Gambusia affinis

  • Scientific name
  • Gambusia affinis (Baird et Girard, 1853)

  • Common name
  • Mosquitofish

  • Family
  • Poeciliidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 68%
Total data70
References17
Image of Gambusia affinis

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Chorion filaments are adhesive Adhesive Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time The gestation period is 21-28 days 24.5 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time A normal gestation period for moquitofish is 3-4 weeks 3.5 days Meefe, 1987
5 Incubation time The ovarian events between two successive parturitions were summarized as follows: active vitellogenesis (days 0-3), maturation and fertilization (days 3-5), progress of embryonic developmentand beginning of vitellogenesis for the following gestation (day 10), and pre-parturition and progress of vitellogenesis (day 20). 1.5 days Koya, 2000
7 Degree-days for incubation 100-120 [Seems to 5-6 days at 25°C] 110.0 °C * day Koya, 2000
6 Temperature for incubation 25°C 25.0 °C Koya, 2000
2 Egg size after water-hardening Fertilised eggs began to appear in 1.8-1.9 mm follicles (2.4%) adn Increased to 16.0% in 1.90-2.0 mm follicles [The fertilized eggs were sligtly larger in diameter than mature oocytes] 1.85 mm Koya, 2000
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal [but embedded in the ovary] Demersal Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.8-2.1 but also 2.4-2.8 [Not specified] 1.95 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.6-2.1 1.85 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 1.5 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter Mature oocytes were seen in follicles greater than 1.6 mm in diameter, and the number increased as the diameter became larger 1.6 mm Koya, 2000

Larvae (14%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
8 Initial larval size 7-10 8.5 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 5-10 7.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 8.5 8.5 mm Olden, 2006

Female (75%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism "A small pigmented spot dorsal to the anus occurs in female poecilliid fishes before they are matured. As they become mature and gravid, the spot becomes larger reaching its maximum size shortly before the birth of the brrod. This prigmented spot is referred to as the ""gravid spot"". After the brrod is born, the gravid spot recedes, but there is never a complete loss of the pigmented mass." Absent Medlen, 1951
24 Maximum GSI value 23-24.1 [From late June to early October] 23.55 percent Koya, 1998
24 Maximum GSI value 20-22%, every 22 days during the reproductive season 21.0 percent Koya, 2000
27 Age at sexual maturity 0.4 [Both sex] 0.4 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 0.1 [Both sex] 0.1 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Age at sexual maturity averaged 43.3 and 62.1 days for individually and group-reared males, respectively 0.33 years Campton and Gall, 1988
26 Resting period 1.0-1.1 [From January to April] 1.05 months Koya, 1998
22 Onset of oogenesis April ['April'] Koya, 1998
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity May-June ['May', 'June'] Koya, 1998
21 Oocyte development Viviparous No category Billard, 1997
21 Oocyte development Viviparous No category Koya and Iwase, 2004
20 Absolute fecundity 0.250 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 0.25 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
16 Length at sexual maturity 2.6 [Female specified] 2.6 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 2.4 [Both sex] 2.4 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Nine females comprised three large individuals (4.5-5 cm) in length born the predecing year, three middle-sized individuals (2.5-3 in length) born early in the year 4.75 cm Medlen, 1951
16 Length at sexual maturity Adult females > 2.3 cm 2.3 cm Hughes, 1985
15 Age at sexual maturity 0.4 0.4 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 0.4 [4 months, age at maturation] 0.4 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 0.1 [Both sex] 0.1 year Olden, 2006

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Internal fertilization is possible because the anal fin is modified into a copulatory organ Absent Fishbase, 2006
30 Male sexual dimorphism Nine females and two mature males, as determined by the number of segments in the third ray of the gonopodium Absent Medlen, 1951
30 Male sexual dimorphism The anal fin of the adult male is modified into a long and slender intromittent organ, the gonopodium, which the male can extend at various angles and directions from the body Absent Martin, 1975
31 Onset of spermatogenesis Early May ['May'] Koya and Iwase, 2004
33 Maximum GSI value 3.8 [June to July] 3.8 percent Koya and Iwase, 2004
32 Main spermatogenesis activity Mid-May to early June [Increase from 0.9-3.2%] ['May', 'June'] Koya and Iwase, 2004
35 Resting period Resting period is October to April [The GSI values (0.9-2.1%) from January to May] 1.5 months Koya and Iwase, 2004
28 Length at sexual maturity 1.3-2 [Male specified] 1.65 cm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
28 Length at sexual maturity 2.4 [Both sex] 2.4 cm Olden, 2006

Spawning conditions (67%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Male fish use a gonodopodium [modified from anal fin rays] to contact's female urogenital tract and transfer sperm. No category Internet, 2005
47 Mating system Male very aggresive, wants to deposit their sperm in the biggest number of females into a special pocket [Sperm can remain viable for three months] No category Crivelli and Quatre, 2001
50 Parental care Female is viviparous, internal fecondation: ovovipariy lecitotrophe No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Bearers, internal live bearers: the species is viviparous No category Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care No parental protection of zygotes, embryo and larvae No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
44 Spawning substrate Bearer [Viviparous] No category Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation No special placement of zygotes No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
41 Spawning temperature 15.5 up to 30 15.5 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 17-21 19.0 °C Koya, 1998
41 Spawning temperature 25-30 for the release of neonates 27.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 16 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 16.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Mosquitofish need more than 18°C temperature and 12.5 h daylength for their reproduction, and that brood interval is kept almost constant if the water temperature and photoperiod are constant. 18.0 °C Koya, 2000
41 Spawning temperature Critical temperature sould be near 15.56°C 15.56 °C Medlen, 1951
41 Spawning temperature 25-30°C was an optimal range for reproduction in California mosquitofish 27.5 °C Cech, 1992
40 Spawning period duration 24-26 [6.00 months, length of breeding season] 25.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration "Total sexual acts peaked on 8 June, howeevr increased numbers of males caused the mean sexual acts per male to be less than on 14 April, the date of maxima sexual activity. In mid and late summer, density, individual sexual acts, and mean male sexual acts all decreased: 28 July was the only date on which females outnumbered males [Other sutdies: the reproductive period in females mosquitofish varied from 8 to 15 weeks in Illinois during July through October, while others reported that ""waves"" of yound apperared from June to October in their Long Island study area.]" 8.0 weeks Martin, 1975
42 Spawning water type Variable: sluggish water, land-locked ponds, reservoirs, creeks, streams, and sloughs [Mostly in freshwater but oligohaline water] Stagnant water Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season April-September ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season Beginning of June until end of September ['June', 'September'] Crivelli and Quatre, 2001
39 Spawning season In both years, no females with embryos were found before April. High percentages of adult females had embryos in June and july and (in 1983) in early august. By late september 1982 no females with embryos were found, and in 1983 only a very few gravid females were found in late September ['April', 'June', 'September'] Hughes, 1985
48 Spawning release Females can have up to six groups of frys during a season No category Crivelli and Quatre, 2001
48 Spawning release Viviparous No category Koya, 1998
48 Spawning release Release 10-100 neonates by batch, each 3-4 weeks, i.e. 3 or 5 times per year Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release The female carries about 30 alevins and gestation last for a period of 24 days to a month No category Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release More than four spawning per year No category Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
49 Parity Weak longevity: 6 to 18 months. This species is usually annual with fex individuals able to life and reproduce at 2 years of age No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity No obvious seasonal peak No category Fishbase, 2006