Stanley and Danie, 1983



Citation


Stanley, J.G. and Danie, D.S. (1983) Species profiles: life histories and enviromental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. (North Atlantic) White perch.
Fish and Wildlife Service

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Morone americana Spawning conditions Mating system Individual females are surrounded by several males, and eggs and sperm are relased randomly No category
Morone americana Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Egg release peaks at spawn No category
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning substrate May be clay, sand, pulverized shells, or gravel Ambiguous
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Rising temperature stimulate spawning No data
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Nothern populations begin spawning in late March to early April, whereas southern populations spawn slightly later. Freshwater populations spawn from April through May, astuarine stocks spawn from May through July No data
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning water type Spawn in estuaries, rivers, lakes and marshes. Spawning is usually in freshwater, but may occur in brackish water at salinities up to 4.2 ppt. Preferred spawning habitats are waters that are tidal and nontidal, clear or turbid, fast or slow Stagnant water
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning depth Spawning is in water less than 7 m deep, 0.9-6.1 m in estuaries, and 0 to 1.5 m in lakes 3.5 m
Morone americana Egg Egg adhesiveness The eggs attach immediatly to substrate Non-Adhesive
Morone americana Egg Incubation time 2-4 [30 hr at 20°C, 44 to 50 hr at 18°C, 60-72 hr at 15°C] 3.0 days
Morone americana Female Relative fecundity Released of 56,200 eggs/kg of fish during one spawning 56.0 thousand eggs/kg
Morone americana Female Age at sexual maturity Most males mature at 2 2.0 years
Morone americana Egg Degree-days for incubation 24-50 [30 hr at 20°C, 44 to 50 hr at 18°C, 60-72 hr at 15°C] 37.0 °C * day
Morone americana Egg Temperature for incubation 15-20 [Lethal temperature below 7°C, and extensive mortality at 10°C] 17.5 °C
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Migration up to 90 km were recorded, and also 104 km 90.0 km
Morone americana Egg Egg size after water-hardening 0.65-1.09 [Fertilized egg], water hardening is complete within 15 to 20 min at 18°C 0.87 mm
Morone americana Egg Egg Buoyancy When laid, eggs are demersal No category
Morone americana Egg Oocyte diameter 0.7-0.89 [Unfertilized egg] 0.795 mm
Morone americana Female Absolute fecundity 5.2-321 with a mean of 40 163.1 thousand eggs
Morone americana Female Length at sexual maturity 9.0-9.8 length at first maturity 9.4 cm
Morone americana Male Length at sexual maturity 7.2-8.0 [Length at first maturity] 7.6 cm
Morone americana Larvae Initial larval size 1.7-3.0 2.35 mm
Morone americana Larvae Larvae behaviour Newly hatched prolarvae remain in the general spawning area during the first 4 to 13 days [Prolarvae have limited mobility] Demersal
Morone americana Female Age at sexual maturity Most females mature at 2, some at 3 and all at 4 2.0 year
Morone americana Spawning conditions Spawning release Two or three seperate spawnings No category