Burdick and Hightower, 2005



Citation


Burdick, S.M. and Hightower, J.E. (2005) Distribution of spawning activity by migratory fishes in the Neuse river, North Carolina, after the removal of quaker neck dam.
North Carolina Cooperative fish and wildlife research unit

Associated characteristics


Species Development state Trait Primary Data Secondary Data
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Mating system Spawning as several males coming up next to a female No category
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Spawning occurs from sunset to approximatively midnight Night
Morone saxatilis Spawning conditions Nycthemeral period of oviposition Over their entire range, accounts of stripped bass spawning span all times of the day. However, in North Carolina, striped bass have been reported to broadcast their eggs late in the afternoon and early in the evening Day
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Substrates dominated by cobble to be a positive attribute for american shad spawning sites. However, also reported over sandy bottoms free of mud and silt. Psammophils
Morone saxatilis Spawning conditions Spawning substrate Egg survival is increased when spawning takes place over large substrates or conditons cause them to stay suspended. In a controlled experiment, it was showed that egg survival was 22.6% higher for eggs deposited over coarse sand than those deposited over a mix of silt and clay. Eggs deposited over a mix of organic matter, sand, silt and clay showed no survival. Psammophils
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning site preparation Eggs are broadcast Open water/substratum scatter
Morone saxatilis Spawning conditions Spawning temperature Spawning activity start not until water temperatures reached 18°C, with 70 percent of spawning occuring between 20.0 and 23.9°C [Also start at 14.4, and peak at 15.6-19.4°C] 17.5 °C
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning period duration [Spawning was detected between February 21 and May 28 in 2003 and between March 16 and May 17 in 2004] 21.0 weeks
Morone saxatilis Spawning conditions Spawning water type Current velocities averaging 0.49-0.55 m/s [Areas with rapids, boulders and strounfg currents, typically associated with the fall line] Flowing or turbulent water
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning depth A range of appropriate depths have been described between 0.45 m and 10.0 m. However in Neuse River, Amrican shad spawn almost entirely at depths of less than 2 m 0.45 m
Morone saxatilis Spawning conditions Spawning depth Spawn near the surface No data
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg adhesiveness Initially adhesive but quickly become non-adhesive Non-Adhesive
Morone saxatilis Egg Egg adhesiveness Lack of adhesiveness Adhesive
Alosa sapidissima Egg Incubation time Development of eggs starts between 13°C and 17°C and increases rapidly between 17°C and 20°C 13.0 days
Morone saxatilis Egg Incubation time 29-48 hours 38.5 days
Alosa sapidissima Female Age at sexual maturity Most american shad mature and return to spawn at betwenn 3 and 5 years of age [Not specified] 3.0 years
Morone saxatilis Female Age at sexual maturity Spawn for the first time at 3 to 6 years of age [Not specified] 3.0 years
Morone saxatilis Egg Temperature for incubation 16.7-17.9°C 17.3 °C
Morone saxatilis Spawning conditions Spawning migration distance Can migrate as far inland as 320 km to find suitable spawning habitat 320.0 km
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg size after water-hardening 2.5-3.8 3.15 mm
Alosa sapidissima Egg Egg Buoyancy Shortly after being spawned, the water-hardened eggs start to sink. [described as either demersal or semidemersal depending on whether the researcher assume that eggs stayed on the bottom or were lifted off the bottom by turbulent current. Some eggs remained suspended in the water column for several kilometers] Semi-Pelagic
Morone saxatilis Egg Egg Buoyancy The semi-buoyant eggs are spawned near the surface where they rely on water turbulence to keep from sinking Ambiguous
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning migration period 90% of the run occured at temperatures between 15/5-19.5°C, and the peak run occured at about 18°C No data
Alosa sapidissima Female Oocyte development Groups-synchronous oocyte development No category
Alosa sapidissima Female Absolute fecundity 58,534-659,000 596.5 thousand eggs
Morone saxatilis Female Absolute fecundity Average 181,000 [Age 3] to 5,000,000 [Age 16] 181.0 thousand eggs
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning season Spawning was detected between February 21 and May 28 in 2003 and between March 16 and May 17 in 2004 ['February', 'March', 'May']
Morone saxatilis Spawning conditions Homing Return to their natal river in the spring to spawn Present
Alosa sapidissima Larvae Larvae behaviour Larvae drift downstream until they are capable of swimming freely Demersal
Alosa sapidissima Female Age at sexual maturity Most american shad mature and return to spawn at betwenn 3 and 5 years of age [Not specified] 3.0 year
Morone saxatilis Female Age at sexual maturity Spawn for the first time at 3 to 6 years of age [Not specified] 3.0 year
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Spawning release Histological evidence that an individual spawn in batches over a period of days or weeks Mutliple
Alosa sapidissima Spawning conditions Parity Some adults die after spawning with the percentage generally decreasing with increasing latitude Semelparous
Morone saxatilis Spawning conditions Parity Iteroparous Iteroparous