Backiel and Zawiska, 1968



Citation


No detailed citation.

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Mating system Male and female spawn repeatedly with different partners. Mating is therefore promiscuous Promiscuity
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Day and night, becoming more intensive at night [Most intensive spawning last from 10.00 to 11.00 and after a break at noon from 16.00 to 17.00] Ambiguous
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Parental care Never described in the FAO Fisheries Synopsis No category
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Generally phytophilous: flooded land plants, remains of previous year's aquatic vegetation, tree leaves, stems, and roots of emergent plants, algae, submerged macophytes Phytophils
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation No, eggs are deposited on plants nut male defends its teritory and when another male appears there is intensive slashing Susbtrate chooser
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Most common is 16-18 [12-13 is the lowest temperature, highest being 27°C] 17.0 °C
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning period duration 3 to 40 days [During warm and calm weather, bream spawn in masses in a short time (2-3 days) but longer under bad conditions, males are ready to spawn first and remain longer on the spawning grounds] 2.5 weeks
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning water type Sheltered places, where the water is either still or the current is weak Flowing or turbulent water
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning depth Most common is 20 to 80 cm [From 9 cm to 17 m] 20.0 m
Abramis brama Female Maximum GSI value Mean of 16.8-21 [Up to 23.8] 18.9 percent
Abramis brama Egg Egg adhesiveness Adhesive [Adhere and develop on plants] Adhesive
Abramis brama Egg Incubation time 4-8 up to 11 [At 11°C] 6.0 days
Abramis brama Female Relative fecundity Mean range from 113-260 [Complete range of 97-200, not indicated for all populations] 186.5 thousand eggs/kg
Abramis brama Male Maximum GSI value Mean of 2.8-3.4 [Up to 4.6] 3.1 percent
Abramis brama Female Age at sexual maturity 2-3 [Southern region] to 6-8 [Nothern region] 2.5 years
Abramis brama Egg Degree-days for incubation 60-120 90.0 °C * day
Abramis brama Egg Temperature for incubation Optimum: 14-15, varie from 11-23 [At 6: considerable losses, and 28 is lethal] 14.5 °C
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Most of the population does not migrate for long distances No data
Abramis brama Egg Egg size after water-hardening Average 2.1 [After swelling] 2.1 mm
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning migration period The spring migration begins with the melting of ice on the sea, the first group strat their upstream migration at the begnning of April, while the second and larger run lasting for 15-30 days begins when the water of the river reaches 8°C ['April', 'May', 'June']
Abramis brama Egg Oocyte diameter 1.62-1.82 [Mature eggs] 1.72 mm
Abramis brama Female Absolute fecundity Mean of 92-218 [2-941 are the highest variation] 155.0 thousand eggs
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning season April to June ['April', 'June']
Abramis brama Larvae Temperature during larval development 17-20 18.5 °C
Abramis brama Larvae Full yolk-sac resorption 120-140 [6-8 days at 17-20°C] 130.0 °C * day
Abramis brama Female Weight at sexual maturity 0.25-0.4 [Both sex !] 0.325 kg
Abramis brama Female Length at sexual maturity 25-30 [Full range 12-30] 27.5 cm
Abramis brama Larvae Onset of exogeneous feeding 120-140 [6-8 days at 17-20°C] 130.0 °C * day
Abramis brama Male Length at sexual maturity 25-30 [Full range 9-30] 27.5 cm
Abramis brama Larvae Initial larval size 4.57-5.30 4.935 mm
Abramis brama Larvae Larvae behaviour Larvae motionless, attached to vegetation or resting on bottom. Feed only on yolk Demersal
Abramis brama Male Weight at sexual maturity 0.25-0.4 [Full range 0.1-0.5] 0.325 kg
Abramis brama Female Age at sexual maturity 3-4 [Southern Europe], 6-10 [Nothern Europe] 3.5 year
Abramis brama Spawning conditions Spawning release Once or repeated spawning No category