time 4.5 [14°C], 3-4 [16°C] but 1 day at 26°C 3.5 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 2 [15.6°C] 2.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 1.5-2 [36-48 hours at 16-18°C] 1.75 days Kohler, 1997
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch within 46 hours at 15.6°C 46.0 days Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
5 Incubation time 3.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 3.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time 4 days at 16°C [Between 77 to 93 hours] and 3 days at 19°C 4.0 days Siefert, 1974
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 46 hours at 60°F 46.0 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 50-80 65.0 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation 30 30.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 30-40 35.0 °C * day Kohler, 1997
7 Degree-days for incubation 60-70 [4 days at 16°C and 3 days at 19°C] 65.0 °C * day Siefert, 1974
6 Temperature for incubation 14-26 20.0 °C Internet, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 15.6 15.6 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 15.6 15.6 °C Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 16°C and 19°C 16.0 °C Siefert, 1974
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 19°C 19.0 °C Smith, 1996
2 Egg size after water-hardening 0.700-1.180 [After spawning and water hardening] 0.94 mm Ruelle, 1977
2 Egg size after water-hardening Increase little in diameter when water-hardened No data Kohler, 1997
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [Eggs becoming fertilized as they sink] Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kohler, 1997
3 Egg Buoyancy Eggs are fertilized as they sink to the bottom Semi-Pelagic Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
1 Oocyte diameter 0.81 0.81 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 0.8 0.8 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 0.699-1.000 [Ova immediatly after spawning] 0.8495 mm Ruelle, 1977
1 Oocyte diameter 0.61-0.68 [Diameter at ovulation] 0.645 mm Kohler, 1997
1 Oocyte diameter 0.7-1.2 [Not specied, but seems unswollen] 0.95 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter 0.8 0.8 mm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
1 Oocyte diameter 0.8 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 0.8 mm Olden, 2006

Larvae (57%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 30-32 °C is lethal for larvae 31.0 °C Internet, 2005
11 Temperature during larval development 17.8 17.8 °C Kohler, 1997
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 60-70 [72-96 hours at 16-18°C] 65.0 °C * day Kohler, 1997
8 Initial larval size 3.7 [Not specified at hatching] 3.7 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size 3.0 3.0 mm Kohler, 1997
8 Initial larval size 3.5 3.5 mm Harrell, 1997
8 Initial larval size 2.0 2.0 mm Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
8 Initial larval size 3.8 3.8 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size Mean of 3.6, range of 3.2-3.9 3.55 mm Siefert, 1974
9 Larvae behaviour Pelagic Pelagic Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
9 Larvae behaviour Sac larvae of the white bass exibited a unique swimming behavior. They swam vertically to near the surface, where they became inactive and dropped, head down, to the bottom of chamber. Upon touching, they sawm actively to the surface again Demersal Siefert, 1974
9 Larvae behaviour Many of its semibuoyant eggs and early-life stage larvae were carried downstream of the actual spawning sites by current Demersal June, 1977

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism Urinary and genital pores are seperated in females Present Internet, 2005
24 Maximum GSI value Mean 15, and up to 20% [Third week in May] 15.0 percent Ruelle, 1977
24 Maximum GSI value 16-17% [End of May] 16.5 percent June, 1977
19 Relative fecundity Effective fecundity range from 470 to 620 eggs/g 470.0 thousand eggs/kg Ruelle, 1977
19 Relative fecundity Mean estimated egg production was 98,273 eggs/kg for 2-year-old fish and 127,805 eggs/kg for 3-year-old fish 98.0 thousand eggs/kg Smith, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [But sometimes at 1-2] 1.5 years Internet, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity Mature at age 3, some at 2 3.0 years Ruelle, 1977
27 Age at sexual maturity Usually 2 [Male] 2.0 years Kohler, 1997
27 Age at sexual maturity 2.0 [Both sex] 2.0 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity At 1 year of age, a few males were mature, and by 2 years all males were mature, in reared conditions 1.0 years Smith, 1996
26 Resting period Mid-July to mid-October No data Ruelle, 1977
26 Resting period During the post-spawning period (May-September) No data Berlinsky, 1995
22 Onset of oogenesis Onset of vitellogenesis in October ['October'] Jackson and Sullivan, 1995
22 Onset of oogenesis Beginning of October increase in GSI [Recruitment ova began to develop in late august,a bout 9 months before the spawning season] ['October'] Ruelle, 1977
22 Onset of oogenesis Initiation of vitellogenesis in October ['October'] Berlinsky, 1995
22 Onset of oogenesis End of September ['September'] June, 1977
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity March-April ['April', 'March'] Ruelle, 1977
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Increase regularly from December until April ['April', 'December'] June, 1977
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous developpement Group-synchronous Berlinsky, 1995
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous, multiple clutch [Simultaneously recriut several batches of oocytes for repeated spawing events during a brief annual spawning season] Ambiguous Sullivan, 1997
20 Absolute fecundity 61.7-994 527.85 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity Average 565, range from 242-933 587.5 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity Several papers described the fecundity of white bass. Ova counts ranged from 650,000 to 970,000 for three fish of unknown size from Spirit Lake, Iowa. Fecundity for 14 fish, 254 to 391 mm fork length from Shafer Lake, Indiana, ranged between 242,000 and 932,000 ova. Calculated fecundity for fish 320, 350 and 360 mm total length in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, was 360 000, 585,000 and 600,000 ova more than 0.57 mm in diameter respectively 650.0 thousand eggs Ruelle, 1977
20 Absolute fecundity Several hundred thousands eggs No data Kohler, 1997
20 Absolute fecundity 565 565.0 thousand eggs Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.25-0.28 0.265 kg Berlinsky, 1995
16 Length at sexual maturity 26 26.0 cm Internet, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity 28 [Female] 28.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity On average, adults are between 25.4 to 35.6 cm 25.4 cm Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
16 Length at sexual maturity 27.5 [Both sex] 27.5 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean length of females selected for hatchery trials in 1994 were 292 mm TL (age 2) and 310 (age 3) 1994.0 cm Smith, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity The majority the Lake Erie white bass studied did not mature sexually until the age 3 when they averaged 277 mm total length 3.0 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Sex specified] 3.0 year Internet, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity About 2 [Female] 2.0 year Berlinsky, 1995
15 Age at sexual maturity Some mature at 3, and all at 4 3.0 year Ruelle, 1977
15 Age at sexual maturity Usually 3 [Female] 3.0 year Kohler, 1997
15 Age at sexual maturity Most bass mature at 3 [Not specified] 3.0 year Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
15 Age at sexual maturity 2.0 [Both sex] 2.0 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity At 2 years of age in reared conditions, all female were mature 2.0 year Smith, 1996

