Lepomis gibbosus

  • Scientific name
  • Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Pumpkinseed

  • Family
  • Centrarchidae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 72%
Total data189
References25
Image of Lepomis gibbosus

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (86%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Attached to the substrate] Adhesive Internet, 2005
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Stick to the substrate] Adhesive Spillmann, 1961
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhere to the bottom of the nest on soil particles, small stones, roots and sticks Adhesive Scott and Crossman, 1973
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive eggs incubate on gravel, plants, or roots in nest Adhesive Goodyear, 1982
5 Incubation time 3 [At 28°C] 3.0 days Internet, 2005
5 Incubation time 2-3 2.5 days Carrel, 2001
5 Incubation time 3 [At 28°C] 3.0 days Scott and Crossman, 1973
5 Incubation time 3 3.0 days Kerr and Grant, 1999
5 Incubation time 48 hours at 19.0-25.0 22.0 days Rue, 2001
5 Incubation time 4.0 [Mean time to egg hatch within the range of average post-spawning the range post-spawning water temperatures] 4.0 days Olden, 2006
5 Incubation time Eggs hatch in 10 days or less, in 3 days at 82°F 10.0 days Goodyear, 1982
7 Degree-days for incubation 150-155 152.5 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation 84, i.e. 3 days at 28°C 84.0 °C * day Internet, 2005
7 Degree-days for incubation 84, i.e. 3 days at 28°C 84.0 °C * day Scott and Crossman, 1973
7 Degree-days for incubation 38-50 DD, i.e., 48 hours at 19.0-25.0°C 44.0 °C * day Rue, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation 28 28.0 °C Internet, 2005
6 Temperature for incubation 28 28.0 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
6 Temperature for incubation 19.0-25.0°C 22.0 °C Rue, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Water temperature in the laboratory varied from 21 to 24°C 21.0 °C Shao, 1997
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Internet, 2005
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 0.8-1.2 1.0 mm Internet, 2005
1 Oocyte diameter 1.5 1.5 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 1-1.5 1.25 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 0.9-1.2 [Not specified] 1.05 mm Carrel, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter About 1 1.0 mm Scott and Crossman, 1973
1 Oocyte diameter Mean 0.88 [0.5-1.27] 0.885 mm Copp, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 0.8-1.8 [Vitellogenic egg] 1.3 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
1 Oocyte diameter 1.00-1.20 [Average diameter of the largest oocyte in fully developed ovaries] 1.1 mm Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
1 Oocyte diameter 1.0 [Mean diameter of mature, fully yolked, ovarian oocyte] 1.0 mm Olden, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter The mean diameter of ripe eggs in ovaries of females in Upper Beverley Lake was 0.529 mm, signigficantly larger that 0.477 in Lower beverley Lake 0.529 mm Deacon and Keast, 1987
1 Oocyte diameter Egg diameter in various studies: 1.06 [England, Cottesmore pond], 1.10 [Romania, Danube Delta], 0.76 [Spain, Banyoles Lake], 0.80 [Greece, Kerkini Lake], 0.79 [Brazil, Custodio's Dam], 1.00 [Canada, Lakes of east region], 0.80 [USA, Rhode Island ponds] 1.06 mm De Magalhaes and Ratton, 2005

Larvae (29%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
8 Initial larval size 2.4-3.1 2.75 mm Internet, 2005
8 Initial larval size 2.4-2.9 2.65 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size 2.4-2.9 2.65 mm Carrel, 2001
8 Initial larval size 5.3 5.3 mm Olden, 2006
9 Larvae behaviour Remain at the bottom of the nest for as short period and then inhabit dense vegetation and also venture out into open waters Demersal Internet, 2005
9 Larvae behaviour Gregarious Demersal Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
9 Larvae behaviour Newly hatched inhabit nearshore open water areas Demersal Kerr and Grant, 1999
9 Larvae behaviour From preliminary field observations, I found that larvae were usually scattered throughout the nest despite some clumping Demersal Shao, 1997
9 Larvae behaviour Fry leave nest soon after hatching Demersal Goodyear, 1982

Female (75%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
