Ameiurus nebulosus

  • Scientific name
  • Ameiurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819)

  • Common name
  • Brown bullhead

  • Family
  • Ictaluridae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 78%
Total data115
References13
Image of Ameiurus nebulosus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Coated with a gelatinous mucus, adhesive Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs, often attached to exposed fibrous roots Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Internet, 2001
5 Incubation time 5 [At 25°C], 6-9 [20.6-23.3] 7.5 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 6-9 [At 20.6-23.3] 7.5 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 5-7 6.0 days Rue, 2001
5 Incubation time 5-20 days at 77°F 12.5 days Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time 7.5 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 7.5 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time 13 days 13.0 days Internet, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation About 125-180 152.5 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation 140-180 160.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 20-25 22.5 °C Internet, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 20.6-23.3 21.95 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
2 Egg size after water-hardening Fertilized eggs about 3.0 mm 3.0 mm Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Incubate in bottom of nest Demersal Goodyear, 1982
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 3 3.0 mm Mellinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 3.0-3.4 for unfertilized egg 3.2 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter About 3 3.0 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 3.0 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 3.0 mm Olden, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter About 3 mm in diameter 3.0 mm Internet, 2001

Larvae (29%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
8 Initial larval size 6-8 7.0 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 6 6.0 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size 6 6.0 mm Kerr and Grant, 1999
8 Initial larval size 8.0 8.0 mm Olden, 2006
8 Initial larval size 6-8 7.0 mm Internet, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the nest for about one week, stay as a tight mass at the bottom [Possess a very large yolk sac] Demersal Internet, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour The yolk sac is too large to enable them to swim and they lie on their sides in the the nest until about the seventh day Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour Young stay in the nest for about 7 days Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Larvae remain in the nest up to 12 days Demersal Goodyear, 1982

Female (75%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value 5-9 % [Late June] 7.0 percent Rosenblum, 1987
24 Maximum GSI value 9.05 [Late May] 9.05 percent Burke, 1984
19 Relative fecundity About 5-25 based on the fact that : Females from 8-13 inches (203-230 mm) length may have from 2000-13000 eggs in the ovaries. Their weight vary, in Canada, from 0.75-1 pound 15.0 thousand eggs/kg Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male] 3.0 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Both sex] 3.0 years Olden, 2006
26 Resting period 6-7 [No significant differences between November to April] 6.5 months Burke, 1984
26 Resting period About 1 (August-September, then slightly increased) 1.0 months Rosenblum, 1987
22 Onset of oogenesis Between middle of September until late November GSI increased 2-fold ['November', 'September'] Rosenblum, 1987
22 Onset of oogenesis Beginning of May [increase later than males, not until the temperature reach 16°C] ['May'] Burke, 1984
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Early May and late June (significantly increase) ['May', 'June'] Rosenblum, 1987
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity May ['May'] Burke, 1984
20 Absolute fecundity 2-13 7.5 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity Females from 8-13 inches (203-230 mm) length may have from 2000-13000 eggs in the ovaries 10.5 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
17 Weight at sexual maturity In Canada, adults weigh 0.75-1 pound 0.875 kg Scott and Crossman, 1973
16 Length at sexual maturity In Canada adults are usually 8-14 inches (203-356 mm) in total length 11.0 cm Scott and Crossman, 1973
16 Length at sexual maturity 19.3 [Both sex] 19.3 cm Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Female] 3.0 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 3.0 [Both sex] 3.0 year Olden, 2006

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism No nuptial tubercles Absent Scott and Crossman, 1973
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Beginning of April ['April'] Burke, 1984
33 Maximum GSI value 0.35 (Late June) 0.35 percent Rosenblum, 1987
33 Maximum GSI value 0.218 (Mid-May until End of June) 0.218 percent Burke, 1984
33 Maximum GSI value 0.22 0.22 percent Burke and Leatherland, 1984
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Early May and late June ['May', 'June'] Rosenblum, 1987
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Mid-April-Mid-May ['April', 'May'] Burke, 1984
35 Resting period 0.15 (October, November) 0.15 months Rosenblum, 1987
35 Resting period From 0.100 (September) to 0.158 (mid-April), with no significant differences between the mean values 0.1 months Burke, 1984
35 Resting period Resting period is between mid-August to mid-April, i.e. 6 months 6.0 months Burke and Leatherland, 1984
28 Length at sexual maturity 19.3 [Both sex] 19.3 cm Olden, 2006

