Ivanova and Polovka, 1972


Ivanova, N.M. and Polovkova, S.N. (1972) Types of spawning grounds and spawning ecology of the landlocked smelt [Osmerus eperlanus (L.)], in Rybinsk reservoir. Journal of Ichthyology, pp. 625-633

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg Buoyancy Eggs sink to the bottom Demersal
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg adhesiveness Attach themselves to the sand Non-Adhesive
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period Spawning migration in the northwestern regions of the Soviet Union begins in the early spring: either when ice breaks up or immediatly after ['April', 'May', 'June']
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawning begins on April 30 in the upper reaches of the Il'd' river in 1970, on May around Shumorovskiy Island and on May 9-11 in the estuary ['April', 'May']
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Depths of the spawning grounds range from 0.4 to 3.7 m in individual lakes. 1-2 m in rivers 1.5 m
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate In lake, the spawning substrate may be vegetation mainly water moss and the roots and stems of terrestrial plants or coarse sand and gravel. In river, mainly submerged vegetation Lithophils
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Parity River consits of large repeat spawners [The largest females and males arrive in spawning grounds and spawn first] No category