Oncorhynchus kisutch

  • Scientific name
  • Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum, 1792)

  • Common name
  • Coho salmon

  • Family
  • Salmonidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 88%
Total data167
References35
Image of Oncorhynchus kisutch

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs are temporatily adhesive, but soon absorb water, becoming water hardened and semi-buoyant Adhesive Kerr and Grant, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive Non-Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Salmonidae, whose eggs are not sticky Non-Adhesive Woynarovich, 1962
5 Incubation time 137 [In natural conditions with T ranging from 0-3.5°C] 1.75 days Groot, 1996
5 Incubation time 35-50, and as much as 115 42.5 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 6 or 7 weeks 6.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 150-165 157.5 days Granath, 2004
5 Incubation time 2-5 months at 32-36°F 3.5 days Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time 93.6 [5°C], 63.1 [7.5°C], 45.9 [10°C] and 35.6 [12.5°C] for 50% hatch 93.6 days Jensen, 1980
5 Incubation time 130 [3°C], 70 [6°C], 50 [10°C], 40 [12°C] 130.0 days Beacham and Murray, 1990
5 Incubation time 31.5 [14°C], 42 [11°C], 62.7 [8.0°C], 86.9 [5.0°C], 114.7 [2.0°C] 31.5 days Murray and McPhail, 1988
5 Incubation time Egg development from fertilization to 50% hatch at various constant temperatures: 147 days [At 3.0°C], 78.3 days [At 6°C], 58 days [At 8.4°C], 44 days [At 10.2°C], 32 days [At 14.4°C] 50.0 days Velsen,1987
7 Degree-days for incubation 417 417.0 °C * day Barton, 1996
7 Degree-days for incubation 380-440 [38 days at 10.7°C, 48 at 8.9°C] 410.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 51-68 [At 8°C] to 149-185 [At 2°C] 59.5 °C * day Murray, 1990
7 Degree-days for incubation 444.8-473.6 [Between 5-12.5°C] 459.2 °C * day Jensen, 1980
7 Degree-days for incubation 420 420.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
7 Degree-days for incubation 390 [3°C], 420 [6°C], 500 [10°C], 480 [12°C] 390.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
7 Degree-days for incubation 476 [Effective day-degrees] 476.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
6 Temperature for incubation 4.4-13.3 8.85 °C Barton, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 4-11 [Optimal temperature] 7.5 °C Groot, 1996
6 Temperature for incubation 4.0-6.6 [in natural conditions, rarely below 4°] 5.3 °C Zorbidi, 1988
6 Temperature for incubation 8.9-10.7 9.8 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation The highest survival were recorded at 4 or 5°C, and were usually over 58% at 2, 4, 5 and 8°C [Complete mortality was recorded at 14 and 15°C] 4.0 °C Murray, 1990
6 Temperature for incubation 32-36°F, i.e. 0-2.2 °C 1.1 °C Goodyear, 1982
6 Temperature for incubation 5-12.5 8.75 °C Jensen, 1980
6 Temperature for incubation Optimum temperature of yolk conversion is about 4°C 4.0 °C Beacham and Murray, 1993
6 Temperature for incubation Egg mortality during incubation from fertilization to 50% hatch at various temperatures: 13.8% [At 3.0°C], 17.5% [At 6°C], 7.5% [At 10°C], 100% [At 17°C] 10.0 °C Velsen,1987
6 Temperature for incubation Embryo survival at hatching following incubation at 1.3-1.4°C usually does not differ significantly from the optimum at 4-8°C 1.35 °C Babiak and Dabrowski, 2003
2 Egg size after water-hardening 7-7.5 [Diamter of presumptive fertilized and water-hardened egg] 7.25 mm Morrison, 1985
2 Egg size after water-hardening 6.2-8.7 with n=1465 eggs mesured 7.45 mm Murray, 1990
2 Egg size after water-hardening 7-8.35 [Water-hardened egg] 7.675 mm Beacham and Murray, 1993
2 Egg size after water-hardening Diameters of swollen eggs range from 0.261 to 0.308 inches 0.261 mm Allen, 1958
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
3 Egg Buoyancy Soon absorb water, becoming water hardened and semi-buoyant Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs of Salmonidae are buried in unguarded nests called 'redds' and are demersal-nonadheive No category Kunz, 2004
1 Oocyte diameter 4.5-6 5.25 mm Mellinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 4.5-6.9 5.7 mm Barton, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 4.5-6 [Bigger than for most other Pacific salmon] 5.25 mm Groot, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter 5.60-7.0 [Natural range, mean = 6.08-6.87.] 6.3 mm Zorbidi, 1988