24 Maximum GSI value Up to 10.5, between 5.4-9.0, rarely peaking at 15 in Europe 7.2 percent Copp, 2002
24 Maximum GSI value Up to 15.2-15.3% 15.25 percent Fox and Crivelli, 1998
24 Maximum GSI value Mean of 7, up to 9.5% [In July] 7.0 percent Burns, 1976
24 Maximum GSI value Female mean IG: 5.6% [Ontario Lakes, Canada], 6.1%[Cottesmore Pond, England], 6.3% [Rhône River, Delta canals, France], 7.8% [Mirgenbach Reservoir, Moselle, France] 5.6 percent Dembski, 2006
24 Maximum GSI value GSI at peak months of spawning in various studies: 6.1% [England, Cottesmore pond], 9.0 [Romania, Danube Delta], 6.5 [Spain, Banyoles Lake], 6.4 [Brazil, Custodio's Dam], 9.3 [Canada, Warrens Lake], 6.9% [Canada, Black lake] 6.1 percent De Magalhaes and Ratton, 2005
19 Relative fecundity Vary from 1844.5 eggs for females of 51.1 g [Age 5] to 10632.9 for females 125.8 g [Age 8] 1844.5 thousand eggs/kg Deacon and Keast, 1987
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex not specified] 2.5 years Internet, 2005
27 Age at sexual maturity 3 [Male specified but possible at 1 year] 3.0 years Carrel, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Not specified] 2.0 years Scott and Crossman, 1973
27 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Mixed] 2.0 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity From 1.4 to 3.9 in Europe, 3-5 in their study [Both sex] 4.0 years Copp, 2002
27 Age at sexual maturity 2.5 [Both sex] 2.5 years Olden, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity Ages of first maturity was 5.76 for males 5.76 years Deacon and Keast, 1987
26 Resting period From August to March No data Copp, 2002
26 Resting period From Setember to May No data Burns, 1976
22 Onset of oogenesis From January to early May, 1972, the gonads of both sex remained small. The ovaries begin to increase in size during late and early June. The GSI of both sex remained low from August through the fall and winter. Therefore it appears that the first sign of recrudescence in both males and females occured during late May in 1972 ['March', 'January', 'May', 'August', 'June', 'February'] Burns, 1976
22 Onset of oogenesis March-April ['April', 'March'] Copp, 2002
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity June ['June'] Burns, 1976
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity Based on GSI graph, GSI increases from 2 to 6% in May ['May'] Copp, 2002
21 Oocyte development Asynchronous ovogenesis [In general, the ovaries of the females contained three kinds of oocytes] Asynchronous Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 0.6 - 2.9 [For females of 2-5 years] 4.45 thousand eggs Internet, 2005
20 Absolute fecundity Several thousands No data Spillmann, 1961
20 Absolute fecundity Average number of 1.684-2.923 [Range from 0.6-2.923] 2.3035 thousand eggs Scott and Crossman, 1973
20 Absolute fecundity Up to 1 1.0 thousand eggs Fishbase, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity 5-10 [log F=-0.59+2.16logFL, FL is the fork length in mm] 7.5 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
20 Absolute fecundity 7.336-10.657 [Average number of vitellogenic oocyes of mature females in a single spawning season] 8.9965 thousand eggs Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
20 Absolute fecundity 3.6 [Total number of eggs or offsprings per breeding season] 3.6 thousand eggs Olden, 2006
20 Absolute fecundity For all ages: 24510.7 for UBL and 21740.8 for LBL 24510.7 thousand eggs Deacon and Keast, 1987
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean length at maturity was 6.11 SL [Both sex] 6.11 cm Copp, 2002
16 Length at sexual maturity Mean length at maturity of females at 7 [In warm thermal environments] 7.0 cm Fox and Crivelli, 2001
16 Length at sexual maturity 8.9 [Both sex] 8.9 cm Olden, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Females 138.03 ± 3.1826 for Lower Berveley Lake and 110.11 ± 2.6945 for Upper Beverley lake 138.03 cm Deacon and Keast, 1987
16 Length at sexual maturity Female mean age at maturity: 100 mm [Ontario Lakes, Canada], 78.5 mm [Cottesmore Pond, England], 70.7 mm [Rhône River, Delta canals, France], 76.6 mm [Mirgenbach Reservoir, Moselle, France] 100.0 cm Dembski, 2006
