Gasterosteus aculeatus

  • Scientific name
  • Gasterosteus aculeatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Three-spined stickleback

  • Family
  • Gasterosteidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 88%
Total data238
References39
Image of Gasterosteus aculeatus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Highly adhesive to each other but not to substrates Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Sticky Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive to each other Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Bradbury, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Stickleback eggs within a nest are stuck together in a large mass Adhesive Rebs, 1984
4 Egg adhesiveness The eggs remain together in a mass surrounded by mucus. […] Soon after oviposition the egg capsule hardens and the eggs become firmly attached to one another Non-Adhesive Swarup, 1958
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive masses of eggs incubate in nest constructed of sand grains and plant fragments held together by secretions of the male Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time 7 7.0 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 8 [17-18°C], 15 [8-9°C] 17.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 6 [17°C] 6.0 days Fishbase, 2006
5 Incubation time 7 [19°C] 7.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 10-17 13.5 days Poulin and Fitzgerald, 1989
5 Incubation time 6.5-8.5 [At 20°C], hatcing time is decreased in freshwater 7.5 days Belanger, 1987
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 4-27 days 15.5 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation About 140 140.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 125-140 [7 days at 18-20°C] 132.5 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation About 105 [6 days at 17°C] 105.0 °C * day Fishbase, 2006
7 Degree-days for incubation About 135 135.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 90 90.0 °C * day Bonislawska, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 76 [Effective day-degrees] 76.0 °C * day Kamler, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation 192 hours after fertilization 192.0 °C * day Swarup, 1958
6 Temperature for incubation 8-17 12.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 18-20 19.0 °C Internet, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 17 17.0 °C Fishbase, 2006
6 Temperature for incubation 19 19.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 14.8-20.0 17.4 °C Poulin and Fitzgerald, 1989
6 Temperature for incubation 20°C 20.0 °C Belanger, 1987
6 Temperature for incubation Incubated at 19°C 19.0 °C Bohlen, 1999b
6 Temperature for incubation Here the embryos were kept until the yolk was completely used up. During the whole of this time the temperature remained between 18° and 19°C. Under this conditions the embryos take 6-8 days to hatch, and about 4 more days to complete absorption of yolk. 7.0 °C Swarup, 1958
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.5-1.9 [Swollen eggs] 1.7 mm Fishbase, 2006
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.52 ± 0.06, n=70 [Eggs stripped from mature females, fertilized and incubated in water: hydrated eggs] 1.52 mm Bonislawska, 2001
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mainly 1.5 [Drifting eggs] 1.5 mm Copp, 2002b
2 Egg size after water-hardening 1.47-1.66 [Eggs swollen] 1.565 mm Bonislawska, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening Eggs is spherical, about 1.2 to 1.7 mm in diameter 1.2 mm Swarup, 1958
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
3 Egg Buoyancy They are opaque and heavier than water. No category Swarup, 1958
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.7 [Not precised] 1.6 mm Mellinger, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.7-1.9 1.8 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.9 1.7 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.8 1.8 mm Coad, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Crivelli, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1.1-1.6 [Newly laid eggs] 1.35 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5-1.7 1.6 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter 1.31 ± 0.05 1.31 mm Wallace and Selman, 1979
1 Oocyte diameter 1.15-1.67 1.41 mm Poizat, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.7 [Large mature oocytes, range 1.31-2.0 for other populations] 1.655 mm Copp, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.3 1.3 mm Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
1 Oocyte diameter Ovulated oocytes reached a diameter of at least 1.4 mm (apart from the overripe ones) 1.4 mm Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006

Larvae (71%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development Here the embryos were kept until the yolk was completely used up. During the whole of this time the temperature remained between 18° and 19°C. Under this conditions the embryos take 6-8 days to hatch, and about 4 more days to complete absorption of yolk. 7.0 °C Swarup, 1958