1 Oocyte diameter 4.5-6.0 5.25 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 4.5-6 5.25 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 5.186 ± 0.263 for oocytes at the final maturation stage [For broodstock population cultured in a fish farm in Southern Chile] 5.186 mm Estay, 1998
1 Oocyte diameter Eggs in ovarian sac: means in different populations range from 5.1±0.2 to 7.2±0.2 other studies: 6.1 to 7.4] 5.1 mm Stauffer, 1976

Larvae (71%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Conversion of yolk to tissue was maximized at 4°C and for another at 4.7-6.5°C, their study between 4 and 8°C 5.6 °C Murray, 1990
10 Reaction to light The free-embryos of the gravel spawning Oncorhynchus are negatively phototactic in the beginning and hide in the interstitial. After the onset of exogeneous feeding, the young fish become positively phototactic and emerge from the substrate Photophobic Bohlen, 2000
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 550 [Swim-up from fertilization: 970 degree-days, from hatching 970 less 420] 550.0 °C * day Bascinar and Okumus, 2004
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Emergence 390 DD [3°C], 420 [6°C], 500 [10°C], 480 [12°C] at an average size of 32, range 29-35 32.0 °C * day Beacham and Murray, 1990
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 50% emergence at 29.7 [14°C], 31.7 [11°C], 46.4 [8°C], 51.6 [5°C], 113.3 [2.°C] Mean SL vary at 50% emergence vary with temperature: 23.9 [14°C], 24.9 [11°C], 25.9 [8°C], 27.1 [5°C] and 27.9 [2°C] 50.0 °C * day Murray and McPhail, 1988
8 Initial larval size 17.5 to 19.4 at hatching 17.5 mm Murray, 1990
8 Initial larval size Average 21.5, range 19.5-23.5 21.5 mm Beacham and Murray, 1990
8 Initial larval size 22-24 [1 week post-hatch alevins] 23.0 mm Morrison, 1985
8 Initial larval size 30 [Emerging fry] 30.0 mm Groot, 1996
8 Initial larval size 6.0-12.0 [Variation embryonic length in natural conditions, mean = 9.0-10.7] 9.0 mm Zorbidi, 1988
8 Initial larval size Mean SL vary at 50% hatching vary with temperature: 15.3 [14°C], 16 [11°C], 17.4 [8°C], 18.4 [5°C], 19.1 [2°C] 15.3 mm Murray and McPhail, 1988
9 Larvae behaviour After hatching, tha alevins move down into the gravel and then hold for several weeks [emergence primarily occur at night] Demersal Groot, 1996
9 Larvae behaviour The alevin remain 2-3 weeks in the gravel, at least until yolk is absorbed Demersal Scott and Crossman, 1973
9 Larvae behaviour The young fish, called alevins, remain under the gravel until they are anywhere from two weeks to four months old Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Remain in the gravel until yolk is absorbed Demersal Goodyear, 1982
9 Larvae behaviour Swim-up from fertilization: 970 degree-days [From hatching 970 less 420] Pelagic Bascinar and Okumus, 2004

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value From 22.8 ± 2.6 to 32.5 ± 2.8 [Not specified if maximal values] 22.8 percent Morrison, 1985
24 Maximum GSI value 16.4 ± 4.1 [In May for broodstock population cultured in a fish farm in Southern Chile] and 23.87 ±3.21% 16.4 percent Estay, 1998
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 20.7 (range 19.4-24.0) for different populations 21.7 percent Fleming, 1998
19 Relative fecundity 0.943-1.060 [in artificial conditions] 1.0015 thousand eggs/kg MacQuarrie, 1978
19 Relative fecundity 0.75-1.2 0.975 thousand eggs/kg Morrison, 1985
27 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 years Barton, 1996
27 Age at sexual maturity Usually mature at 3 but sometimes at 2 3.0 years MacQuarrie, 1978
26 Resting period In June to November for broodstock population cultured in a fish farm in Southern Chile No data Estay, 1998
22 Onset of oogenesis In December for broodstock population cultured in a fish farm in Southern Chile ['December'] Estay, 1998
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity In February-March for broodstock population cultured in a fish farm in Southern Chile ['February', 'March'] Estay, 1998
21 Oocyte development Synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecunidy Synchronous Fishbase, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 2.1-2.8 2.45 thousand eggs Barton, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 2-5 3.5 thousand eggs Groot, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 2.1-2.789 2.4445 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity 2-4 3.0 thousand eggs Morrison, 1985
20 Absolute fecundity 2.07-3.47 2.77 thousand eggs Beacham and Murray, 1993
20 Absolute fecundity Means in different populations range from 2.267±0.251 to 2.998 ± 0.355 2.267 thousand eggs Stauffer, 1976
