Sokolowska and Sokolowska, 2006


Sokolowska, E. and Kulczykowska, E. (2006) Annual reproductive cycle in two free living populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasteroteus aculeatus L.): patterns of ovarian and testiculer development. Oceanologia, pp. 103-124

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Gasterosteus aculeatus Egg Oocyte diameter Ovulated oocytes reached a diameter of at least 1.4 mm (apart from the overripe ones) 1.4 mm
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female Oocyte development As a result of asynchronous maturatio, the ovaries contained oocytes in various stages of devleopment throughout the year; their proportion varied seasonally Asynchronous
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female Onset of oogenesis September-October, based on Fig. 5b ['September', 'October']
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female Intensifying oogenesis activity April-May, based on figure 5b ['April', 'May']
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 19, 18-21, based on fig 5b 19.5 percent
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female Resting period September 2.0 months
Gasterosteus aculeatus Female Resting period The post-spawning phase began in June-July, when part of the population had completed spawning and oogenesis was starting 3.0 months
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male Male sexual dimorphism Breeders displayed a well-developed nuptial colloration and aggressive behavior Absent
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male Onset of spermatogenesis September, based on Fig 11.b ['September']
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male Main spermatogenesis activity September. In most of the males, spermatogenesis was complete in December, but the spermatozoawere not yet ready to be released ['September', 'December']
Gasterosteus aculeatus Male Maximum GSI value Around 1 in September than remained around 0.5 the rest of the year 1.0 percent
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning season Bred from April to July, but the majority of them were sexually active from May onwards ['April', 'May', 'June', 'July']
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration The prolonged breeding activity of sticklebacks, for as long as five months, enabled the fish to reproduce in the most favourable environmental conditions No data
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature In out study, some sticklebacks completed spawning and started a new gametogenetic cycle in June-July. Temperatures as high as 20°C probably limited breeding in the populations examined and a further increase of temperature could have been the reason why the initial phase of gamatogenesis in both sexes was disturbed 20.0 °C
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Breeding males defend their nests in a fixed territory and care for the eggs and offpsring. The kidney of the male secretes a protein glue thatis used in nest building No category
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Three-spined sticklebacks are typical long-day breeders, and increasing water temperature and the lengthening days in psring stimulate spawning in males and females Day
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning release The numbers of mature oocytes decreased gradually to the end of breeding as a consequence of multiple spawning Multiple