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Male could eat some of their guarded eggs Absent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Lost of cannibalism Present Crivelli, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Male eat egg and fry Absent Fitzgerald, 1983
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The larva continues to grow by absorption of the yolk which is completely used up 4 days after hatching, giving the larva, now about 6 mm long, a slender appearance. 4.0 °C * day Swarup, 1958
8 Initial larval size 4.2-4.5 4.35 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 2-4.5 3.25 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 4.2-5 4.6 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
8 Initial larval size By the time the embryo hatches it is already 8 days old and measures 3 mm in length. About 24 hours after hathing the larva has a length of nearly 4 mm, has absorbed half of its yolk, and swims about freely. 8.0 mm Swarup, 1958
8 Initial larval size Hatched larvae 6-7 mm SL (6.55 mm in a mean length) can attain a length of about 15 mm within one month of hatching 6.5 mm Mori and Magoshi, 1987
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larvae stay near the bottom Demersal Internet, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched larvae stay within the nest, around the nest in schools and then leave Demersal Crivelli, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Upon hatching, young leave the the spawning area but remain close to shore in shallow water Demersal Bradbury, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour Because of the heavy yolk the larva lies on its side, occasionally swimming swiftly to settle down again at another spot. Demersal Swarup, 1958

Female (83%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value Up to 45 % 45.0 percent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
24 Maximum GSI value Mean 35, range 32-44 in June [With eviscerated weight !!, about 25-30%] 38.0 percent Copp, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value Peak in May: Mean of 19%, up to 21 in 1974 and mean of 12.5, up to 15.5 in 1975 19.0 percent Wootton, 1978
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 22, up to 25% [In June] 22.0 percent Borg and Van Veen, 1982
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 19, 18-21, based on fig 5b 19.5 percent Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
19 Relative fecundity About 100, range from 50-130 90.0 thousand eggs/kg Copp, 2002
19 Relative fecundity 5 5.0 thousand eggs/kg Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
19 Relative fecundity A 3 g fish would produce about 270 eggs 3.0 thousand eggs/kg Wootton, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Both sex] 1.5 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex] 1.0 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Not specified] 2.0 years Environment agency, 1996
26 Resting period September to February No data Copp, 2002
26 Resting period After the breeding season the weights decrease until the lowest level is attained in October No data Borg and Van Veen, 1982
26 Resting period September No data Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
22 Onset of oogenesis February ['February'] Copp, 2002
22 Onset of oogenesis September-October: A period of slow increase over the autumn and the winter ['March', 'January', 'September', 'December', 'February', 'October', 'November'] Wootton, 1978
22 Onset of oogenesis Slight increase in October-November [Relative ovarian weights are low in autum and early spring] ['April', 'May', 'June', 'October', 'November'] Borg and Van Veen, 1982
22 Onset of oogenesis September-October, based on Fig. 5b ['October', 'September'] Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity March-April ['April', 'March'] Copp, 2002
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Very rapid increase in the GSI in March and April ['April', 'March'] Wootton, 1978
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity May ['May'] Borg and Van Veen, 1982
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity April-May, based on figure 5b ['April', 'May'] Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Simultaneous development of batches of eggs Synchronous Borg and Van Veen, 1982
21 Oocyte development The evidence suggests that a population of oocytes is recuited from pre-vitellogenic oocyes and strats to accumulate yolk shortly before or at the same time as the ovultation of a batch of eggs that have completed their maturation. After the spawning, these vitellogenic oocyes continue to accumulate yolk over the first days of the inter-spawning interval, then undergo maturation over the last hours before ovulation and spawning No category Ali and Wooton, 1999
