Cottus gobio

  • Scientific name
  • Cottus gobio (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Bullhead

  • Family
  • Cottidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 72%
Total data129
References18
Image of Cottus gobio

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Fixed on plants or stone] Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhere to the underside of the stone Adhesive Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
4 Egg adhesiveness Stick to rock Adhesive Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
5 Incubation time 30 30.0 days Spillmann, 1961
5 Incubation time 20-25 [30 at 11°C] 22.5 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 20 at 12°C 20.0 days Persat, 2001
5 Incubation time 4 weeks 4.0 days Bagenal, 1971
5 Incubation time 20-30 days 25.0 days Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
5 Incubation time About 30 days at 11°C 30.0 days Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
7 Degree-days for incubation About 300 300.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation About 300 [i.e. 30 days at 11°C] 300.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
7 Degree-days for incubation 240 [20 at 12°C] 240.0 °C * day Persat, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 11 11.0 °C Spillmann, 1961
6 Temperature for incubation 11 11.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 12 12.0 °C Persat, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 11 11.0 °C Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
2 Egg size after water-hardening 2-2.5 2.25 mm Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal, sink to the bottom Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 2.5 2.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 2.5 2.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 2.5 2.5 mm Persat, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 2-2.5 2.25 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter > 1.8 [The oocytes of the their class, i.e. ripe oocytes ready to be spawned] 1.8 mm Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
1 Oocyte diameter Means between age range from 1.7-2.2, total range from 1.31 to 2.39 [egg-diameter of ripening female] 1.95 mm Abdoli, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 2.5 2.5 mm Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter Means range from 1.79 to 1.94 1.79 mm Fox, 1978

Larvae (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
11 Temperature during larval development 10-12 11.0 °C Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
10 Reaction to light Negative phototaxis help them to stay in this location whilst the yolk sac is still present Photopositive Urho, 2002
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism Male eat some eggs that they guard Absent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
12 Sibling intracohort cannibalism The occurrence of egg cannibalism in guarding male varied throughout the season and reached a maximum of 80% in the sample of 12 March Present Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The resorbtion of yolk requires 275 °D 275.0 °C * day Spillmann, 1961
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 275-330 302.5 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
13 Full yolk-sac resorption 150 [10-15 at 10-12°C] 12.5 °C * day Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
13 Full yolk-sac resorption About 4 weeks 4.0 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
13 Full yolk-sac resorption Large yolk-sac absorbed in 10 days 10.0 °C * day Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
8 Initial larval size 6-7 6.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 7.5 7.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
8 Initial larval size 7.2 7.2 mm Persat, 2001
8 Initial larval size ED= 0.4 L -0.75 (ed: egg diameter and L: length of the larvae) 0.4 mm Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
8 Initial larval size 6-7 6.5 mm Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
8 Initial larval size 7.2 7.2 mm Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour When scuba diving I have observed that the larvae remain under a stone in the care of their parent at least until their fins have differentiated Demersal Urho, 2002
9 Larvae behaviour On hatching, larvae become planktonic in the stream eastuary or in lakes and do not take up a bottom-dwelling or benthic life until about 32-35 days after hatching Demersal Wanzenböck, 2000
9 Larvae behaviour The young absorb their yolk sac after which, as fry (9 mm in length) they are ready to disperse Demersal Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003

Female (50%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
19 Relative fecundity Mean absolute fecundity range from 184 ±7 [At age 2 and size 72 +/1, about 3 g, and 609 ± 47 [At age 6 and size 121 ±2 and about 30 g] 184.0 thousand eggs/kg Abdoli, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Mixed] 2.5 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Males] 2.5 years Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Not specified] 2.0 years Environment agency, 1996
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
21 Oocyte development Asynchrony in oocyte development Asynchronous Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
21 Oocyte development Just before spawning, the egg size distribution per site of all sampled gravid females showed a single mode Synchronous Abdoli, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity F= -183 + 6.4 L 183.0 thousand eggs Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
20 Absolute fecundity 100 eggs per female 100.0 thousand eggs Environment agency, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 69 to 896 eggs per female 69.0 thousand eggs Abdoli, 2005
17 Weight at sexual maturity Among actively reproducing female, the smallest gravid female was 2.3 g, whereas the maximum weight was 31.7 g 2.3 kg Abdoli, 2005
16 Length at sexual maturity 4.2 [Female] 4.2 cm Fishbase, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Most at 4-6 5.0 cm Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
16 Length at sexual maturity Among actively reproducing female, the smallest gravid female was 5.7 cm and 13.4 cm 5.7 cm Abdoli, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-3 [Mixed] 2.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Both sex] 2.0 year Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Not specified] 2.0 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity Among actively reproducing female, the smallest gravid female was 2 years and oldest 7 2.0 year Abdoli, 2005

Male (44%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males are deadily distinguished at spawning time by their dark colouration, a cremy dorsal edge to the first dorsal fin, and protruding genial papillae Absent Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
28 Length at sexual maturity 4.6 4.6 cm Fishbase, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Most at 5-7 6.0 cm Marconato and Bisazza, 1988