20 Absolute fecundity Range from 1.44 [Size of the female 44 cm] to 5.7 [Size 72 cm] 1.44 thousand eggs Allen, 1958
20 Absolute fecundity Means obtained in different populations range from: 1.983 to 5.343 1.983 thousand eggs Crone and Bond, 1976
17 Weight at sexual maturity 3.0-5.5 4.25 kg Groot, 1996
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.789 ± 0.139 [n=30, artificial conditions] 0.789 kg MacQuarrie, 1978
17 Weight at sexual maturity Weight reached by wild coho salmon at maturation ranges from 2.5 to 6 kg, and 3.52 ± 0.53 kg for cultured females in this study 3.52 kg Estay, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity 45.7-61 53.35 cm Barton, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity 41-67 54.0 cm Groot, 1996
16 Length at sexual maturity 40.3 ±2.3 [n=30 artificial conditions] 40.3 cm MacQuarrie, 1978
16 Length at sexual maturity Length reached by wild coho salmon at maturation ranges from 60 to 90 cm, and 62.3 ± 2.5 cm for cultured females int this study 62.3 cm Estay, 1998
16 Length at sexual maturity Average total length means in different populations range from 51.2 to 79.3 51.2 cm Stauffer, 1976
16 Length at sexual maturity Fork length of the female studied range from 44 to 74 cm 44.0 cm Allen, 1958
16 Length at sexual maturity Average fork length in different populations range from 55.1 to 72.8 55.1 cm Crone and Bond, 1976
15 Age at sexual maturity 3-4 3.5 year Barton, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity Usually mature at 3 3.0 year MacQuarrie, 1978

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism In Salmo, most Salvelinus, and most Oncorhynchus, a major sexual difference is found in the development, in normal breeding individuals, of elongated, hooked jaws with enlarged teeth.An upturned lower jaw is technically called a kype, an enlarged and often distorted upper jaw is termed a snout.Kype and sount development differs not only among individuals but also among species and conspecific populations: it is generally greater in stream-dwelling and anadromous forms than in lake-spawning or strickly freshwater forms.Kypes andsnouts are best developed in males, although females of some species also develop smaller ones. Another secondarytrait is a hump anterior to dorsal fin, found especially in males. Present Willson, 1997
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males are bigger than females Absent Fleming, 1998
31 Onset of spermatogenesis In November [For broodstock population cultured in fish farm in southern Chile] ['November'] Estay, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value From 4.3 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 [Not specified if maximal values] 4.3 percent Morrison, 1985
33 Maximum GSI value 8.4 ± 0.8% [For broodstock population cultured in fish farm in southern Chile] 8.4 percent Estay, 1998
33 Maximum GSI value Mean of 5.8% (range 5.2-6.4) for different populations 5.8 percent Fleming, 1998
32 Main spermatogenesis activity In February-March [For broodstock population cultured in fish farm in southern Chile] ['February', 'March'] Estay, 1998
28 Length at sexual maturity 45.7-61 53.35 cm Barton, 1996
28 Length at sexual maturity 41-67 [average] 54.0 cm Groot, 1996
28 Length at sexual maturity 38 ± 25 [n=13, artificial conditions] 38.0 cm MacQuarrie, 1978
28 Length at sexual maturity Length reached by wild coho salmon at maturation ranges from 60 to 90 cm, and 66.0 cm cm for cultured females in this study 60.0 cm Estay, 1998
29 Weight at sexual maturity 3.0-5.5 [average] 4.25 kg Groot, 1996
29 Weight at sexual maturity 0.63±0.124 [n=13, artificial conditions] 0.63 kg MacQuarrie, 1978
29 Weight at sexual maturity Weight reached by wild coho salmon at maturation ranges from 2.5 to 6 kg, and 3.87 ± 0.66 kg for cultured males in this study 3.87 kg Estay, 1998

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system The basic matting pattern seems to be positive assotative mating. With a considerable predominance of males, negative assortative mating simultaneously also occurs. [The nature of spawning behavior, assortative mating, and spawning success in coho salmon under natural conditions is similar to that of cham and pink salmons under experimental conditions] No category Chebanov, 1990
47 Mating system The female may spawn in as many as four different nests, probably with different males No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