21 Oocyte development As a result of asynchronous maturatio, the ovaries contained oocytes in various stages of devleopment throughout the year, their proportion varied seasonally Asynchronous Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 1.3-1.8 1.55 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity Mean clutch size: 0.366, range 0.116-0.838 0.477 thousand eggs Fitzgerald, 1983
20 Absolute fecundity 0.090-0.450 0.27 thousand eggs Environment agency, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity The expected fecundity of a stickleback of a standard length of 50 mm was calculated as 163.1 eggs for trachurus females, 154.4 eggs for hybrid females and 132.7 eggs for leiurus females [in the course of a breeding season a large female can produce two to three times its own weight of eggs, that is 2-4 g of eggs] 3.0 thousand eggs Wootton, 1973
17 Weight at sexual maturity 0.5-3.8 g 2.15 kg Poizat, 2002
17 Weight at sexual maturity Weight of females producing eggs after spawning 1.102, range 0.582-3.665 mm 2.1235 kg Wootton, 1973
17 Weight at sexual maturity Weights of female caught in May anf June: 0.557 ± 0.0835 g and 0.626 g, respectively in Frongoch and 1.098 ±0.1553 and 0.823 ±0.0525 g in Rheidol 0.557 kg Wootton, 1978
16 Length at sexual maturity 5.5 [Female] 5.5 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity 3.1-6.4 [Length of adult female during the breeding season] 4.75 cm Poizat, 2002
16 Length at sexual maturity 5.2 [SL, smallest individual with ripe eggs] 5.2 cm Copp, 2002
16 Length at sexual maturity Length of female producing eggs: mean of 47.9, range 41.0-74.0 mm 57.5 cm Wootton, 1973
16 Length at sexual maturity Lengths of female caught in May anf June: 38.5 ± 1.55 mm and 41.7 mm, respectively in Frongoch and 46.0 ±2.01 mm and 44 ±1.01 mm in Rheidol 38.5 cm Wootton, 1978
16 Length at sexual maturity Although the smallest female with mature ova was 43 mm, the majority of females did not have mature ova until 45 mm SL 43.0 cm Mori and Magoshi, 1987
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Both sex] 1.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 1 [Both sex] 1.0 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 [Not specified] 1.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Not specified] 2.5 year Bradbury, 1999

Male (89%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Male exhibits breeding color at ca. 12°C and retain their color for a month after spawning season: brilliant, dark green and orange-red spawning coloration Absent Internet, 2005
30 Male sexual dimorphism Breeding males develop a red belly and throat, blue sides, light blue back and have bright blue or turquoise eyes Present Coad, 2005
30 Male sexual dimorphism Breeders displayed a well-developed nuptial colloration and aggressive behavior Absent Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
31 Onset of spermatogenesis February-March ['February', 'March'] Copp, 2002
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September ['September'] Borg, 1982
31 Onset of spermatogenesis September, based on Fig 11.b ['September'] Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
33 Maximum GSI value 4.8 [April] 4.8 percent Copp, 2002
33 Maximum GSI value The peak of the GSI is reached in October, about a mean of 1.4, up to 1.6, and is followed by a gradual decline until August when the lowest values are reached 1.4 percent Borg, 1982
33 Maximum GSI value Around 1 in September than remained around 0.5 the rest of the year 1.0 percent Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
32 Main spermatogenesis activity March-April ['April', 'March'] Copp, 2002
32 Main spermatogenesis activity In October the testes are to a large extent filled with spermatocytes and spermatids. Sepermatogenesis is completed in November-January ['October', 'November', 'January'] Borg, 1982
32 Main spermatogenesis activity September. In most of the males, spermatogenesis was complete in December, but the spermatozoawere not yet ready to be released ['December', 'September'] Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
35 Resting period About 1% [From September to February] 1.0 months Copp, 2002
28 Length at sexual maturity 4.5 [Male] 4.5 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Nest-building males were 44.6 ± 3.32 mm, range 39-55 44.6 cm Barber, 2000
28 Length at sexual maturity The breeding coloured male with a nest was 47 mm SL in the smallest body length 47.0 cm Mori and Magoshi, 1987
29 Weight at sexual maturity Nest-building males were 0.94 ± 0.25 g, range 0.60-1.79 g 0.94 kg Barber, 2000

Spawning conditions (93%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One male and several female, female lay their eggs in several nest Polygyny Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system The male has a complex courtship dance with zig-zag motions and a leading motion to the nest. A responsible female adopts a submissive head up position, which also reveals the egg-swollen belly … No category Coad, 2005
47 Mating system Complex courtship ! No category Crivelli, 2001
