Barbatula barbatula

  • Scientific name
  • Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Common name
  • Stone loach

  • Family
  • Balitoridae

  • External links
  • Fishbase
Trait completeness 80%
Total data120
References17
Image of Barbatula barbatula

Author: Fabrice Téletchéa
License: All rights reserved

Traits detail



Egg (100%)


Trait id Trait Primary data Secondary Data References
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive, found attached to gravel and vegetation Adhesive Fishbase, 2006
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [stick to pebbles and gravels] Adhesive Losange, 1999
4 Egg adhesiveness Adhesive Adhesive Kunz, 2004
4 Egg adhesiveness Eggs adhere to the bottom and weeds Adhesive Sauvonsaari, 1971
5 Incubation time 14-16 [At 12-16°C] 15.0 days Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
5 Incubation time 14-16 15.0 days Bagenal, 1971
5 Incubation time Took 14-16 days at 12-16°C 15.0 days Smyly, 1955
5 Incubation time 16 days [14°C], 11 [18°C] and 7-8 [20°C] 7.5 days Sauvonsaari, 1971
7 Degree-days for incubation About 200 200.0 °C * day Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
7 Degree-days for incubation Took 14-16 days at 12-16°C 15.0 °C * day Smyly, 1955
7 Degree-days for incubation 16 days [14°C], 11 [18°C] and 7-8 [20°C] 7.5 °C * day Sauvonsaari, 1971
6 Temperature for incubation 12-16 14.0 °C Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
6 Temperature for incubation Took 14-16 days at 12-16°C 15.0 °C Smyly, 1955
6 Temperature for incubation 14-20°C 17.0 °C Sauvonsaari, 1971
2 Egg size after water-hardening Mainly 1.1, varying between 0.8-1.15 [Drifting eggs] 0.975 mm Copp, 2002b
2 Egg size after water-hardening Diameter of 1.0 mm and a tough outer skin 1.0 mm Smyly, 1955
3 Egg Buoyancy Demersal Demersal Kunz, 2004
3 Egg Buoyancy The eggs from these fish were found scattered over the bottom of the pond, the majority singly No category Smyly, 1955
1 Oocyte diameter 1 [Mean egg size] 1.0 mm Skryabin, 1993
1 Oocyte diameter About 1 1.0 mm Spillmann, 1961
1 Oocyte diameter 0.9-1.4 1.15 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 1 1.0 mm Perrin, 2001
1 Oocyte diameter 0.9-1 0.95 mm Fishbase, 2006
1 Oocyte diameter 0.9 [Not specffied] 0.9 mm Copp, 2002b
1 Oocyte diameter 1.08 [Not specified] 1.08 mm Sauvonsaari, 1971

Larvae (29%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
13 Full yolk-sac resorption The yolk-sac is absorbed within 5-7 days [4.0-6.5 mm in size] 6.0 °C * day Smyly, 1955
13 Full yolk-sac resorption About 6 days 6.0 °C * day Bagenal, 1971
8 Initial larval size 3-4 3.5 mm Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
8 Initial larval size The newly hatched fry measured 3.0 mm in length 3.0 mm Smyly, 1955