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Urinary and genital pores are united in males Absent Internet, 2005
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September [Testes developped rapidly in fall] ['September'] Ruelle, 1977
33 Maximum GSI value Mean 5, up to 7.5 [Mid-May] 5.0 percent Ruelle, 1977
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September, and then in April ['April', 'September'] Ruelle, 1977
35 Resting period 0.1 % |From early August to 0.1 months Ruelle, 1977
28 Length at sexual maturity 22 22.0 cm Internet, 2005
28 Length at sexual maturity 21 [Male] 21.0 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity 27.5 [Both sex] 27.5 cm Olden, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean length of males selected for hatchery trials in 1994 were 278 mm TL (age 2) and 298 (age 3) 29.0 cm Smith, 1996

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Polygamous mating system with no mate selection No category Internet, 2005
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Daylight [But has been reported to occur at night also] Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurs during both day and night, but fish are most active crespuscularly Ambiguous Kohler, 1997
50 Parental care No parental care is given to eggs or young No category Internet, 2005
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care No parental care is given to eggs or young No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care After spawning, all females and most males abandonned the area, within 1 wk all males departed No category Ruelle, 1977
50 Parental care No care is provided to the eggs No care Kohler, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Gravel or sand Ambiguous Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Firm gravel or sand Ambiguous Kohler, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Took place over submerged deaed vegetation or debris Phytophils June, 1977
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are scattered at random at surface or in mid-water usually over firm bottom of rock, gravel, rubble, sand, or clay, occassionally over mud, abundant vegetation may be present Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Open water/ substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation The eggs are released near the surface or in midwater Open water/substratum scatter Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation No nest construction Open water/substratum scatter Kohler, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation Open substratum spawner Open water/substratum scatter Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are scattered at random at surface or in mid-water No category Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 17-23 20.0 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 14.4-21.1 17.75 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature Mean: 16.3 [Range 13.4-20.2] 16.8 °C Ruelle, 1977
41 Spawning temperature Typically 14.4-18.3 16.35 °C Kohler, 1997
41 Spawning temperature 14-21 17.5 °C Mittelbach and Persson, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 13 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 13.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature 55-79°F 67.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 1.5 [5-10 days] 7.5 weeks Scott and Crossman, 1973
40 Spawning period duration 1-2 [Most spawning was during the last week in May and the first week in June] 1.5 weeks Ruelle, 1977
40 Spawning period duration Spawing bouts can last from 5 to 10 days 5.0 weeks Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
40 Spawning period duration A period of 5-10 days 7.5 weeks Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Tuburlent areas of rivers No category Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Tributaries, but in any suitable shoreline structure in the absence of tributaries Stagnant water Kohler, 1997
42 Spawning water type Clear, swift tributaries, if tributaries are not available, will spawn on current-swept lake shores or shoals or in bays Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth 0.6-2 m 1.3 m Internet, 2005
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Kohler, 1997
43 Spawning depth Adults typically spawn near the surface, and eggs are fertilized as they sink to the bottom No data Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
43 Spawning depth To 36 feet 36.0 m Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance Move inshore from deep water and enter tributaries, beginning in April at about 55°F, often move many miles upstream 55.0 km Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period Migrate up tributaries when available No data Kohler, 1997
37 Spawning migration period Sexually mature fish form schools, and move onto shoals or into estuaries for spawning, these inshore movements usually occurring when water temperature rises to 12.8-15.6 No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season Spring: usually in May, extending in June in cool years ['May', 'June'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Could have extended from March to April ['April', 'March'] Berlinsky, 1995
39 Spawning season Spawning activity extended from about 17 May to 10 June ['May', 'June'] Ruelle, 1977
39 Spawning season Spawning takes place in May, and may extend into June ['May', 'June'] Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
39 Spawning season Mean peak spawning 3 June [Range: 11 May-27 June] in Lake Oahe, South and North Dakota ['May', 'June'] June, 1977
39 Spawning season In April-early-June, usually late May-early June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Goodyear, 1982
48 Spawning release Batch spawners Mutliple Berlinsky, 1995
48 Spawning release White bass shed only about one-half of their ova No category Ruelle, 1977
49 Parity After spawning, all females and most males abandonned the area, within 1 week all males departed No category Ruelle, 1977
49 Parity May live up to 7 years No category Anonymous, 2006 Chapter 3
49 Parity Return to lakes or deeper water in rivers after spawning Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982