Mills, 2004


Mills, T.J. (2004) Matrix of life history and habitat requirements for feather river fish species - American shad.
Sp-F3.2 task 2

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Alosa sapidissima Egg Oocyte diameter 1.8 [Unfertilized egg] 1.8 mm
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg size after water-hardening 2.5-3.8 [Not specifed] 3.15 mm
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg Buoyancy Slightly heavier than water and are carried by the currents and gradually sink Demersal
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg adhesiveness Initially adhesive and later become non-adhesive Non-Adhesive
Alosa sapidissima Egg Incubation time 4-6 [15-18°C], 6-8 [17°C], 8-12 [11-15°C] 5.0 days
Alosa sapidissima Egg Temperature for incubation 17 is considered optimal [The survival rate decreases at 24°C] 17.0 °C
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Initial larval size Either 9-10; 6-10 9.5 mm
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Larvae behaviour Larvae are planktonic for about 4 weeks Demersal
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Temperature during larval development 17-25 for juveniles 21.0 °C
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption [About 4 to 7 days after hatching; 9-12 mm or 12.2 when yolk is absorbed] 10.5 °C * day
Alosa sapidissima Female Age at sexual maturity 4-5 [Female] 4.5 year
Alosa sapidissima Female Absolute fecundity From various sources, American shad produce 2-300 eggs [Also 116-468 and 98.6-225.6] 151.0 thousand eggs
Alosa sapidissima Male Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Males] 3.5 years
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Up stream migrations in southern streams reportdly occur early in the spring and progressively later northward [the upstream migration of Amrican shad in the Sacramento river estuary reportdly takes about 3 months occuring in March, April and May). Migrate upstream in the spring [Take place when water is about 16.0-19.5°C ['March', 'April', 'May', 'June']
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Homing To their natal streams to spawn Present
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning season May or early June ['May', 'June']
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Diffrente temperatures according to authors: 8-26; 12-17; 14-21; 17-24; 18.5, prefer 16.7-20.0 17.0 °C
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning water type In the main channels of rivers, preferred moderate current for spawning, about 0.3-0.93 or 0.15-0.61 m/s Flowing or turbulent water
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning depth Near the surface: 0.9-12.2; or less than 3 meters 6.55 m
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Usually spawn over sand and gravel Lithophils
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Broadcast their eggs in the water Open water/substratum scatter
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Most spawning occurs after dark, taking place between 2100 and 0700 hours, peaking at 2300-2400 Night
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Parity Iteroparous, spawn annualy Iteroparous