47 Mating system By pair, one male and and one female, but both male and female may mate with more than once with different partners Monogamy Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Male mate with 2 or 3 different females on average [Polygamous] No category Fitzgerald, 1983
47 Mating system Sneak: pairspawning with sneakers or satellites, About 10% of nests were subjected to egg stealing and sneaking fertilization No category Ah-King, 2004
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Courtship of females and fertilization of eggs generally occured on warm sunny days Day Fitzgerald, 1983
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition After establishing a territory, building a nest, courting females, and then fertilizing the eggs laid in its nest by one or several females, a male enters the parental phase No category Rebs, 1984
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Three-spined sticklebacks are typical long-day breeders, and increasing water temperature and the lengthening days in psring stimulate spawning in males and females Day Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
50 Parental care Male guards and ventilates eggs until hatching, and then continue to protect larvae for 2 weeks [Fight between males] Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Male guards and fans the eggs and guards the fry Male parental care Coad, 2005
50 Parental care Male guards eggs and juveniles Male parental care Billard, 1997
50 Parental care Male guards and aerates his nest Male parental care Crivelli, 2001
50 Parental care Male guards and ventilates the eggs and young Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care Male guards the newly hatched fish until they are able to care for themselves Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Males care for eggs and fry Male parental care Fitzgerald, 1983
50 Parental care Males protect brood No category Environment agency, 1996
50 Parental care Male care only No category Ah-King, 2004
50 Parental care The male guards and fans the nest and protects the young for up to 2 weeks after hatching or until they are able to fend for themselves Male parental care Bradbury, 1999
50 Parental care Male fans its eggs during their development. We found no significant difference when we compared the proportion of time males spent fanning their nests during the day with night levels? However, nocturnal fanning bouts were significantly longer and less numerous than diurnal ones. No category Rebs, 1984
50 Parental care After collecting eggs for a period of between 1 and 10 days, the male switches to the parental phase, during which he actively repels potential egg predators, fans oxygenated water through the nest and removes unfertilized eggs and dead or diseased embryos No category Barber, 2000
50 Parental care Male guards nests and newly hatched larvae fry for maximum of 9 day and then begins return to deeper water Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Twigs and debris, strands of algae and pieces of aquatic plants, fragments of aquatic plants, algae, and debris Phytophils Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Rich in vegetation Phytophils Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Sandy areas Psammophils Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Weed Phytophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate Ariadnophil No category Wolter and Vilcinskas, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Ariadnophil No category Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate In marine or estuarine habitats, spawning may occur in a variety of habitats including rock crevices, sheltered ellgrass bads, algal mats and sometimes over sand and silt near vegetation Ambiguous Bradbury, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Male builts a nest in form of a barrel using parts of plants and renal secretions Nest built by male Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Males builds a barrel-shaped nest with plant fragments and renal secretions No category Internet, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation The male builds a barrel-shaped nest in shallow, sandy areas from plant fragments glued together on the bottom with kidney secretions Nest built by male Coad, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Male builts a nest with rests of plants (Arianophile) Nest built by male Billard, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation Male defends a teritory and builts a nest with piece of plants sticking by secretion from kidney No category Crivelli, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Just before breeding, males become very territorial. The male builds a nest of plant-material glued together with spigging, a protein produced in the kidney. Nest built by male Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation The nest is constructed of small twigs and plant debris, held together by the mucilaginous kidney secretion emitted by the male No category Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Form nest No category Environment agency, 1996