16 Length at sexual maturity Length at maturity in various studies: 61.1 mm [England, Cottesmore pond], 75.0 [Romania, Danube Delta], 47.6 [Spain, Banyoles Lake], 50.0 [Brazil, Custodio's Dam], 74 [Canada, Warrens Lake], 84.0 [Canada, Black lake] 61.1 cm De Magalhaes and Ratton, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Sex not specified] 2.5 year Internet, 2005
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Female specified, most at 3, quite rare at 2] 2.5 year Danylchuk and Fox, 1994
15 Age at sexual maturity 4 [Female specified but possible at 1 year] 4.0 year Carrel, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Not specified] 2.0 year Scott and Crossman, 1973
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 [Mixed] 2.0 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity From 1.4 to 3.9 in Europe, 3-5 in their study [Both sex] 4.0 year Copp, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity Mean age at maturity of females between 1.3-2.3 [In warm thermal environments] 1.8 year Fox and Crivelli, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 1.5-2 [18-24 months, age at maturation] 1.75 year Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
15 Age at sexual maturity 2.5 [Both sex] 2.5 year Olden, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity Fish of both sexes began maturing in Lower Beverley Lake at age three and that more then 50% were mature at age six 6.0 year Deacon and Keast, 1987
15 Age at sexual maturity Female mean age at maturity: 3.4 years [Ontario Lakes, Canada], 3.9 years [Cottesmore Pond, England], 1.8 year [Rhône River, Delta canals, France], 1.0 [Mirgenbach Reservoir, Moselle, France] 3.4 year Dembski, 2006

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism Brilliant green to organe-red spawning coloration of males Absent Internet, 2005
30 Male sexual dimorphism Males matured at a larger size than females in both lakes Absent Deacon and Keast, 1987
31 Onset of spermatogenesis It apperas that first sign of gonadal recrudescence occurred during late May ['May'] Burns, 1976
33 Maximum GSI value Mean 0.9, up to 1.1% [in June] 0.9 percent Burns, 1976
32 Main spermatogenesis activity May ['May'] Burns, 1976
35 Resting period October to May No data Burns, 1976
28 Length at sexual maturity Mean length at maturity was 6.11 SL [Both sex] 6.11 cm Copp, 2002
28 Length at sexual maturity 8.9 [Both sex] 8.9 cm Olden, 2006
28 Length at sexual maturity Females 147.17 ± 2.1847 for Lower Berveley Lake and 117.28 ± 1.7686 for Upper Beverley lake 147.17 cm Deacon and Keast, 1987

Spawning conditions (80%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system Both males and females may mate with different parterns in the same or different nests No category Internet, 2005
47 Mating system The spawning of several female are released in the same nest No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
47 Mating system Several female may mate in the same nest No category Spillmann, 1961
47 Mating system Male prepares the nest for another spawning with the same or different females No category Fishbase, 2006
47 Mating system Males and females may spawn more than once during the spanwing season No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care Male guards nest, sometimes two nests until larvae are free-swimming Male parental care Internet, 2005
50 Parental care Nest is guarded by male Male parental care Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
50 Parental care Spawn is guarded by male Male parental care Spillmann, 1961
50 Parental care The male guards the eggs and fans them, and guards the newly hatched young for a period of a few days Male parental care Scott and Crossman, 1973
50 Parental care Male defends the nest for 6-7 days Male parental care Gross and Nowell, 1980
50 Parental care The male guards the eggs and the young (to about 11 days after hatching) Male parental care Fishbase, 2006
50 Parental care A long period of protection by one sex (> 1 month) or brief care by both sexes Biparental care Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
50 Parental care Males guard nest and fry Male parental care Kerr and Grant, 1999
50 Parental care Parental males remain at their nests immediatly after spawning No category Danylchuk and Fox, 1994
50 Parental care During a breeding season, some male spawned again after their preivous brood had hatched and dispersed. Some males fertilized and guarded as many as four broods, although the mean was close to one No category Shao, 1997