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system One male and up to ten female No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system Males achieve multiple spawning in a relatively short period No category Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
47 Mating system Some males may attract more than one female No category Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
50 Parental care Male guards the nest, up to 3-4 weeks (aggressive) Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Male guards the nest Male parental care Spillmann, 1961
50 Parental care Male guards eggs Male parental care Billard, 1997
50 Parental care Male protects several batches of eggs, for about 3 weeks |Larave are not guarded and may occasionally been eaten] Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care The male fertilizes the eggs and guards them for about 4 weeks, during this time he fans the eggs almost constantly with his pectoral fins No category Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
50 Parental care When scuba diving I have observed that the larvae remain under a stone in the care of their parent at least until their fins have differentiated No category Urho, 2002
50 Parental care Eggs under stones protected by male Male parental care Environment agency, 1996
50 Parental care The male defends the brood against egg predators, and manages the nest by fanning the eggs with his pectoral fins. Male parental care Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
44 Spawning substrate Sand, gravel, pebbles Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate A mixture of sand and firly clean,fine to coarse gravel, with occasional large rocks Ambiguous Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
44 Spawning substrate Eggs under stones Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate All dominated by coarse substrata, mainly cobbles and large stones Lithophils Abdoli, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Male built a nest Nest built by male Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited under stones Susbtrate chooser Billard, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs are depositied under the shleter of the male No category Persat, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Nesters, eggs are deposited below a stone Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation It uses cavities underneath stones for nesting. The ripe female enter the male's nest and lays her eggs on the ceiling No category Knaepkens, 2004
45 Spawning site preparation During the breeding season, the male excavates a cavity under a stone, the ripe female enters the nest and lay an egg mass on its ceiling No category Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
45 Spawning site preparation The male excavates a nest under a suitable large stone to attract female No category Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
41 Spawning temperature 3-6 4.5 °C Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
41 Spawning temperature 7-8 [5-12] 7.5 °C Abdoli, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 7.5-13.5 10.5 °C Fox, 1978
40 Spawning period duration 8-9 8.5 weeks Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
40 Spawning period duration Normally the spawning time lasts from April to May but can be until early June in alpine streams and lakes No data Wanzenböck, 2000
40 Spawning period duration 8 8.0 weeks Terver, 1984
40 Spawning period duration Occur over a period of about 1 month 1.0 weeks Abdoli, 2005
40 Spawning period duration 1st spanwing observed 15/2-75 and the 4th at 30/5/75 [In the high altitude headwaters of the River Tees, bullheads exhibit a short breeding season during late Paril and first week of May] 38.5 weeks Fox, 1978
42 Spawning water type Creek, stream No category Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
42 Spawning water type Tributaries, reaches with relatively steep river slope No category Abdoli, 2005
43 Spawning depth From 5 cm in riffles, to about 60 cm in pools, mostly less than 30 cm 5.0 m Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
43 Spawning depth The water depths were <40 cm at the end of the low flow period 40.0 m Abdoli, 2005
36 Spawning migration distance As bullhead are well known to be territorial fish with reduced migratory activity No data Abdoli, 2005
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
36 Spawning migration distance During the spawning season, the proportion of fish that movedand the distances travelled(SPB: between 10 and 90, mean 26 +/- 3m, LB: between 30 and 260 m,mean 133 +/-3 m) were significantly larger 26.0 km Knaepkens, 2004
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season March-April and May in Nothern Region ['April', 'March', 'May'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season March-April [But from Februrary to May-June] ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Persat, 2001
39 Spawning season March-April, but also Ferbuary up to June ['April', 'March', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season Late February to Late April ['February', 'April'] Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
39 Spawning season March-May ['April', 'March', 'May'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season 31 March-15 May with a peak in 20 April ['April', 'March', 'May'] Bagenal, 1971
39 Spawning season March-April ['April', 'March'] Terver, 1984
39 Spawning season Females spawned in April or early in all sites ['April'] Abdoli, 2005
39 Spawning season Spawn from February to June ['February', 'June'] Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
38 Homing "Fish are faithful to permanent shelter for many years, Bullhead developed a fixation for their ""home"" stone, selecting it above others even when it moved, although for a short time the fish occasionally returned to its stone's original location. This suggests bullheads may home effectively, a finding that was supported by a field experiment in which 87% of fish were found under the stone six days after initial capture." Present Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
48 Spawning release Once/Multiples Mutliple Rinchard, 1996
48 Spawning release Usually one but up to four in certain britain populations No category Persat, 2001
48 Spawning release Spawns once a year for several years in low productivity streams, but exhibits multiple spawning within a season in high productivity enviroments Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release 100 to 500 eggs by spawning No category Spillmann, 1961
48 Spawning release 100-500 by batch Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning during the same breeding season Mutliple Marconato and Bisazza, 1988
48 Spawning release Multiple broods Mutliple Environment agency, 1996
48 Spawning release Females laid all their eggs during the same period [Producing only one single batch of eggs per year] Yet, Fox also found that bullhead in less productive streams lay only one batch of eggs annually but in highly productive streams may lay up to four batches of eggs Ambiguous Abdoli, 2005
48 Spawning release Typically once for females in upland streams, and up to four times in warmer, more productive lowland streams [Females adopt fractional reproduction in the latter, with successive batches of secondary oocytes developping into eggs, which the females then lays, perhaps with different partners] Ambiguous Tomlinson and Perrow, 2003
48 Spawning release Several batches during a breeding season Mutliple Poncin, 1987
48 Spawning release Apperead to be multiple spawners [...] laid four batches [Other area: Although it is possible that a female might lay parts of her batch separately, the distribution of egg sizes and the very short spawning season both suggest that females only ripen one egg batch per season Mutliple Fox, 1978
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
49 Parity Actively reproducting female range from 2 to 7 years No category Abdoli, 2005
49 Parity Could live up to 4 to 6 years No category Bensettiti and Gaudillat, 2002
49 Parity In the Bere stream all fish ripen and lay eggs at the end of their first year of life. Thereafter, most of them die and only a small percentage survive to breed in their second year. In the trout beck systme, fish do not ripen eggs until their second or third years of life but the maximum recorded life expectancy appears to be nine years Semelparous Fox, 1978