47 Mating system The pair are side by side, the whole process is repeated for several days until the female deposists all her eggs [The male then leaves and may seek another female] No category Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care After covering the nest the female guards it as long as she is able Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Cover the eggs No category Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Postspawning females of Pacific salmon also commonly guard their nests for several days (up to 3 weeks by coho) before they die. Female parental care Willson, 1997
50 Parental care The female defends the nests from other females until her death days to weeks later. Male pacific salmon take no part in parental care. Rather they remain sexually active throughout their breeding life span and move amongst breeding females Ambiguous Hamon, 1999
50 Parental care Nest guarding time was similar for hatchery (mean 4.89 days) and wild females (5.10 days] No category Fleming and Gross, 1992
50 Parental care Female defence after Female parental care Fleming, 1998
44 Spawning substrate Gravel [acceptable gravel substrate-size ranges are 1.310.2 cm, 3.8-12.7 cm, and 7.5-15.0 cm for different salmon-spawning streams] Lithophils Groot, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Gravelly areas Lithophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate 2-15 cm is the optimal spawning substrate [Prefers smaller substrates than O. tshawytscha] No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Lithophils Lithophils Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in redd dug in clean, small or mediu-sized gravel, fine sediment detrimental to reproductive success Lithophils Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Female prepared nets in area with ground water seepage at the head of a riffle No category Groot, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation The nest is built by the female [Male and female are very aggressive on the spawning grounds] No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation The female finds a spot and digs a pitt [At this point she is aggresive toward other females] Susbtrate chooser Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Once a site is selected, the females begins to construct a shallow depression in the gravel with her tail No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Brood hiders Susbtrate chooser Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Upon establishing a territory, the female constructs, spawns in, and covers a series of nests (three to eight), and then defends these from other females until her death days to weeks later Nest built by male Hamon, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Nest made by females No category Fleming, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 4.4-9.4 or 7-13 6.9 °C Barton, 1996
41 Spawning temperature Usually between 6-12 [Ranging from 0.8-7.7 in Kamchatka and 5.6-13.3 in California] 9.0 °C Groot, 1996
41 Spawning temperature 0.8-14.4 7.6 °C Murray, 1990
41 Spawning temperature Between 1-10°C, mostly 7.8-11.1 5.5 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature Falling from 57-40°F, i.e., 4.5-14°C 48.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration A 90-day period 90.0 weeks Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration The mean redd life for 56 females was 13 days (range of 6 to 21). In 1967, 151 females remained an average of 11 days on the spawning riffles (range of 3 to 24 days) 56.0 weeks Crone and Bond, 1976
42 Spawning water type Numerous small coastal streams, in large rivers, and in remote tributaries [water velocities vary from 18 to 76 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water Groot, 1996
42 Spawning water type Avoid place with slow current and prefer spawning in the river channels in more rapid current Flowing or turbulent water Zorbidi, 1988
42 Spawning water type Outlets of groundwater No category Vronskii and Leman, 1991
42 Spawning water type Swifter water of river tributaries No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Prefers smaller fresh water streams with lower velocities than O. tshawytscha Flowing or turbulent water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Riffles, with water velocity of 0.25-2.5fps, in mid-reaches or headwaters of streams, also reported along shore in St. Lawrence River Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
42 Spawning water type Streams No category Willson, 1997