50 Parental care Males guard nest and newly hatched fry Male parental care Goodyear, 1982
44 Spawning substrate Gravel, sand, hard clay or debris such as broken glass Ambiguous Internet, 2005
44 Spawning substrate Sand Psammophils Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Polyphil No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Sand Psammophils Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Various substrates No category Carrel, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Clay to sand, gravel or rocks [Nests are found within submerged aquatic vegetation] Ambiguous Scott and Crossman, 1973
44 Spawning substrate Aquatic vegetation with clay, sand or gravel bottom Ambiguous Kerr and Grant, 1999
44 Spawning substrate Polyphil No category Balon, 1975
44 Spawning substrate The susbrate of a nest was largely determined by its location in the pond: nests in the Dam area contained mostly flat rocks and gravel, while nests in the East and West areas were often built on a muddy substrate with varying amounts of gravel Lithophils Shao, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Eggs are deposited in conspicuous depression made in sand, gravel, or marl, or in mid or detritus excavated to expose gravel or plant roots, nest is always among vegetation, mau spawn over nests of other centrarchids Ambiguous Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Males construct nests in close proximity Nest built by male Internet, 2005
45 Spawning site preparation Excavation constructs by both parents Nest built by both parents Billard, 1997
45 Spawning site preparation Nests are built on any susbtrates Susbtrate chooser Carrel, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Male built a nest, which is a shallow depressions Nest built by male Scott and Crossman, 1973
45 Spawning site preparation Males build the nest No category Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Zygotes are placed in a special habitat (e.g. scattered on vegetation, or buried in gravel) Susbtrate chooser Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
45 Spawning site preparation Nest diameter usually two times length of the male No category Kerr and Grant, 1999
45 Spawning site preparation Built nest No category Rue, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Nest spawner No category Balon, 1975
45 Spawning site preparation Male buils and defend nests Nest built by male Dembski, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation Nest is always among vegetation No category Goodyear, 1982
45 Spawning site preparation Eggs were collected from June 1-10, 1996, by placing clay tiles in nests of male pumpkinseed Nest built by male Arendt and Wilson, 2000
41 Spawning temperature 20-24 is the optimum temperature [Also 17.5-20°C] 22.0 °C Internet, 2005
41 Spawning temperature 19-20 19.5 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 15-30 22.5 °C Carrel, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 20-27.8 [For nest building] 23.9 °C Scott and Crossman, 1973
41 Spawning temperature 20-25 22.5 °C Copp, 2002
41 Spawning temperature 20, 18.9-21.1 20.0 °C Kerr and Grant, 1999
41 Spawning temperature 13-28°C, optimum being 21-24 20.5 °C Rue, 2001
41 Spawning temperature 13 [Temperature at which spawning is typically initiated] 13.0 °C Olden, 2006
41 Spawning temperature Beginning at 55°F, occurs at water temperatures as high as 84°F 55.0 °C Goodyear, 1982
40 Spawning period duration 8-10 [From 28 May until 27 July, few spawning bouts until August 13] 9.0 weeks Danylchuk and Fox, 1994
40 Spawning period duration Duration of the spawning period averages 6.7 weeks (range 2.3-11.1) 6.7 weeks Fox and Crivelli, 1998
40 Spawning period duration 12 [From mid-May to Mid-August] 12.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
40 Spawning period duration 12 [3.00 months, length of breeding season] 12.0 weeks Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
40 Spawning period duration Spawning months only for females: 2 [England, Cottesmore pond], 3 [Romania, Danube Delta], 4 [Spain, Banyoles Lake], 12 [Brazil, Custodio's Dam], 2 [Canada, Warrens Lake], 1 [Canada, Black lake] 2.0 weeks De Magalhaes and Ratton, 2005
42 Spawning water type Lakes, reservoirs, ponds and creeks Stagnant water Internet, 2005
42 Spawning water type Ponds, lakes or slow moving streams, near the shore Stagnant water Scott and Crossman, 1973