45 Spawning site preparation Nest spawner No category Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation The male constructs a nest of small twigs, algae or plant debris typically over a sandy or mud bottom Nest built by male Bradbury, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Male constructs a nest Nest built by male Belanger, 1987
45 Spawning site preparation Spawn naturally in the nest of a male No category Wootton, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation "Following construction of a pit in a sandy substratum, the male lays down a mat of filamentous algae and other vegetation, may cover this partly with substratum carried to the nes by mouth, and finally, forms a tunnel through which the female can pass during spawning. Nest materials are secured by a ""glue"", produced in the kidney, that contains a glycoprotein, Spiggin, the secretion of which is under the control of androgenic hormone" No category Barber, 2000
45 Spawning site preparation Breeding males defend their nests in a fixed territory and care for the eggs and offpsring. The kidney of the male secretes a protein glue thatis used in nest building No category Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited in nest built on mud, sand, vegetation, or flat surface of a rock, also scattered onto vegetation Susbtrate chooser Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation To examine growth of the fish, 167 progeny hatched from three nests No category Mori and Magoshi, 1987
41 Spawning temperature 15.8-18.5 17.15 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature Above 10°C 10.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature >15°C [Little courtship occur when water temperature often exceed 25°C] 15.0 °C Fitzgerald, 1983
41 Spawning temperature In out study, some sticklebacks completed spawning and started a new gametogenetic cycle in June-July. Temperatures as high as 20°C probably limited breeding in the populations examined and a further increase of temperature could have been the reason why the initial phase of gamatogenesis in both sexes was disturbed 20.0 °C Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
41 Spawning temperature At 50-73°F 61.5 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 8 : female release 3 to 4 batches of eggs with about 1 week between each of the batch 8.0 weeks Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
40 Spawning period duration The male parental cycle at one site in Canada lasts 9-15 days with female interspawning intervals of 19 days. 12.0 weeks Coad, 2005
40 Spawning period duration Under ideal laboratory control conditions, a pair can spawn six times within an interval of 10-15 days 12.5 weeks Internet, 2005
40 Spawning period duration Several months No data Wallace and Selman, 1979
40 Spawning period duration 4-5 4.5 weeks Fitzgerald, 1983
40 Spawning period duration 5-6 5.5 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration This indicates that in 1975, the breeding season in the Rheidol lasted for thrre to four months, but in Frongoch it lasted only about one month 1975.0 weeks Wootton, 1978
40 Spawning period duration The prolonged breeding activity of sticklebacks, for as long as five months, enabled the fish to reproduce in the most favourable environmental conditions No data Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
42 Spawning water type Shallow weedy areas [Freshwater and brackish water] No category Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Submerged areas No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
42 Spawning water type Ponds and rivers Stagnant water Poulin and Fitzgerald, 1989
42 Spawning water type Shallow tidal Pools No category Fitzgerald, 1983
42 Spawning water type Anadromous populations may spawn in brackish or freshwater [Spawning in freshwater has been observed in two distinct habitat types within lakes, open-water areas, or in association with aquatic vegetation Stagnant water Bradbury, 1999
42 Spawning water type Pools and rivers in the salt marshes, but most reproduce in pools whose salinity fluctuates between apprimatively 14 and 27 %o, but a considerable number reproduce in the freshwater section No category Belanger, 1987
42 Spawning water type Sheltered, current-free / areas along lake shore and in bays, creek mouths, and tributaries, usually close to shore Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters : 5-20 cm 12.5 m Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
43 Spawning depth Shallow No data Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth < 50 cm 50.0 m Poulin and Fitzgerald, 1989
43 Spawning depth Generally nest in water less than 30 cm deep 30.0 m Fitzgerald, 1983
43 Spawning depth Males generally avoid nesting in water shallower than 0.2 m and have been observed nesting at depths of up to 40 m 0.2 m Bradbury, 1999