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system By pair, one male and one female Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system By pair, a large number of spawning acts take place with an increasing number of eggs released at each Monogamy Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system Courtship consits of one fish butting the other or mouthing the head or the tail of its partner. Paired fish also show head-to-head lateral diplays, and gently undulate side by side No category Internet, 2001
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning apparently takes place in the daytime Day Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Eggs stick to one another and are covered by a gelatinous coating, and are guarded and aereted by one or both parents, sometimes the egg mass is put into the mouth and then ejected Biparental care Internet, 2005
50 Parental care Although eggs are cared for by one or both parents, there have been reports of parents eating their own eggs Biparental care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care The eggs in the nest are cared for by one or both parents [Sometimes one or both parents eat some or all the eggs] Biparental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Parental care is given to the eggs by one or both parents [One or both parents may eat the eggs] Biparental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care Parental protection is provided for the schooling young for some weeks before dispersal No category Rue, 2001
50 Parental care Adults guard fry in weedy shallows for 2-3 weeks Biparental care Goodyear, 1982
50 Parental care Both sexes are involved in nest preparation and in the care and defense of the young, although they usually have somewhat different roles. Males are often the principal care givers, aerating the developping eggs by fanning and manipulating the eggs and larvae in their mouths. Females are more frequently involved in chasing away would-be nest predators, although they may also care for the eggs. The entire period of care giving by the parents may last about one month Biparental care Internet, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Sand, gravel, logs, rock, vegetation Ambiguous Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate In a bottom of mud or sand or among the roots of aquatic vegetation, usually near the protection of a stump, rock or tree Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Nest is located over mud or sand or among roots of aquatic vegetation in a protected area Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Mud, sand, or clay under logs and roots, stones, gravel, or coarse sand, breakwalls, in muskrat burrows, or in debris, including cans, tires or stumps Ambiguous NO REFERENCE
45 Spawning site preparation Nests are excavated by either the female or both parents Nest built by both parents Internet, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Nests are built by one or both sexes Nest built by both parents Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation One or both sexes clear a shallow nest Nest built by both parents Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation One or both sexes clear s shallow nest Nest built by both parents Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Nests are excavated No category Rue, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in depression or burrow, nest is excavated down, nests also made Susbtrate chooser Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Nests, which consists of shallow depressions or burrows, are genrally built at depths of less than 1 meter over a firm sand substratum. Both sexes are involved in nest preparation and in the care and defense of the yuong, although they usually have somewhat different roles. Nest built by both parents Internet, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 21-25 [Temperature reaching 21°C] 23.0 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 20 20.0 °C Burke and Leatherland, 1984
41 Spawning temperature 21.1 21.1 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 21 [Also when water reaches 27°C] 21.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 21-25 23.0 °C Rue, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 62-72°F 67.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
41 Spawning temperature 21 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 21.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Range from 14 to 29°C 14.0 °C Internet, 2001
40 Spawning period duration 3-6 4.5 weeks Rosenblum, 1987
42 Spawning water type Prefer shallow weedy areas of streams and lakes, most spawning probably occur in nontidal freshwater Stagnant water Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Usually around the shores of lakes, or in coves, bays or creek mouths Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Near shoreline Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Marches in bays, harbors, coves, creek mouths, and lower reaches of creeks, also rivers with overhanging banks and abudant deadfall No category Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth As shallow as 15.2 cm but as deep as about 1 m 15.2 m Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth 152 mm or more, as deep as 0.6-1.2 m 0.9 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth 3 inches - 5 feet 3.0 m Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period Move inshore and into rivers, beginning in early April at 50-55°F ['April'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season July- August ['August', 'July'] Rosenblum, 1987
39 Spawning season May-June [April until August] ['April', 'August', 'May', 'June'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season June to mid-July ['June', 'July'] Burke and Leatherland, 1984
39 Spawning season Probably May-June ['May', 'June'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season May and June ['May', 'June'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Late spring ['April', 'May', 'June'] Rue, 2001
39 Spawning season April-August, usually June -July ['April', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Begins in April or May ['April', 'May'] Internet, 2001
48 Spawning release Expels 30-50 eggs at time, deposited in clusters Fractional Internet, 2005
48 Spawning release One individual may spawn more than once in one year Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release Spawning may occur twice a year Mutliple Goodyear, 1982
48 Spawning release Females deposit all of their annual production of ripe eggs in the nest of a single male. Males apparently spawn with only one female during a single breeding season Total Internet, 2001
49 Parity Adults guard nest and fry and then return to lake in summer and fall Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982