Armbruster, 1959


Armbruster, D.C. (1959) Observations on the natural history of the chain pickerel (Esox niger). The Ohio Journal of science, pp. 55-59

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Esox niger Spawning conditions Spawning season During the period from April 10 to April 25 ['April']
Esox niger Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Water temperatures ranged from a low of 36° to a high 73°F during the peirod from April 10 to April 25 36.0 °C
Esox niger Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Spawning occurred over a mass of willow roots in vegetation Phytophils
Esox niger Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition The first spawning was seen at 9:45 A.M. on April 10 […] On April 11, spawning was noted at 5 P.M. Day
Esox niger Spawning conditions Mating system Those spawning groups observed were comprised of only one male and one female. The fish swam side by side, weaving in and out among the vegetation. The male turned his ventral side toward the female and appeared to bum her. At this time the female turned her ventral side toward the male, and the eggs were laid with what appeared to be a lashing of their tails Monogamy
Esox niger Egg Incubation time 7-10 8.5 days