Female (92%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
18 Female sexual dimorphism In many fish, the pectoral fin is relatively long and pointed in the male and round and short in the female. In most adult fish, but not all, the male pectoral fin was longer than that of the female, the distinction is therefore a useful but not infaillible means of determining sex from external examination. Immature fish could not be separate by this way. In the breeding season, no change of colour in either sex has been seen but small papillae, present on the pectoral fins of only male fish, have been found Absent Smyly, 1955
24 Maximum GSI value 30-32 [Before spawning in May] 31.0 percent Skryabin, 1993
24 Maximum GSI value 7.5-23.9 [November-December] and 16.3-24.6 [May] 15.7 percent Saat, 2003
24 Maximum GSI value From March to June, with a few small fish excepted, GSI lies on or above 10%, in a few instances reaching the high figures of 35%. From July to August, the ratio ranges between 3 and 20%, the higher values being largely late-spawners or non-spawners 10.0 percent Smyly, 1955
19 Relative fecundity 0.424 ± 0.019 [River Goloustnaya] and 0.552 ± 0.015 [River Olkha] 0.424 thousand eggs/kg Skryabin, 1993
19 Relative fecundity 0.216-0.833 0.5245 thousand eggs/kg Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 1.0 years Skryabin, 1993
27 Age at sexual maturity 1 1.0 years Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Male] 2.5 years Fishbase, 2006
27 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [No specified] 2.5 years Environment agency, 1996
26 Resting period 1 [Short] 1.0 months Skryabin, 1993
26 Resting period 1 [Short] 1.0 months Saat, 2003
26 Resting period From July to August, the GSI ranges between 3 and 20%, the higher values being largely late-spawners or non-spawners 3.0 months Smyly, 1955
22 Onset of oogenesis After autumn the GSI was 1.6 ± 0.24%, lower than that in the spring ['April', 'May', 'December', 'June', 'October', 'November'] Skryabin, 1993
22 Onset of oogenesis The GSI remained low during July and early August and increased thereafter ['August', 'July'] Saat, 2003
22 Onset of oogenesis Between September and February GSI lies between 5 and 10% ['February', 'September'] Smyly, 1955
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity The dynamics of GSI values and oocyte diameters in Estonia suggests that gonad reach stage IV (gonads with full-grown oocytes) already by late autumn (November) ['October', 'November', 'December'] Saat, 2003
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity The subsequent ripening of eggs and restoration of the GSI to April-May levels took 2.5-3 months ['April', 'May'] Skryabin, 1993
23 Intensifying oogenesis activity From March to June, with a few small fish excepted, this ratio lies on or above 10%, in a few instances reaching the high figures of 35% ['March', 'June'] Smyly, 1955
21 Oocyte development Group-synchronous Group-synchronous Rinchard, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity 1.710-27.600 in females of 70-182 mm, averaging 11.96 ± 0.72 11.96 thousand eggs Skryabin, 1993
20 Absolute fecundity 1.7-27 14.35 thousand eggs Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
20 Absolute fecundity 500-800 eggs 650.0 thousand eggs Environment agency, 1996
20 Absolute fecundity Total number of eggs varied between 5000 and 6000 of which usually rather then half were ripe 5000.0 thousand eggs Smyly, 1955
20 Absolute fecundity The number of eggs laid during one spawning period varies between 700 and 5000 700.0 thousand eggs Sauvonsaari, 1971
17 Weight at sexual maturity 5.5-6 g 5.75 kg Skryabin, 1993
16 Length at sexual maturity 7-7.3 7.15 cm Skryabin, 1993
16 Length at sexual maturity 5.2-6.7 5.95 cm Saat, 2003
16 Length at sexual maturity The smallest spawning female was 6.2 cm long 6.2 cm Sauvonsaari, 1971
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 1.5 year Skryabin, 1993
15 Age at sexual maturity 1-2 1.5 year Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
15 Age at sexual maturity 2 2.0 year Saat, 2003
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Mixed] 2.5 year Fishbase, 2006
15 Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [No specified] 2.5 year Environment agency, 1996
15 Age at sexual maturity In Finland, the stone loach usually matures at the age of two years, those slower in development at the age of 3 years [Sex not specified] 3.0 year Sauvonsaari, 1971

Male (78%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
30 Male sexual dimorphism The second ray of pectoral fin is enlarged and longer, the second and eigth rays are recovered by sharp tubercules Absent Spillmann, 1961
30 Male sexual dimorphism The second ray is enlarged and longer and sharp tubercules on second and sixth rays of pectoral fin Absent Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
33 Maximum GSI value 1.5-2 [Beginning of the spawning season] 1.75 percent Saat, 2003
33 Maximum GSI value The weight of testus was seldom more than 2% of the body weight 2.0 percent Smyly, 1955
32 Main spermatogenesis activity August ['August'] Saat, 2003
35 Resting period 0.3-0.7 [Minimal value in mid-July, and by August GSI increased to about 1% and remained at this level until the next spring] 0.5 months Saat, 2003
28 Length at sexual maturity NO INFORMATIONS No data Skryabin, 1993
28 Length at sexual maturity 5.1-6.6 5.85 cm Saat, 2003

Spawning conditions (87%)


