Scott and Crossman, 1973



Citation


Scott, W.P. and Crossman, E.J. (1973) Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax (Mitchill). Fisheries Research Board of Canada, pp. 310-317

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Mating system During the spawning act, the female is accompanied by several males No category
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Mating system The female may be accompanied by two or more males No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Mating system Usually a female will be accompanied by 2 or 3 males No category
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Mating system One female with one, or at times two smaller males Monogamy
Esox niger Spawning conditions Mating system A single female, accompagnied by one or two usually smaller males, swims slowly about a random way No category
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Mating system The sexes pair at spawning time and a larger female is usually attended by one or two smaller males No category
Lota lota Spawning conditions Mating system The actual spawning activity is said to take place at in a writhing ball about 2 feet in diameter, which moves over the bottom and is made up of 10-12 intertwined and constantly moving individuals No category
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Mating system As many as 7 females may be encouraged to deposit eggs in one nest No category
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Mating system More than one female may spawn in the same nest and one female may spawn in more than one nest No category
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Mating system By pair, a female may spawn with several males in different nests Monogamy
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Mating system A single larger female and many males which swim about in a long compact queue, the first males with their snouts pressed against the females No category
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Mating system Spawning takes place in groups, one larger female and one or two smaller males or two females and up to six males Promiscuity
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Mating system Several males may spawn with a single female in one nest, individual females my build more than one nest, and a single male may spawn with more than one female No category
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Mating system A single female is often attended by more than one male, and may build and spawn in more than one nest. A single male may spawn with more than one female No category
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Mating system The female may spawn in as many as four different nests, probably with different males No category
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Mating system Females dig and spawn in several nests with the same or other males No category
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Mating system The female may dig and and spawn in more than one nest, with different males, and a single male may spawn with more than one female No category
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Mating system The female may dig more than one redd and spawn with more than one male No category
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Mating system A female is usually attended by one male during deposition and fertilization of the eggs [Males usually mate with more than one female] No category
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Mating system The actual spawning act is performed by one male and one female, but each may spawn with different mates during the reproductive period Ambiguous
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Mating system One or two males may spawn with one female, or a group of males and females may spawn together, extruding eggs and sperm over rocky bottom Promiscuity
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Mating system By pair, a large number of spawning acts take place with an increasing number of eggs released at each Monogamy
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Mating system "By pair, females spawn only once a year but males, at least in the southern USA, ""may spawn several times""" Monogamy
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning took place in the evening after sundown and continued until midnight or even later Ambiguous
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning most often occurs in bright sunny mornings Day
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Warm sunny morning Day
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Daytime Day
Esox niger Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Daytime Day
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Generally, spawns during daylight hours Day
Lota lota Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning activity takes place only at night and the grounds are deserted in the daytime Ambiguous
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Daylight [But has been reported to occur at night also] Ambiguous
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition During the night and early morning Ambiguous
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Night Night
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning fish are active and may jump and thrash about, especially at night Night
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Nest building takes place day and night Ambiguous
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Actual spawning takes place during the day Day
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurs during the daytime Day
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occur in the night, mostly from 19-22 Night
Thymallus arcticus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition There is no spawning at night and it is most active during warmer water temperatures of midday Ambiguous
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning apparently takes place in the daytime Day
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Parental care Not described in that review No category
Lota lota Spawning conditions Parental care No care is given to the young No care
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Parental care Male guards the newly hatched fish until they are able to care for themselves Male parental care
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Parental care The nest is guarded by the male who engages in considerable fanning at the entrance, causing a current ot flow through the nest and aerate the eggs within [The male may build a second nest] Male parental care
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Parental care The male guards and fans the eggs and later brrods the young for a short period Male parental care
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Parental care The male guards the eggs and fans them, and guards the newly hatched young for a period of a few days Male parental care
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Parental care The males guard the nest, fans the eggs, and guards the young after they hatch Male parental care
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Parental care The male guards and fans the eggs Male parental care
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Parental care No parental care is given to eggs or young No category
