Belyanina, 1969



Citation


Belyanina, T.N. (1969) Synopsis of biological data on smelt., pp.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Mating system By pair: Each female usually spawns in the compagny of one male. The females extrudes her eggs, then leaves the spawning ground. Males continues spawning with other females. Monogamy
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition As a rule smelt spawn at night Night
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Parental care Does not guard eggs and larvae No care
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Stones, pebbles, water plants, submerged parts of bushes, grass and other things. They do not occur on muddy bottom Ambiguous
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Does not make nests No category
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Begins about 4, peak occurs at 6-9 [Sometimes start at 1-2°C lower or higher than 4], avoid temperatures lower than 4°C and higher than 12°C 7.5 °C
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration For about one month, but peak spawning usually last only 2-4 days [Males spawn for a longer time and stay at the spawning grounds longer than females] 3.0 weeks
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Enters rivers and spawns at high tide, some spawn near river mouths and do not ascend the rivers [Water velocity is about 0.3-2 m/s] Flowing or turbulent water
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning depth Greatly varies, from several centimetres to several metres, up to 17 m in some lakes 17.0 m
Osmerus eperlanus Female Maximum GSI value About 18-22% 20.0 percent
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg adhesiveness Fertilized eggs adhere to the substratum Adhesive
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Incubation time 10-14 12.0 days
Osmerus eperlanus Female Relative fecundity Average: 500-700, range 350-1050 600.0 thousand eggs/kg
Osmerus eperlanus Male Maximum GSI value About 5 5.0 percent
Osmerus eperlanus Female Age at sexual maturity Mostly 2-3, rarely 1 and up to 7-8 [Both sex] 2.5 years
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Degree-days for incubation From 60-110 to 140-180 85.0 °C * day
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Temperature for incubation 8.5-10.5 9.5 °C
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Greatly varies, from 2-3, up to 1000 km, average 50-200 2.5 km
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg size after water-hardening After extrusion into water, the egg immeadiatly swells, its diameter increases about 0.2 mm 0.2 mm
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Egg Buoyancy Some of the eggs become detached and float with help of the outer coat, but seems to be only dead eggs Pelagic
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Spawning migration period From March to early July depending on areas [The spawning run begins within the first 10 days after the ice has broken] ['March', 'July']
Osmerus eperlanus Egg Oocyte diameter Average 0.70-0.80, range 0.55-1.06 0.75 mm
Osmerus eperlanus Female Absolute fecundity Average 37.6-95.5 66.55 thousand eggs
Osmerus eperlanus Larvae Reaction to light Hatching larvae react positively to light [But strong light destroys developing eggs] Photopositive
Osmerus eperlanus Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption 120-140 [Live without feeding for 10-14 days at 10-12°C] 130.0 °C * day
Osmerus eperlanus Female Weight at sexual maturity Average: 5-8, range from 1.5-3.5 to 53.0-94.0 in g !!! [Both sex] 6.5 kg
Osmerus eperlanus Female Length at sexual maturity Average: 9-18, from 4.7-8.2, to 19.6-23.4 in g [Both sex] 13.5 cm
Osmerus eperlanus Male Length at sexual maturity Average: 9-18, from 4.7-8.2, to 19.6-23.4 in g [Both sex] 13.5 cm
Osmerus eperlanus Larvae Initial larval size 3.8-6.0 4.9 mm
Osmerus eperlanus Male Weight at sexual maturity Average: 5-8, range from 1.5-3.5 to 53.0-94.0 in g !!! [Both sex] 6.5 kg
Osmerus eperlanus Female Age at sexual maturity Mostly 2-3, rarely 1 and up to 7-8 [Both sex] 2.5 year
Osmerus eperlanus Spawning conditions Parity Spawns either once a year, or not every year [From one to two or three times during a lifetime] No category