43 Spawning depth About 10 inches, but as shallow as 1-2 inches 1.5 m Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance Limited home range No data Environment agency, 1996
36 Spawning migration distance Move from deeper water to neashore areas, creek mounths, and bays, and often ascend tributaries No data Goodyear, 1982
37 Spawning migration period Migrations of anadromous stickleback into freshwater usually occurs in late psring (June) ['June'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April to October ['April', 'October'] Coad, 2005
39 Spawning season April-May but February-March in southern region ['February', 'April', 'March', 'May'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season May-July [But also February-August] ['February', 'August', 'May', 'July'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season March until July ['March', 'July'] Crivelli, 2001
39 Spawning season Mainly April-June [But in March and September] ['April', 'March', 'June', 'September'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Generally in June-July, but from April to September ['April', 'June', 'July', 'September'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season Thye first nest appear in mid-May and most nest building was finished by mid-June and was extremely rare after June 30 ['May', 'June'] Fitzgerald, 1983
39 Spawning season March-June ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season Spawning shortly occur after migration, in June [Resident freshwater populations spawn mainly in mid-Summer, during June and July] ['June', 'July'] Bradbury, 1999
39 Spawning season The breeding season is in late spring-summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Borg and Van Veen, 1982
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Borg, 1982
39 Spawning season Bred from April to July, but the majority of them were sexually active from May onwards ['April', 'May', 'July'] Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
39 Spawning season This fish breeds mainly during April and May, but it is possible in tha laboratory to bring into breeding condition during most of the year ['April', 'May'] Swarup, 1958
39 Spawning season April-September ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season They have spawned from April to mid June ['April', 'June'] Mori and Magoshi, 1987
48 Spawning release Multiples Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Female can spawn several times per year Mutliple Crivelli, 2001
48 Spawning release Females may lay eggs in sevreral nests over a period of several days or may be courted by the same male Mutliple Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Estimated number of clutches per female is about 14 No category Copp, 2002
48 Spawning release 50-300 in several spawnings. mostly less than 100 and more than 50 per batch Mutliple Internet, 2005
48 Spawning release 100-400 eggs per batch Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Males and females only complete one spawning in natural conditions though laboratory studies show males capable of 5 reproductive cycles and females of producing a clutch of eggs every 3-4 days. No category Coad, 2005
48 Spawning release Eggs are laid in clusters Fractional Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release Clutches of 112 ± 19 No category Wallace and Selman, 1979
48 Spawning release Clutches of 33-660 eggs No category Poizat, 2002
48 Spawning release May ovulate several batches in a season is conditions are favourable Mutliple Tyler and Sumpter, 1996
48 Spawning release Eggs are deposited in clusters in the nest Fractional Bradbury, 1999
48 Spawning release Several batches during a breeding season Mutliple Poncin, 1987
48 Spawning release Spawn several in breeding season Mutliple Wootton, 1973
48 Spawning release Female have the physiological capacity to spawn several times during a breeding season. A well-fed female spawn 10 or more times in a breeding season Mutliple Ali and Wooton, 1999
48 Spawning release The numbers of mature oocytes decreased gradually to the end of breeding as a consequence of multiple spawning Mutliple Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006
48 Spawning release The female lays about 100 to 150 eggs at a time. No category Swarup, 1958
48 Spawning release Several spawnings may occur each season Mutliple Goodyear, 1982
49 Parity Semelparous, broodstock die after the spawning Semelparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity Can reproduce twice in a year No category Billard, 1997
49 Parity Have a maximum lifespan of about 2 and 1.5 years No category Bradbury, 1999
49 Parity All nest builders survived No category Barber, 2000
49 Parity Male guards nests and newly hatched larvae fry for maximum of 9 day and then begins return to deeper water Iteroparous Goodyear, 1982
49 Parity After the breeding season, though there was a large mortality, a few of those remaining have experienced two summers and /or two winters. […] Usually, the three-spined stickleback had a life-span of year and a few months No category Mori and Magoshi, 1987