Soin, 1982


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics

Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Rocky substrates Lithophils
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Ripe males first appear in the spawning grounds in early May at a water temperature about 10°C, and ripe females at a temperature of 11-12°C 11.5 °C
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning period duration Continues around 2 months from May to July 2.0 weeks
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning water type Where the water is well-saturated with oxygen, mainly on bars and in channels No category
Phoxinus phoxinus Male Male sexual dimorphism Characterisitic of the minnow is a spawning livery which is particularly marked in males and to a lesser degree in females. During the spawning period the head of the fish is covered with tubercles, represented by sharp conical epithelial formations covered in a horny substance. According to our observations tubercles are characteristic mainly in male, in females tubercles are rarely encountered and ten to be weakly expressed. During the spawning period the coloration of the fish also changes in both males and females, but in the latter these changes are less marked. The dorsum of the males become darked, the sides acquire an intensive yellow-green, more frequently adark-green color... Present
Phoxinus phoxinus Egg Egg adhesiveness Slight adhesive Adhesive
Phoxinus phoxinus Egg Incubation time 5 days [18°C], 12 [7°C], in their experiments : At an age around 4 days hatching of the embryo begins. The difference in the time of hatching of embryos from different eggs in one batch at a temperature of 16°C may be as much as 12 hours 5.0 days
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Age at sexual maturity Most minnows reach sexual maturity in 3 years of age 3.0 years
Phoxinus phoxinus Egg Degree-days for incubation 70 [4 days at 16°C] 70.0 °C * day
Phoxinus phoxinus Egg Temperature for incubation 7-18 12.5 °C
Phoxinus phoxinus Egg Egg size after water-hardening The diameter of the swollen eggs become 1.3 mm 1.3 mm
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Oocyte development A macroscopic analysis of the gonads of ripe females showed the presence of at least 3 different generations of oocytes, differing both as regards size and as regards color No category
Phoxinus phoxinus Egg Oocyte diameter The mature egg has a mean diameter of 1.13 1.13 mm
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Absolute fecundity Range within the limit of 0.74-1.774, 0.225-0.552, 0.213-0.858, 0.348-0.726 1.257 thousand eggs
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning season May to July ['May', 'July']
Phoxinus phoxinus Larvae Temperature during larval development 15-16 15.5 °C
Phoxinus phoxinus Larvae Reaction to light Like the larvae of most lithophilous species, the prolarvae of the minnow have a negative reaction to light which becomes increasingly noticeable as the amount of pigment in the eyes increase [The hatched embryos are photophobic described in other studies] Photophobic
Phoxinus phoxinus Larvae Sibling intracohort cannibalism Not described Absent
Phoxinus phoxinus Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption 140-150 [On the 8th -9th day after hatching, when the larvae reach a length of 7.0-8.0 mm, the yolk sac disapperas completely and they go over to exogeneous feeding exclusively at 16°C] 145.0 °C * day
Phoxinus phoxinus Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding 110 [7 days at 16°C] 110.0 °C * day
Phoxinus phoxinus Larvae Initial larval size The length of the prolarvae is 3.6 mm 3.6 mm
Phoxinus phoxinus Larvae Larvae behaviour After hatching, the prolarvae disperse on the bottom of the aquarium. They lie on the side completely still, not reacting to light, water fluctuations or sounds. [The hatched embryos are under stones, described in other studies] Demersal
Phoxinus phoxinus Female Age at sexual maturity Most minnows reach sexual maturity in 3 years of age 3.0 year
Phoxinus phoxinus Spawning conditions Spawning release Spawning is protracted, intermittent Fractional