Mills, 1988


Mills, C.A. (1988) The effect of extreme northerly climatic conditions on the life-history of the minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus (L.). J. Fish. Biol., pp. 545-561

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawning lasts from April to August, but early in the season the spawners are mostly 2-year-old fish with lengths of 60 mm and over. During May the remaining 2 year-olds, now generally at least 55 mm in length, commence spawning. From June onwards 2-year-olds begin to disappear and are replaced in the spawning shoals by 1-year-old fish which mature at a length of approximatively 49-50 mm, though one ripe male was captured wihc was only 44 mm long 49.5 weeks
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Maximum GSI value Maximum GSI vary between 4 locations, about 8-9% in Mid-May [Papulampi, eastern forest Lapland], about 6-7% in Mid-June [Lapland], 13-14 in Mid-May [Central Finland] and 21-22 in Mid-June [Southern england] 8.5 percent
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Age at sexual maturity The youngest males caught were 5-year-olds (52.0-65.0 mm) 5 fish (mean length 55.6 mm) of those were immature and 21 (mean length 60.4 mm) were mature. All 39 6-year-old and three 7-year-old males were mature 6.0 years
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Oocyte development In both populations, prespawning females contained a group of intermediate-sized vitellogenic oocytes in addition to large, ripe eggs and small oocytes No category
Phoxinus phoxinus Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption 170-190 The time for development from fertilization to 'swim-up' larvae at 15°C ranged from 14-17 days 180.0 °C * day
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Age at sexual maturity At the dowstream site the one 4-year-old female captured (49.0 mm) was immature but all 27 5-year-old (52.6-65.0 mm) and 48 older females were mature 5.0 year
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning release In southern habitat, this species spawns multiple clutches over a prolonged spawning season (April to August) but few individuals survive their first breeding season. Production of multiple clutches persist as far north as Konnevesi in central Finland, and the life-span remains relatively short. A greatly prolonged life-span has been reported from a minnow population in eastern forest Lapland Mutliple