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Parental care No protection is given the egg masses or young by the parents No care
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Parental care Males are not territorial No category
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Parental care The female usually guards the nest as long as she is able but the spawning adults die in a few days or weeks No category
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Parental care The female guards the nest as long as she is able Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Parental care After covering the nest the female guards it as long as she is able Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Parental care The female guards the nest as long as she is able Ambiguous
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Parental care The female covers the eggs with gravel Female parental care
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Parental care When spawning is completed, the female covers the redd with gravel Female parental care
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Parental care On completion of spawning, the female covers the eggs with gravel in a manner resembling the excavation of the redd Female parental care
Thymallus arcticus Spawning conditions Parental care No parental care is given to eggs or young No category
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Parental care The eggs in the nest are cared for by one or both parents [Sometimes one or both parents eat some or all the eggs] Biparental care
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Parental care Males protect the nest after egg laying, aerate and clean the eggs by fanning with the paired fins, and press and pack the eggs with body and fins No category
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Submerged aquatic plants or willow roots Phytophils
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Submerged weeds, grasses or roots Phytophils
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Heavy vegetated flooded areas No category
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate On heavily vegetated floodplains No category
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sand or gravel bottom Ambiguous
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sandy areas Psammophils
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Among the weeds Phytophils
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Swamps and gravels shoals Lithophils
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Clay to sand, gravel or rocks [Nests are found within submerged aquatic vegetation] Ambiguous
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Sandy, gravel or rocky bottom Ambiguous
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravelly sand (more rarely) to marl and soft mud in eeds, bullrushes or water lilies Ambiguous
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Occur over any and every bottom type with little evidence of preference No category
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Usually near rooted vegetation, submerged brush, or fallen trees, but at times over sand or gravel Ambiguous
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Rocky areas, boulder, or coarse-gravel shoals Lithophils
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Hard or stoney bottom but sometimes over sand Ambiguous
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Spawning takes place over substrates ranging from medium gravel to bedrock strewn with boulders Lithophils
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravelly areas Lithophils
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Bed of fine gravel Lithophils
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel beds Lithophils
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Larger gravel than other salmons Lithophils
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Usually a gravel-bottom Lithophils
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravelly Lithophils
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel or rocky shoals Lithophils
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Most often over gravels beds Lithophils
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Most often occurs over a large boulder or rubble bottom No category
Thymallus arcticus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Gravel or rock Lithophils
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate In a bottom of mud or sand or among the roots of aquatic vegetation, usually near the protection of a stump, rock or tree Ambiguous
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Undercut, log jams, or rocks Lithophils
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No, eggs are released in the open water Open water/substratum scatter
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No, deposit its eggs No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited randomly Susbtrate chooser
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter
Esox niger Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No nests are built Open water/substratum scatter
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No nest is built, the eggs are scattered at radom Open water/substratum scatter
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter
Gasterosteus aculeatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The nest is constructed of small twigs and plant debris, held together by the mucilaginous kidney secretion emitted by the male No category
Pungitius pungitius Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Both sex are aggresive in breeding season. The male builts a nest, usually off the bottom, in the plants, using fragments of aquatic vegetation bound together (gluing) by the threadlike, kidney secretion that hardens on contact with water Ambiguous
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The male digs a shallow nest Susbtrate chooser
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Male built a nest, which is a shallow depressions Nest built by male
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The male builts a nest (18.3-30.5 cm) in diameter Nest built by male
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nest building by very aggressive and territorial males, nest are 61.0-91.5 cm in diameter, and depending on the hardness of the bottom 25-303 mm deep No category
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The eggs are released near the surface or in midwater Open water/substratum scatter
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No nest is built Open water/substratum scatter
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are deposited more or less randomly over the spanwing grounds by the parents Susbtrate chooser
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation It is the female that prepares the nest or rFemaledd [The males are aggessive to other males (female are to females also, but to a lesser extend)] No category
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female prepares the redd by facing upstream [The male are aggressive on the spawning grounds] Susbtrate chooser
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The nest is built by the female [Male and female are very aggressive on the spawning grounds] No category
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female digs a redd Susbtrate chooser
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female prepares a nest [On the spawning grounds the male (and sometimes the female) is aggressive to other spawning males] No category
