Bruslé and Quignard, 2001



Citation


Bruslé, J. and Quignard, J.P. (2001) Biologie des poissons d'eau douce européens., pp.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Mating system One female followed by 5-6 males Polyandry
Barbus barbus Spawning conditions Mating system One female and two males but a sex-ratio of 50:1 for males on the spawning grounds Polyandry
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Mating system One female and several males Polyandry
Pseudorasbora parva Spawning conditions Mating system One male and few females Polygyny
Rhodeus sericeus Spawning conditions Mating system One male and one female each time Ambiguous
Tinca tinca Spawning conditions Mating system Group of 10 to 20 fishes Promiscuity
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Mating system 3 to 5 male follow one female Polyandry
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Mating system One male and several female, female lay their eggs in several nest Polygyny
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Mating system By pair, but a nest contains eggs coming from different females Monogamy
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Mating system The spawning of several female are released in the same nest No category
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Mating system By pair Monogamy
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Mating system One female is followed by two males No category
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Mating system By pair, one male and one female Ambiguous
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Mating system Polygamy : one female followed by 2 to 8 males Polyandry
Thymallus thymallus Spawning conditions Mating system 10 male following one female, but also two males and one female No category
Cottus gobio Spawning conditions Mating system One male and up to ten female No category
Silurus glanis Spawning conditions Mating system By pair: one male and one female Ambiguous
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night : during 1 and 5 a.m. Night
Alosa fallax Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night : between midnight and 2 a.m. Night
Barbus barbus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the day but avoid high light intensity : mainly during morning and then end of the day, and also during the night : 2-3 hours after darkness Ambiguous
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Preferentially during the morning Day
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Dawn and less in dusk Ambiguous
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the hottest hour of the day [mainly witout wind and clouds] Day
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Eggs are released at dawn Dawn
Coregonus albula Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning act occur at night, rarely during the day Ambiguous
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night and day Ambiguous
Thymallus thymallus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Either in the middle of the day or at the end of the day until the beginning of night Ambiguous
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Parental care None No category
Cobitis taenia Spawning conditions Parental care Male guard eggs until hatching Male parental care
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning conditions Parental care No No category
Leucaspius delineatus Spawning conditions Parental care Eggs are guarded by the male Male parental care
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Parental care No No category
Pseudorasbora parva Spawning conditions Parental care Males protect the spawning No category
Rhodeus sericeus Spawning conditions Parental care Male defend a territory around one or several mussels, then a he brings a female Male parental care
Gambusia affinis Spawning conditions Parental care Female is viviparous, internal fecondation: ovovipariy lecitotrophe No category
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards and ventilates eggs until hatching, and then continue to protect larvae for 2 weeks [Fight between males] Male parental care
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Parental care Male guard its nest and the spawning until and after the htaching of eggs Male parental care
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Parental care The spawning is guarded by male Male parental care
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Parental care Nest is guarded by male Male parental care
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Parental care Male guard the spawning and ventilate the eggs, very aggressive, during 2-3 weeks Male parental care
Cottus gobio Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards the nest, up to 3-4 weeks (aggressive) Male parental care
Silurus glanis Spawning conditions Parental care Male guard eggs and discard mud and give oxygen to the eggs Male parental care
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravels to coarse pebbles Lithophils
Alosa fallax Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravels and pebbles [sometimes sand] Ambiguous
Barbatula barbatula Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Psmanophile: gravels or roots of aquatic plants Ambiguous
Cobitis taenia Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Stones Lithophils
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Aquatic plants : phytophil or phyto-lithophyl Phytophils
Alburnoides bipunctatus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophil: gravel and pebbles and possibly sand Ambiguous
Alburnus alburnus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Phytolithophil : sand, gravel and submerged aquatic plants Ambiguous
Aspius aspius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophil : stones and gravels Lithophils
Barbus barbus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophil : gravels or pebbles 4-20 mm Lithophils
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Phytophilous : submerged plants Phytophils
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophil : stones and gravels of 10 cm of diameter Lithophils
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Phytophil : aquatic plants Phytophils
Gobio gobio Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Psmanophile: sand, pebbles and small pebbles but sometimes aquatic plants Ambiguous
Leucaspius delineatus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Around aquatic plants Phytophils
Leuciscus cephalus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Phyto-lithophil : plants and gravels Ambiguous
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophile: sand or gravel Ambiguous
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophil : gravels and stones Lithophils
Pseudorasbora parva Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Stones Lithophils
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Phytophil: aquatic plants Phytophils
Tinca tinca Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Phytophil : Spawning ground are rich in aquatic plants Phytophils
Vimba vimba Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophil : pebbles [Rarely on aquatic plants when there is flood] Ambiguous
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Aquatic plants are necessary = phytophile Phytophils
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sand or gravels Ambiguous
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Rich in vegetation Phytophils
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Polyphil No category
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Over sandy ground Psammophils
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Ribbons are winded up aquatic plants Phytophils
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Various substrates : plants, branchs, rocks Ambiguous
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Clear ground of coarse gravel or pebbles with short plants, also with trees and submerged plants Ambiguous
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophil : gravel 6-15 mm Lithophils
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravels: 0.2 mm -2 cm [Lithophil] Lithophils
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophil: gravels, pebbles 1-5 cm in diameter Lithophils
Thymallus thymallus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Lithophil : gravels, coarse sand (between 2 to 60 mm) Ambiguous