42 Spawning water type Coastal streams No category Crone and Bond, 1976
43 Spawning depth Range from 10 to 45 cm 10.0 m Groot, 1996
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth 0.05-0.66 m [Prefers shallower streams than O. tshawytscha] 0.355 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth Minimum depth reported as 6 in ches, and also as shallow as 2 inches 6.0 m Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance Mostly do not travel more than 150 miles from the sea in large rivers 150.0 km Scott and Crossman, 1973
37 Spawning migration period The spawning run may begin in late August but heavy runs up tributaries are observed between mid-September and mid-November ['August', 'November', 'September'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
37 Spawning migration period Congrate off tributary mouths in August and September, ascend tributaries to spawning grounds usually in September but sometimes in August, movement into tributaries correlated with increased flow ['August', 'September'] Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period ggenerally enter Sashin Creek from early August to early November, but the greatest numbers enter from late August to mid-October. ['October', 'August', 'November'] Crone and Bond, 1976
39 Spawning season Can last from October to March, but most populations spawn between November and January [Spawn over a longer period than other Pacific slamon] ['October', 'November', 'March', 'January'] Groot, 1996
39 Spawning season December 9-21 in captivity [normal conditions: October to January] ['October', 'January', 'December'] MacQuarrie, 1978
39 Spawning season October to March, but usually October to November, ot November to January ['October', 'November', 'March', 'January'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Spawning in British Columbia typically peaks in November and December when autumn rains have raised water levels, but spawning may continue at low levels into January or as late as March ['March', 'January', 'December', 'October', 'November'] Murray, 1990
39 Spawning season Lake Erie spawn from early November to mid-December ['November', 'December'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Mid-September to January, spawning usually peaks in October-November, low temperature in early winter can delay spawning until speing ['March', 'January', 'September', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Among the species of Oncorhynchus, the salmon are typically late-summer spawners (the exact timing differing among locations and years), although southern chinook populations breed in psring, and some coho populations breed in late winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'August', 'July', 'February'] Willson, 1997
39 Spawning season Pacific salmon spawn in fall (though this may be as early as July or as late as February, depending on species and region) whereas the Pacific trout species (formely in the genus Salmo) spawn in spring. ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'February'] Quinn and Myers, 2004
39 Spawning season Spawning usually begins early in October and ends in mid-November ['October', 'November'] Crone and Bond, 1976
38 Homing Migrates late in the season and over a prolonged period: from earlt September to early October Absent Scott and Crossman, 1973
38 Homing Returns to natal stream to spawn Present Kerr and Grant, 1999
48 Spawning release Eggs are buried at depths ranging from 18 to 39 cm and aredd can contain four to five egg pockets No category Groot, 1996
49 Parity Soon after spawning is completed the adults die Semelparous Scott and Crossman, 1973
49 Parity Adult salmon spawn only once, then die Semelparous Kerr and Grant, 1999
49 Parity None die soon after spawning Semelparous Goodyear, 1982
49 Parity Oncorhynchus species are principally semelparous, No category Willson, 1997
49 Parity All members of the genus Oncorhynchus(including anadromous and non-anadromous forms) die after spawning, and this is true with three exceptions. Firstn the Pacific trout species, are all iteroparous. Second, male masu salmon (O. masou) that mature in fresh water as parr are capable of surviving, migrating to sea, and spawning in subsequent season, though anadromous males and females are semelparous. Third, under experimental conditions male chinhook salmon can mature as parr, survive spawning, grow, and spawn again the following year, and even a third year. Semelparous Quinn and Myers, 2004
49 Parity 0% of repeat spawners No category Fleming, 1998