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female digs the redd [The males and females are aggressive on the spawning grounds] Susbtrate chooser
Salmo salar Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female uses her caudal fin like a paddle and excavates a nesting depression (the redd) [The actual nesting site is chosen by the remale] Susbtrate chooser
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female creates a shallowo depression (redd) in the gravel Susbtrate chooser
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Although the males establish and guard territories, the nest or redd is prepared by the female who uses her caudal fin, paddle-like, to clear debris from the site Susbtrate chooser
Salvelinus fontinalis Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation The female clears away debris and silt from the nesting area by a series of repid fanning movements of the caudal fin made while on her side No category
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Cleaning of the spawning grounds consisted of brushing the rocks with body or tail fin, or rubbing then with the snout No category
Thymallus arcticus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No actual nest or redd is prepared [Male are territorial on the spawning grounds] Susbtrate chooser
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation One or both sexes clear a shallow nest Nest built by both parents
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Nests built by the male Nest built by male
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Above 12 and will continue until temperaure do not drop below this point 12.0 °C
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Spawning does not commence in earnest until temperatures reach a level of at least 62.6°F (17°C) and may continue for several weeks. Spawning activities begin to decline when temperatures reach 78.8°F (26°C) and cease altogether at 82.4°F (28°C). In lake St. Lawrence, it was observed that spawning may be interrupted if cooler wheather prevails and the temperature drops below 62.6°F (17°C), but will recommence when the water warms up again 62.6 °C
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 9.4-15 [Optimum is 12.8°C] 12.2 °C
Esox niger Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 8.3-11.1 9.7 °C
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 4.4-11.1 7.75 °C
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Usually 0.6-1.7°C 1.15 °C
Ambloplites rupestris Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 15.6-21.1 18.35 °C
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 20-27.8 [For nest building] 23.9 °C
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Nest building and spawning (in some areas) commences over a range of 12.8-20°C [Egg deposition takes place mostly at 16.1-18.3°C] 16.4 °C
Micropterus salmoides Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Nest building starts at about 15.6, but spawning usually takes place at 16.7-18.3 17.5 °C
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 11-15 13.0 °C
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 14.4-21.1 17.75 °C
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 8.9-12.2 10.55 °C
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 6.7-8.9 [Shortly after ice breaks up] 7.8 °C
Coregonus clupeaformis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Dropped below about 7.8 7.8 °C
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning temperature As high as 16, but spawning lof later runs peak at 10 16.0 °C
Oncorhynchus mykiss Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Usually between 10.0-15.5 12.75 °C
Oncorhynchus nerka Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 5.0-10.5 7.75 °C
Salmo trutta fario Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 6.7-8.9 7.8 °C
Salvelinus alpinus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Around 4 4.0 °C
Salvelinus namaycush Spawning conditions Spawning temperature From 8-9 to 10.6-13.9°C 8.5 °C
Thymallus arcticus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 7-10 8.5 °C
Ameiurus nebulosus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 21.1 21.1 °C
Ictalurus punctatus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature 23.9-29.5, with 26.7 the apparent optimum 26.7 °C
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning period duration The males arrive on the spawning grounds first, soon followed by the females No data
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawning may continue for several weeks […] Spawning is usually extended when water temperatures permit and in the Great Lakes region may extend from May to August No data
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawning usually last no more than a week No data
Esox niger Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Lasts no more than 7-10 days 8.5 weeks
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Males arrive on the spawning ground first, followed in 3 or 4 days by the female 3.0 weeks
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawns usually over a period of 6-10 days 8.0 weeks
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Spawning continues for 1-2 weeks and does not take place all at once 1.5 weeks
Morone chrysops Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 1.5 [5-10 days] 7.5 weeks
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Male remain longer on the spawning grounds than do the females No data
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Males moves to the spawing grounds first No data
Oncorhynchus keta Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Total adult life in fresh water may not exceed one week [Female stays over the nest 2-10 days protecting it from other female] 6.0 weeks
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning water type Rarely if ever in lakes Stagnant water
Carassius auratus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Seeks warm, weedy shallows No category
Cyprinus carpio Spawning conditions Spawning water type Weedy and grassy shallows No category
Esox masquinongy Spawning conditions Spawning water type Flooded areas No category
Esox niger Spawning conditions Spawning water type Flood benches of streams, lakes or ponds, very shrotly after the ice melts Stagnant water
Esox lucius Spawning conditions Spawning water type Rivers, marshes and bays of larger lakes Stagnant water
Lota lota Spawning conditions Spawning water type Shallow bays, usually spawn in the lake they are also know to move into rivers to spawn Stagnant water
Lepomis gibbosus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Ponds, lakes or slow moving streams, near the shore Stagnant water
Micropterus dolomieui Spawning conditions Spawning water type Lakes and rivers, usually near the protection of rocks, logs, or more rarely, dense vegetation Stagnant water
Perca flavescens Spawning conditions Spawning water type In the shallows of lakes, and often into tributary, where they live in brackish water, they migrate into fresh water Stagnant water
Sander vitreus Spawning conditions Spawning water type White water below impassable falls and dams in rivers, lakes Stagnant water
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Spawning conditions Spawning water type Rivers and tributary streams, with current Flowing or turbulent water
Oncorhynchus kisutch Spawning conditions Spawning water type Swifter water of river tributaries No category