42 Spawning water type Near the shore Stagnant water Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Shallow water of ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams close to shore Stagnant water Kerr and Grant, 1999
42 Spawning water type Quiet nearshore areas, including bays, harbors, marshes, laggoons, backwaters, and creek mouths, also running waters of tributaries Stagnant water Goodyear, 1982
43 Spawning depth Large nests are built in deeper water, and small ones in periphery No data Internet, 2005
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Carrel, 2001
43 Spawning depth 15.2-30.5 cm 22.85 m Scott and Crossman, 1973
43 Spawning depth Very shallow waters No data Fishbase, 2006
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters: 20.3-40.6 cm or 15.2-30.5 cm or 15.2-45.7 30.45 m Kerr and Grant, 1999
43 Spawning depth Nest were located at between 40 to 45 cm deep 40.0 m Shao, 1997
43 Spawning depth 3 inches to 7 feet 3.0 m Goodyear, 1982
36 Spawning migration distance No migration No data Agence de l'eau,
36 Spawning migration distance Move short distances inshore and enter creeks No data Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season May-June ['May', 'June'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season May trough August in mid-Atlantic region ['August', 'May'] Internet, 2005
39 Spawning season May-June [But in July-September in South of France] ['September', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season May to July ['May', 'July'] Danylchuk and Fox, 1994
39 Spawning season May to August ['August', 'May'] Carrel, 2001
39 Spawning season Usually begins in late spring to early summer, sometimes to the end of August ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Scott and Crossman, 1973
39 Spawning season May to July ['May', 'July'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season June-July ['June', 'July'] Copp, 2002
39 Spawning season From last week of May until the third week in August ['August', 'May'] Fox and Crivelli, 1998
39 Spawning season From mid-May to Mid-August ['August', 'May'] Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
39 Spawning season Late spring, early summer ['April', 'May', 'September', 'August', 'June', 'July'] Kerr and Grant, 1999
39 Spawning season Peak spawning occur in the second half of May ['May'] Rue, 2001
39 Spawning season May-August ['August', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Goodyear, 1982
39 Spawning season Eggs were collected from June 1-10, 1996, by placing clay tiles in nests of male pumpkinseed ['June'] Arendt and Wilson, 2000
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner: Batches of 8000-11000 eggs for a female of 9-11 cm Mutliple Carrel, 2001
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning: Mean number of spawning periods 3 [Batch fecundity either 1800-3900 or 2500-14100 eggs per female] Mutliple Fox and Crivelli, 1998
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner fish, each female spawns repeatedly over several months [Spawn several batches of eggs, three times or more at intervals of 20-30 days] Mutliple Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2000
48 Spawning release Small numbers of eggs and small quantities of sperm are meiited at irregular intervals [Males may spawn more than once in the same season, in the same nest, with the same or different females] Mutliple Scott and Crossman, 1973
48 Spawning release Eggs are deposited in clusters in the center of the nest Fractional Spillmann, 1961
48 Spawning release Deposited in clusters, or singly but very dense pert unit area Fractional Internet, 2005
48 Spawning release Several hundreds of eggs (600-5000) are released by each female in a kind of visquous ribbon Mutliple Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
48 Spawning release Deposited in clusters Fractional Billard, 1997
48 Spawning release Either single spawning per year or from two to four spawning per year Total Vila-Gispert and Moreno-Amich, 2002
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Fox and Crivelli, 1998
49 Parity Gsi of all females by age class increased with age No category Copp, 2002
49 Parity Longevity: 9 years [Ontario Lakes, Canada], 5 years [Cottesmore Pond, England], 3-7 years [Rhône River, Delta canals, France], 3 years [Mirgenbach Reservoir, Moselle, France] No category Dembski, 2006