Cottus gobio Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sand, gravel, pebbles Ambiguous
Silurus glanis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sand and mud and located near the roots of tree Psammophils
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Alosa fallax Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Barbatula barbatula Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Cobitis taenia Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Alburnoides bipunctatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Barbus barbus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Kind of, females dig a depression in the ground Susbtrate chooser
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Gobio gobio Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Leucaspius delineatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Rudimentary nest No category
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Pseudorasbora parva Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male clean the surface of one or several gravel of 13-31 cm of diameter Nest built by male
Rhodeus sericeus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male defend a territory around one or several mussels, then a he brings a female No category
Tinca tinca Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male builts a nest in form of a barrel using parts of plants and renal secretions Nest built by male
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male built a nest with parts of aquatic plants Nest built by male
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male built a nest Nest built by male
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No No category
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male build a rudimentary nest and keeps it clean Nest built by male
Hucho hucho Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Female dig a nest Susbtrate chooser
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Female digs one up to five excavations in the ground depending on the number of male Susbtrate chooser
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female dig few nests Susbtrate chooser
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No nests, but females lay their eggs on the substrates Ambiguous
Thymallus thymallus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No, eggs are only buried No category
Cottus gobio Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male built a nest Nest built by male
Anguilla anguilla Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 16-17 16.5 °C
Alosa fallax Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 18-22 20.0 °C
Alburnoides bipunctatus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Above 12°C 12.0 °C
Alburnus alburnus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 15 15.0 °C
Aspius aspius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Start with 4-6°C 5.0 °C
Barbus barbus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Starts at 13.5 13.5 °C
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 16-17 16.5 °C
Carassius carassius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 15-20 17.5 °C
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 8-9 up to 11 8.5 °C
Chondrostoma toxostoma Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 9-11 10.0 °C
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 20-25 22.5 °C
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 20-22 21.0 °C
Gobio gobio Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Ovulation requires a temperature of 16-17 [Optimum 20°C] 16.5 °C
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 25 25.0 °C
Leucaspius delineatus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 15-24 19.5 °C
Leuciscus cephalus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Close to 15°C 15.0 °C
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 11-12 11.5 °C
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 10-12 11.0 °C
Scardinius erythrophthalmus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 18-27 22.5 °C
Tinca tinca Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 21-25 [But 18 in England] 23.0 °C
Gambusia affinis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 25-30 for the release of neonates 27.5 °C
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 7-11 9.0 °C
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 0.5-4 2.25 °C
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Above 10°C 10.0 °C
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 19-20 19.5 °C
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 16-18 but 23°C in USA 17.0 °C
Gymnocephalus cernuus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 10-15 12.5 °C
Perca fluviatilis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 12-14 but 7°C in deep water of lakes 13.0 °C
Sander lucioperca Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 14-16 but as low as 11 in nothern region 15.0 °C
Coregonus lavaretus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 3-3.5 3.25 °C
Coregonus albula Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 3.3-3.4 3.35 °C
Hucho hucho Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 8-10 9.0 °C
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 10-13 [Optimum temperature] 11.5 °C
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 4.2-5.6 [Nothern Region] and 7-12°C [Southern Region] 4.9 °C
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Below 12°C, the optimum is 5-6°C 5.5 °C
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Ovulation occurs at 5-8°C but is inhibited at 10-11°C 6.5 °C
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning temperature < 10 10.0 °C
Thymallus thymallus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 7-12 9.5 °C
Silurus glanis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 20 [Optimal temperature = 22-25] 23.5 °C
Anguilla anguilla Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Reproduction from February to April or March to July No data
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Several months No data
Alburnoides bipunctatus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 15 15.0 weeks
Aspius aspius Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Short No data
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Seems to be short : 3-4 days 3.5 weeks
Gobio gobio Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 4-8 6.0 weeks
Leucaspius delineatus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 4-5 4.5 weeks
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration About 6 6.0 weeks
Rutilus rutilus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Few days No data
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 8 : female release 3 to 4 batches of eggs with about 1 week between each of the batch 8.0 weeks
Thymallus thymallus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 10-19 days [Male] and 2-3 days [Female] 14.5 weeks
Anguilla anguilla Spawning conditions Spawning water type Sargasso Sea [Larvae hatch in region with low current] Flowing or turbulent water
Alosa alosa Spawning conditions Spawning water type Quite rapid current Flowing or turbulent water
Alosa fallax Spawning conditions Spawning water type Turbide water No category
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning water type In border of river [current about 30 cm/s] Flowing or turbulent water
Aspius aspius Spawning conditions Spawning water type After riffles No category
Barbus barbus Spawning conditions Spawning water type 28-43 cm:s No category
Chondrostoma nasus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Grounds with current : 1m/s Flowing or turbulent water
Chondrostoma toxostoma Spawning conditions Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water
Ctenopharyngodon idella Spawning conditions Spawning water type Slow current, sides of river Flowing or turbulent water
Gobio gobio Spawning conditions Spawning water type Slow-flowing current : 10 to 80 cm/s Flowing or turbulent water
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Spawning conditions Spawning water type River with stroung current Flowing or turbulent water
Leuciscus cephalus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water
Leuciscus leuciscus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Riffles : water with current Flowing or turbulent water
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Slow current Flowing or turbulent water
Vimba vimba Spawning conditions Spawning water type Water with current Flowing or turbulent water