Kokurewicz et al, 1980


Kokurewicz, B. and Kowalewski, M. and Witkowski, A. (1980) Influence of constant and variable temperature on the embryonic development of European grayling, Thymallus thymallus (L.). Zoologica Pol., pp. 335-362

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Thymallus thymallus Egg Incubation time Time of embryonic development till mass hatching is from 37 days at temperature 3.3°C to 7 days at temperature of 16.7°C. In Lopuszna hatchery hatching takes place after 27-46 days 36.5 days
Thymallus thymallus Egg Temperature for incubation The most favourable temperatures to embryonic development range from 7 to 13°C in conditions of constant temperatures. The embryos developing at temperature lower than 7.3°C are hatching too early in relation to the morphological advancement and are charcaterized by lower vitality. At temperature higher than 13.8°C the survival is low because of lower vitality and increase of abnormally developed larvae in the hatching 7.0 °C
Thymallus thymallus Egg Degree-days for incubation Average evaluation 172 DD. The embryonic development from fertilization till mass hatching is from 122 to 246 DD in laboratories and from 205 to 258 DD in cultures in Lopuszna 172.0 °C * day
Thymallus thymallus Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding Change to active feeding 4-5 days after hatching 4.5 °C * day