Trait id Trait Primary Data Secondary Data References
47 Mating system In the spawning act males and females come to lie on their sides belly to belly, so that reproductive openings are close together and fertilization is made more certain No category Smyly, 1955
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night Skryabin, 1993
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition It may be assumed with some certainty that spawning takes place in darkness either by night or on dark days Ambiguous Smyly, 1955
46 Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawns at night Night Sauvonsaari, 1971
50 Parental care Nonguarders No care Fishbase, 2006
44 Spawning substrate Psmanophile: gravels or roots of aquatic plants Ambiguous Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Gravels or aquatic plants Ambiguous Spillmann, 1961
44 Spawning substrate Gravels and plants Ambiguous Billard, 1997
44 Spawning substrate Gravel, aquatic plants Ambiguous Perrin, 2001
44 Spawning substrate Lithophil Lithophils Kennedy, 1969
44 Spawning substrate Coarse gravel, stones Lithophils Environment agency, 1996
44 Spawning substrate The eggs are not laid in holes but on stones and plants Ambiguous Smyly, 1955
44 Spawning substrate Among shore rocks, eggs adhere to the bottom and weeds Ambiguous Sauvonsaari, 1971
45 Spawning site preparation No No category Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
45 Spawning site preparation Open water / substratum egg scatterers Open water/substratum scatter Fishbase, 2006
45 Spawning site preparation The eggs are not laid in holes but on stones and plants No category Smyly, 1955
41 Spawning temperature 6°C in the morning, 9-10°C 9.5 °C Skryabin, 1993
41 Spawning temperature Spawning begins as the shore waters warm to about 8°C 8.0 °C Sauvonsaari, 1971
40 Spawning period duration 12-14 [England], 4 [Estonia] and 4 [Finland] 13.0 weeks Saat, 2003
40 Spawning period duration 3-5 4.0 weeks Skryabin, 1993
40 Spawning period duration Exact observations on the length of the spawning period are lacking andit may vary to some extend, depending on water temperature of the waer, but normally appears to take only a few days No data Sauvonsaari, 1971
42 Spawning water type Low productivity streams or high productivity environments No category Fishbase, 2006
42 Spawning water type Well oxygenated Flowing or turbulent water Losange, 1999
42 Spawning water type [In three successive years, fish in aquarium, in which the water was still, did not spawn, but a circular concrete ponds out of doors supplied with water from jets set at an angle so that the water in the pond was continually moving Stagnant water Smyly, 1955
43 Spawning depth Shallow waters No data Losange, 1999
43 Spawning depth Shore waters No data Sauvonsaari, 1971
36 Spawning migration distance The stone loach spawns in the same places where it lives No data Sauvonsaari, 1971
36 Spawning migration distance Limited home range No data Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Billard, 1997
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Spillmann, 1961
39 Spawning season April until June and sometimes July ['April', 'June', 'July'] Bruslé and Quignard, 2001
39 Spawning season Begin 10-12 May and end in the end of May ['May'] Skryabin, 1993
39 Spawning season Late April-Early August [England], May-June [Estonia], May and less June [Finland] ['April', 'August', 'May', 'June'] Saat, 2003
39 Spawning season April-June ['April', 'May', 'June'] Perrin, 2001
39 Spawning season Mainly April-May, also in March and June ['April', 'March', 'May', 'June'] Fishbase, 2006
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Losange, 1999
39 Spawning season April-May ['April', 'May'] Environment agency, 1996
39 Spawning season Peak in 14 May ['May'] Bagenal, 1971
39 Spawning season In the Lake District, the fish spawns in May, though some breeding may take place in April and June, and a few ripe females have been found as late as July [Seasonal changes in the ratio gonad weight: body weight supports the conclusion that May is the month when most fish breed] ['April', 'May', 'July', 'June'] Smyly, 1955
39 Spawning season Spawning usually occurs in May, it may de delayed to early June in cold years ['May', 'June'] Sauvonsaari, 1971
48 Spawning release Two periods of spawning : May and late-summer-early autumn Mutliple Skryabin, 1993
48 Spawning release One period of spawning No category Saat, 2003
48 Spawning release Multiple spawner Mutliple Perrin, 2001
48 Spawning release Spawn only once a year for several years in low productivity streams, but exhibits multiple spawning within a season in high productivity environments Ambiguous Fishbase, 2006
48 Spawning release Female lay their egg one by one No category Sauvonsaari, 1971
48 Spawning release Multiple spawning have been suggested Mutliple Marconato and Rasotto, 1989
49 Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous Fishbase, 2006
49 Parity Specimens over four years old were rare, and only a few 6-year-olds were found No category Sauvonsaari, 1971